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1.
Intestinal Research ; : 87-93, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oral mesalazine is an important treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC), and non-adherence to mesalazine increases the risk of relapse. Controlled-release (CR) mesalazine has 2 formulations: tablets and granules. The relative acceptabilities of these formulations may influence patient adherence; however, they have not been compared to date. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptabilities of the 2 formulations of CR mesalazine in relation to patient adherence using a crossover questionnaire survey. METHODS: UC patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio. Patients in each group took either 4 g of CR mesalazine tablets or granules for 6 to 9 weeks, and then switched to 4 g of the other formulation for a further 6 to 9 weeks. The acceptability and efficacy were evaluated by questionnaires, and adherence was assessed using a visual analog scale. The difference in acceptabilities between the 2 formulations and its impact on adherence were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were prospectively enrolled and 33 patients were included in the analysis. Significantly more patients found the tablets to be less acceptable than the granules (76% vs. 33%, P=0.0005). The granules were preferable to the tablets when the 2 formulations were compared directly (73% vs. 21%, P=0.004), for their portability, size, and numbers of pills. The adherence rate was slightly better among patients taking the granules (94% vs. 91%) during the observation period, but the difference was not significant (P=0.139). CONCLUSIONS: CR mesalazine granules are more acceptable than tablets, and may therefore be a better option for long-term medication.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Drug Compounding , Humans , Medication Adherence , Mesalamine , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Compliance , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Tablets , Ulcer , Visual Analog Scale
2.
Intestinal Research ; : 94-106, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few reports have described the long-term treatment outcomes of the anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antibody for Japanese Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate them and clarify the clinical factors that affect the long-term prognosis of the anti-tumor necrosis factor-α treatments. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, single-center cohort study. Japanese CD patients treated with either infliximab or adalimumab as a first-line therapy were analyzed. The cumulative retention rates of the biologics, relapse-free survival, and surgery-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods. The clinical factors associated with the long-term outcomes were estimated by both the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The cumulative retention rate was significantly higher in the group with a concomitant elemental diet of ≥900 kcal/day, baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels < 2.6 mg/dL, and baseline serum albumin levels ≥3.5 g/dL, respectively. The baseline serum albumin levels were also associated with both relapse-free and surgery-free survival. The lack of concomitant use of an elemental diet ≥900 kcal/day was identified as the only independent risk factor for the withdrawal of the biologics. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline CRP levels and serum albumin levels could affect the long-term outcomes in CD patients. Concomitant elemental diet of ≥900 kcal/day could have a positive influence on clinical treatment course.


Subject(s)
Adalimumab , Antibodies , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biological Products , C-Reactive Protein , Cohort Studies , Crohn Disease , Food, Formulated , Humans , Infliximab , Necrosis , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Serum Albumin
3.
Intestinal Research ; : 107-118, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with considerable impairment of patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Knowledge of factors that significantly affect IBD patients’ HRQoL can contribute to better patient care. However, the HRQoL of IBD patients in non-Western countries are limited. Hence, we assessed the HRQoL of Singaporean IBD patients and identified its determinants. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at Singapore General Hospital outpatient IBD Centre. The HRQoL of IBD patients was assessed using the short IBD questionnaire (SIBDQ), Short Form-36 physical and mental component summary (SF-36 PCS/MCS) and EuroQol 5-dimensions 3-levels (EQ-5D-3L) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Independent samples t-test was used to compare HRQoL between Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Determinants of HRQoL were identified through multiple linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 195 IBD patients (103 UC, 92 CD) with a mean disease duration of 11.2 years were included. There was no significant difference in HRQoL between patients with UC and CD. Factors that significantly worsened HRQoL were presence of active disease (b=−6.293 [SIBDQ], −9.409 [PCS], −9.743 [MCS], −7.254 [VAS]), corticosteroids use (b=−7.392 [SIBDQ], −10.390 [PCS], −8.827 [MCS]), poor medication adherence (b=−4.049 [SIBDQ], −1.320 [MCS], −8.961 [VAS]), presence of extraintestinal manifestations (b=−13.381 [PCS]), comorbidities (b=−4.531 [PCS]), non-employment (b=−9.738 [MCS], −0.104 [EQ-5D-3L]) and public housing (b=−8.070 [PCS], −9.207 [VAS]). CONCLUSIONS: The HRQoL is impaired in this Asian cohort of IBD. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment was similar in UC and CD. Clinical characteristics were better determinants of patients’ HRQoL than socio-demographic factors. Recognizing the factors that impact patients’ HRQoL would improve the holistic management of IBD patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cohort Studies , Colitis, Ulcerative , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, General , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Linear Models , Medication Adherence , Outpatients , Patient Care , Prospective Studies , Public Housing , Quality of Life , Singapore
4.
Intestinal Research ; : 119-126, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Little is known for the capacity and quality of colonoscopy, and adherence to colonoscopy surveillance guidelines in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the present and potential colonoscopic capacity, colonoscopic quality, and adherence to colonoscopy surveillance guidelines in Korea. METHODS: We surveyed representative endoscopists of 72 endoscopy units from June to August 2015, using a 36-item questionnaire regarding colonoscopic capacity, quality, and adherence to colonoscopy surveillance guidelines of each hospitals. RESULTS: Among the 62 respondents who answered the questionnaire, 51 respondents were analyzed after exclusion of 11 incomplete answers. Only 1 of 3 of endoscopy units can afford to perform additional colonoscopies in addition to current practice, and the potential maximum number of colonoscopies per week was only 42. The quality of colonoscopy was variable as reporting of quality indicators of colonoscopy were considerably variable (29.4%–94.1%) between endoscopy units. Furthermore, there are substantial gaps in the adherence to colonoscopy surveillance guidelines, as concordance rate for guideline recommendation was less than 50% in most scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: The potential capacity and quality of colonoscopy in Korea was suboptimal. Considering suboptimal reporting of colonoscopic quality indicators and low adherence rate for colonoscopy surveillance guidelines, quality improvement of colonoscopy should be underlined in Korea.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Korea , Quality Improvement , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-134, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique that can be used to treat precancerous and early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection regardless of tumor size. In our study, we investigated the clinicopathological feature and the treatment outcome of patients with colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) that were treated by ESD. METHODS: The study enrolled all of 210 patients with colorectal LSTs who underwent ESD. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by retrospectively reviewing medical records. RESULTS: A cancerous pit pattern (Vi/Vn) was more common in pseudo-depressed (PD) subtype than in flat elevated (FE) subtype. The incidence of adenocarcinoma in the PD subtype and nodular mixed (NM) subtypes was significantly higher than in the homogenous (HG) subtype and FE subtype. The en bloc and R0 resection rates were 89.0% and 85.7%, respectively. The bleeding and perforation rates were 5.2% and 1.9%, respectively. The mean procedure time was much longer in the PD subtype than in the FE subtype. The en bloc resection rate was significantly higher in the NM subtype than in the HG subtype. However, there were no statistically significant differences in mean procedure time, en bloc resection rate, R0 resection rate, bleeding rate, or perforation rate between LST-granular and LST-nongranular types. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ESD is acceptable for treating colorectal LSTs concerning en bloc resection, curative resection, and risk of complications. Careful consideration is required for complete resection of the PD subtype and NM subtype because of their higher malignant potential.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Intestinal Research ; : 135-143, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous intramural small bowel hematoma (SISBH) is an extremely rare complication of anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with SISBH according to the anatomical location of the hematoma. METHODS: From January 2003 to February 2016, medical records for all patients hospitalized for SISBH at 2 tertiary referral hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was requirement for surgery. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 74.1 years. Among them, 33 patients (89.2%) were taking anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents. Duodenal intramural hematoma was detected in 4 patients (10.8%), jejunal in 16 (43.2%), and ileal in 17 (45.9%). Compared to jejunal and ileal involvement, duodenal intramural hematoma was significantly associated with high Charlson comorbidity index and low levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets in the blood. SISBH in the duodenum was related to thrombocytopenia in 3 patients following systemic chemotherapy for malignancy. All patients with SISBH showed clinical improvement with conservative therapy. Mean length of hospital stay was 9.35 days. Independent predictors of a hospital stay of more than 7 days were body weight less than 60 kg (odds ratio [OR], 12.213; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.755–84.998; P=0.011) and a history of cerebrovascular accidents (OR, 6.667; 95% CI, 1.121–39.650; P=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to jejunal and ileal involvement, thrombocytopenia may result in spontaneous duodenal intramural hematoma among patients who are treated with systemic chemotherapy for malignancies. Patients with SISBH have excellent clinical outcomes with conservative therapy regardless of the anatomical location of the hematoma.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy , Duodenum , Hematoma , Humans , Intestine, Small , Length of Stay , Leukocytes , Medical Records , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombocytopenia , Treatment Outcome
7.
Intestinal Research ; : 144-148, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740021

ABSTRACT

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Indigo naturalis is known to have an antiinflammatory effect. Indigo naturalis has been traditionally used in the treatment of IBD in China and Japan. Currently, it is used as a primary or adjunctive drug in patients with ulcerative colitis. There are some reports of the effects of indigo naturalis when used in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, its usage has been associated with adverse events, including liver dysfunction, headache, gastrointestinal disturbance, and pulmonary hypertension. Pancreatitis as an adverse event during treatment using indigo naturalis has not yet been reported. We report a case of recurrent events of pancreatitis that occurred briefly after starting medication with indigo naturalis in a child with severe Crohn’s disease. The pancreatitis improved after indigo naturalis was discontinued in 2 events. This is the first case to report the association between pancreatitis and indigo naturalis in the English literature.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Headache , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Incidence , Indigo Carmine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Japan , Liver Diseases , Medicine, Kampo , Pancreatitis
10.
Intestinal Research ; : 155-156, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740018

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Flail Chest , Intestinal Diseases , Strikes, Employee
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740007

ABSTRACT

It is well known that trigeminal nerve injury causes hyperexcitability in trigeminal ganglion neurons, which become sensitized. Long after trigeminal nerve damage, trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord (C1/C2) nociceptive neurons become hyperactive and are sensitized, resulting in persistent orofacial pain. Communication between neurons and non-neuronal cells is believed to be involved in these mechanisms. In this article, the authors highlight several lines of evidence that neuron-glial cell and neuron macrophage communication have essential roles in persistent orofacial pain mechanisms associated with trigeminal nerve injury and/or orofacial inflammation.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Cervical Cord , Facial Pain , Inflammation , Macrophages , Neurons , Nociceptors , Trigeminal Ganglion , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Nerve Injuries , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740006

ABSTRACT

Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with a vast array of properties, making it suitable for sedation in numerous clinical scenarios. Its use was previously restricted to the sedation of intensive care unit patients. However, its use in pediatric dental sedation has been gaining momentum, owing to its high suitability when compared with conventional pediatric sedatives. Its properties range from sedation to anxiolysis to analgesia, due to its sympatholytic properties and minimal respiratory depression ability. Because dexmedetomidine is an efficacious and safe drug, it is gaining importance in pediatric sedation. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the properties of dexmedetomidine, its administration routes, its advantages over the commonly used pediatric sedatives, and especially its role as an alternative pediatric sedative.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Dexmedetomidine , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units , Midazolam , Respiratory Insufficiency
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts can lead to pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. It has been reported that opioid adversely affect the skeletal system, but it is inconsistent. Remifentanil is currently used as an adjuvant analgesic drug in general anesthesia and sedation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of remifentanil on the osteoblast differentiation and mechanism involved in this effect. METHODS: The C2C12 cells (mouse pluripotent mesenchymal cell line) were used as preosteoblast. Osteoblastic differentiation potency was determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. C2C12 cell migration by remifentanil was evaluated using Boyden chamber migration assay. The expression of Runx2 and osterix was evaluated by RT-PCT and western blot analysis to investigate the mechanism involved in remifentanil-mediated osteoblast differentiation. RESULTS: ALP staining showed that remifentanil increased significantly osteoblast differentiation. In Boyden chamber migration assay, C2C12 cell migration was increased by remifentanil. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the expression of Runx2 and osterix was upregulated by remifentanil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that remifentanil increased osteoblast differentiation in vitro by upregulation of Runx2 and osterix expression. Therefore, remifentanil has the potential for assisting with bone formation and bone healing.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Anesthesia, General , Blotting, Western , Cell Movement , In Vitro Techniques , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Up-Regulation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the pain perception and anesthetic efficacy of 2% lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, buffered lignocaine, and 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine for the inferior alveolar nerve block. METHODS: This was a double-blind crossover study involving 48 children aged 5–10 years, who received three inferior alveolar nerve block injections in three appointments scheduled one week apart from the next. Pain on injection was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces pain scale and the sound eye motor scale (SEM). Efficacy of anesthesia was assessed by subjective (tingling or numbness of the lip, tongue, and corner of mouth) and objective signs (pain on probing). RESULTS: Pain perception on injection assessed with Wong-Baker scale was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between buffered lignocaine and articaine (P = 0.041). The onset of anesthesia was lowest for buffered lignocaine, with a statistically significant difference between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001). Moreover, the efficacy of local analgesia assessed using objective signs was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between lignocaine and articaine. CONCLUSION: Buffered lignocaine was the least painful and the most efficacious anesthetic agent during the inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 5–10-year-old patients.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia , Appointments and Schedules , Buffers , Carticaine , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Epinephrine , Humans , Hypesthesia , Lidocaine , Lip , Mandibular Nerve , Pain Perception , Tongue
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740003

ABSTRACT

A dental bridge impacted in the esophagus of a 43-year-old man was successfully removed using endoscopy, without any further complications. It is of utmost importance that the medical staff carefully assess the patient's dental condition, provide clear documentation, and notify the patient appropriately to prevent dental prosthesis-related complications and claims. Anesthesiologists also need to be more cautious in the perioperative period, even after extubation, because this complication may not be completely avoidable.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, General , Endoscopy , Esophagus , Foreign Bodies , Gastroscopy , Humans , Medical Staff , Perioperative Period
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740002

ABSTRACT

This case report aims to review complications that can occur during arthrocentesis and report an unusual complication observed in a 55-year-old man. The patient received arthrocentesis in an attempt to treat painful locking episodes of his right temporomandibular joint (TMJ). One hour after the operation, the patient experienced temporary facial paralysis in the area of the facial nerve and anesthesia of the lingual and alveolar inferior nerves. No persistent complications were detected during the postoperative follow-up. We suspected this complication occurred after anesthetic solution overflowed from a traumatic perforation in the joint capsule to the infratemporal area during the operation. To our knowledge, this complication has not been previously reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arthrocentesis , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Joint Capsule , Middle Aged , Paralysis , Temporomandibular Joint
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740001

ABSTRACT

Foreign body aspiration in dental clinics is the most common cause of respiratory emergencies. There are no reports on foreign body aspiration during dental treatment under stable general anesthesia because the patient neither has voluntary movements nor reflex actions. This is a case report on the fall of a prosthesis in the larynx, which occurs rarely under general anesthesia. During the try-in procedure, the prosthesis slid from the surgeon's hand and entered the retromylohyoid space, and while searching for it, it passed down the larynx to the endotracheal tube balloon, leading to a dangerous situation. The prosthesis was promptly removed using video-assisted laryngoscope and forceps, and the patient was discharged without any complications.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Dental Clinics , Emergencies , Foreign Bodies , Hand , Humans , Laryngoscopes , Larynx , Prostheses and Implants , Reflex , Surgical Instruments
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740000

ABSTRACT

Periodontal procedures require adequate anesthesia not only to ensure the patient's comfort but also to enhance the operator's performance and minimize chair time. In the maxilla, anesthesia is often achieved using highly traumatic nerve blocks, apart from multiple local infiltrations through the buccal vestibule. In recent years, anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) field block has been claimed to be a less traumatic alternative to several of these conventional injections, and it has many other advantages. This critical review of the existing literature aimed to discuss the rationale, mechanism, effectiveness, extent, and duration of AMSA injections for periodontal surgical and non-surgical procedures in the maxilla. It also focused on future prospects, particularly in relation to computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery systems, which aim to achieve the goal of pain-free anesthesia. A literature search of different databases was performed to retrieve relevant articles related to AMSA injections. After analyzing the existing data, it can be concluded that this anesthetic technique may be used as a predictable method of effective palatal anesthesia with adequate duration for different periodontal procedures. It has additional advantages of being less traumatic, requiring lesser amounts of local anesthetics and vasoconstrictors, as well as achieving good hemostasis. However, its effect on the buccal periodontium appears highly unpredictable.


Subject(s)
Amsacrine , Anesthesia , Anesthetics, Local , Hemostasis , Maxilla , Methods , Nerve Block , Palate , Periodontal Debridement , Periodontium , Vasoconstrictor Agents
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739999

ABSTRACT

Hyaluronic acid (HA) has long been studied in diverse applications. It is a naturally occurring linear polysaccharide in a family of unbranched glycosaminoglycans, which consists of repeating di-saccharide units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. It is almost ubiquitous in humans and other vertebrates, where it participates in many key processes, including cell signaling, tissue regeneration, wound healing, morphogenesis, matrix organization, and pathobiology. HA is biocompatible, biodegradable, muco-adhesive, hygroscopic, and viscoelastic. These unique physico-chemical properties have been exploited for several medicinal purposes, including recent uses in the adjuvant treatment for chronic inflammatory disease and to reduce pain and accelerate healing after third molar intervention. This review focuses on the post-operative effect of HA after third molar intervention along with its various physio-chemical, biochemical, and pharmaco-therapeutic uses.


Subject(s)
Acetylglucosamine , Biocompatible Materials , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Molar, Third , Morphogenesis , Regeneration , Vertebrates , Wound Healing
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergencies in dentistry can be classified as medical and dental. Medical emergencies occur mainly during dental treatment in patients with a systemic disease. Dental emergency departments are largely divided into dental emergency rooms located in dental college hospitals and medical emergency rooms located in medical institutions. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of and provide help to dental emergency patients in a dental hospital. METHODS: Overall, 1806 patients admitted to a dental emergency room at Yonsei University Dental Hospital for 1 year were included. The data collection period was from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. An investigator reviewed medical records from the electronic medical record (EMR) system and radiographs. RESULTS: The patients were 1,070 men and 736 women. The sex ratio was 1.45:1. The commonest age group was of 0–9 years, including 451 (25.0%) patients, followed by 20–29 years, including 353 (19.5%) patients, and 30–39 years, including 277 (15.3%) patients. Of the 108 patients transferred to the Severance emergency department, 81 had trauma, 19 were in pain, 4 were bleeding, and 4 had other complaints. Among chief complaints, 1,079 patients (60.3%) had trauma, 564 (31.5%) had pain, and 75 (4.2%) had bleeding. Twenty-three cases (1.3%) were caused by temporomandibular disorder (TMD). CONCLUSION: Dentists should be able to adequately assess patients in a dental emergency room and treat trauma, pain, and bleeding.


Subject(s)
Data Collection , Dentistry , Dentists , Electronic Health Records , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Research Personnel , Retrospective Studies , Sex Ratio , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
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