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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic concerns the field of rheumatology in many ways. Arthritis in conjunction with COVID-19 is increasingly reported. However, clinical data are still limited and there is lack of a detailed characterisation of COVID-19 associated arthritis by musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS). This case series reports different forms of COVID-19 associated arthritis supported by MSUS in patients with or without underlying rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease (RMD). METHODS: From March 2020 to July 2021, adult patients (n=10) with arthritis timely related to COVID-19 were assessed in three European centres by clinical and laboratory values and additionally MSUS. RESULTS: In the group without underlying RMD (n=6), two patients presented with polyarticular arthralgia during severe COVID-19, swelling was rarely seen and MSUS demonstrated arthritis only in a few joints affected. The other four patients showed arthritis four to 16 weeks after mild or moderate COVID-19 (without hospitalisation): polyarthritis (n=1), oligoarthritis of the upper and lower limb (n=2), and in one case, late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (LORA) was newly diagnosed. In the group with an underlying RMD (n=4), an increase of disease activity was reported by MSUS during mild and mild-moderate COVID-19. In general, MSUS often presented power Doppler (PD) positive synovitis and tenosynovitis. CONCLUSIONS: In our patients without underlying RMD, arthritides associated with COVID-19 are comparable to the clinical picture of a reactive arthritis (ReA) or other virus-related arthritides (e.g. parvovirus B19). New onset or flares of RMD possibly triggered by COVID-19 are noteworthy.

2.
Malays Fam Physician ; 17(2): 112-116, 2022 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975900

ABSTRACT

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an otologic emergency. Sensorineural hearing loss needs to be distinguished from conductive when patients present with sudden hearing loss at the primary care level. Prompt diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss with pure tone audiometry and immediate treatment by an otolaryngologist can improve the hearing outcome. To date, few case reports exist about SSNHL among post-COVID-19 patients, and none were reported in Malaysia. Here, we present two cases of SSNHL in patients after COVID-19 infection. We wish to highlight the association of SSNHL following COVID-19 infection for timely referral towards better audiology outcomes. Permanent hearing loss will lead to another negative impact on the long-term quality of life of COVID-19 patients.

3.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(7): 414-422, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975895

ABSTRACT

One of the most important requirements for the personnel of microbiological laboratories working with pathogenic and infectious agents is the observance of precautionary measures and the implementation of a set of preventive measures, collectively interpreted as biological safety (biosafety). To a large extent, biosafety problems are also relevant for all clinical laboratories working with biosubstrates, with the potential threat of containing pathogens of bloodborne infections in them. On December 30, 2020, the President of the Russian Federation signed Federal Law № 492 «On the Biological Safety of the Russian Federation¼ (№ 492-FZ), which regulates the basic legal norms and regulation of biosafety issues, as well as a list of measures to prevent the risks of the spread of infections due to accidents, bioterrorist acts and sabotage. The current pandemic of the coronavirus infection COVID-19 has demonstrated, on the one hand, the epidemiological vulnerability of the single world space, and on the other hand, the decisive influence of biological emergencies on the emergence of negative political and economic processes in the world community. In this regard, the issues of ensuring biosafety in the work of microbiological laboratories in the context of protecting personnel and the environment from accidental or unintentional spread of infections are relevant. Working with pathogenic biological agents in microbiological laboratories is constantly associated with the risk of accidents and possible laboratory infection (laboratory-acquired infections) of employees, environmental pollution if the requirements of regulatory documents on biological safety are not met. In accordance with the requirements of № 492-FZ, in order to prevent biological threats, it is necessary to create a system for monitoring biological risks in microbiological laboratories when working with any infected material.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratory Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Laboratories , Laboratory Infection/epidemiology , Laboratory Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics
4.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 2(2)2022 06 30.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975888

ABSTRACT

In Côte d'Ivoire, a country of 28 million inhabitants in West Africa, a survey conducted by the Ministry of the Family in 2018 showed the extent of gender-based violence (GBV) in the Greater Abidjan area (5 million inhabitants), the country's economic capital. The social workers employed for this work were mobilized during the Covid-19 pandemic to raise awareness and help the population fight against SARS-CoV-2. The results collected by these workers during the first period (January 2019 - February 2020) and the second period (March 2020 - April 2021) are the subject of this article.From the first period to the second, the number of rapes increased from 41 to 77, sexual assaults from 4 to 7, physical assaults from 139 to 171, and forced marriages from 4 to 7. In total, the social workers helped 303 victims during the pre-pandemic period and 402 during the pandemic. This evolution varies from municipality to municipality in the Greater Abidjan area, and is not related to the number of inhabitants per municipality and without any link with the frequency of Covid-19 in each municipality. Despite possible biases, this study highlights a major health problem, GBV, and demonstrates the probable negative effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender-Based Violence , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cote d'Ivoire/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Wiad Lek ; 75(6): 1592-1595, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975858

ABSTRACT

THE AIM: To analyze the activities of a medical institution in providing medical care to the children's population. One of the priorities of the work of the Poltava Children's City Clinical Hospital team is close cooperation and contact with the National Health Service of Ukraine under the program of medical guarantees. Since March 2020, on the basis of the Pediatric Department No. 1, infectious and diagnostic beds have been opened for medical care for patients with COVID-19 for residents of the city of Poltava and the Poltava region, which are 100% equipped with a centralized oxygen supply. The main principles for the effective formation and implementation of the strategic tasks of the hospital are: a programmatic and targeted approach to the management of the institution, the implementation of state, regional and local programs. It is important to form a financial, personnel, material and technical plan, to determine the economic efficiency of the measures taken. The main strategic directions of the hospital are active work on the formation and signing of packages of medical guarantees for 2022 with the National Health Service of Ukraine, carrying out analytical work to comply with quality standards during the treatment and diagnostic process. Important is the high level of surgical activity in the surgical departments with the implementation of modern surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , State Medicine , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Ukraine
6.
Wiad Lek ; 75(6): 1544-1549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of the study is to experimentally test the process of viral infection and determine the ways of its penetration into the human body. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: This experimental analysis is based on systematic research, published peer-reviewed articles, books, textbooks, monographs. It should also be noted that in order to identify some immunocompetent lymph node cells and the ability to visualize certain sites in the lymphoid nodes of Peyer's patches, where the initial processes are presented below, we resorted to sampling anatomical material. The study involved 10 adult albino rats weighing 200.0 ± 20.0 g. The search period covered the period from 2010 to 2021, but the experimental analysis contains some valuable data from previous years, as these literature sources have significant scientific value. RESULTS: Results: According to immunohistochemical analysis of the epithelium associated with the dome of the lymph nodes of the small intestine of white rats, the bulk was B-lymphocytes (about 47%) and T-lymphocytes (about 35%), while plasma cells, macrophages and dendritic cells accounted for approximately 5% for each of them. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Рrocess of development of viral infection can be represented in the form of the following targeted steps: 1) massive invasion of viruses into the body; 2) the pathway of viruses to the intended target (target cells) is carried out by the blood flow; 3) аchieving the target by viruses and their penetration into target cells. Іn the pathogenesis of viral diseases, the role is played by the preparedness of the particular body, which directly depends on the functional state of its immune system, which determines the possibility, severity and outcome of the disease.


Subject(s)
Peyer's Patches , Virus Diseases , Adult , Human Body , Humans , Intestine, Small , Lymph Nodes , Peyer's Patches/metabolism
7.
Wiad Lek ; 75(6): 1486-1491, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The purpose of the study is to increase the efficacy of сomprehensive treatment in elderly patients with COPD , who have suffered of coronavirus disease-COVID-19 in the last 3-6 months, by using nebulizer therapy with N-acetylcysteine and 3% hypertonic sodium chloride solution (Flu-Acyl broncho) and the drug glycine, to correct psychosomatic disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Under our supervision there were 60 elderly patients with COPD gr D, who underwent Covid 19 in the last 3-6 months, were under observation. The average age was 66.3±2.1 years. Рatients of the main and control groups were prescribed complex basic therapy. However, mucolytic therapy was administered to patients in the main group using combined drug - N-acetylcysteine and 3% hypertonic sodium chloride solution through a 5.0 №10 nebulizer. For the treatment of astheno-neurotic disorders of postcovidal syndrome was prescribed glycine 100 mg 2 times a day for 10 days. Subsequently, Flu-Acyl broncho through a nebulizer at 5.0 No.10, and glycised was used in courses once a day for 10 days per month. Patients in the control group were prescribed acetylcysteine 200 mg 3 times a day N10. RESULTS: Results: The results of observation for 6 months showed that in patients of the main group, recurrence of the disease was not observed. whereas in patients of the control group in 6 patients (20%). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Comprehensive treatment of elderly patients with comorbid pathology - COPD group D and postcovidal syndrome, with the additional use of nebulizer delivery of the combined drug - N-acetylcysteine and 3% hypertonic sodium chloride solution in combination with the sedative drug glycine, promotes improving the quality of life in patients, reducing the duration of treatment, prevents recurrence and progression of COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycine/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Sodium Chloride
8.
Wiad Lek ; 75(6): 1439-1445, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Study of clinical manifestations and management of patients with COVID toes and fingers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 1,841 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were hospitalized. All patients were divided into two groups: without surgical pathology - 1,693 (91.96%) and with surgical pathology (patients with COVID toes and fingers and abdominal syndrome) - 148 (8.04%). The diagnosis of COVID-19 was made on the basis of clinical data, laboratory test results (PCR test for SARS-CoV-2) and computed tomography of the chest. On admission, in addition to the general laboratory tests, mandatory special methods of examination included determination of D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). RESULTS: Results: Surgical ischemic manifestations were observed in 8.04% of all patients with COVID-19, of which 86.48% presented with ischemic abdominal syndrome and 13.52% with COVID toes and fingers. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin are the markers that may indicate the development of ischemic surgical problems. A direct statistically significant linear correlation was found between the severity of the underlying disease and the mean D-dimer (r = 0.815; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The confirmed phenomenon of COVID toes and fingers does not require active surgical tactics. It is necessary to conduct pathogenetic treatment of COVID-19 and dynamic monitoring of its clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975827
11.
Acta Naturae ; 14(2): 16-38, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975817

ABSTRACT

1,4-Pyrazine-3-carboxamide-based antiviral compounds have been under intensive study for the last 20 years. One of these compounds, favipiravir (6-fluoro-3-hydroxypyrazine-2-carboxamide, T-705), is approved for use against the influenza infection in a number of countries. Now, favipiravir is being actively used against COVID-19. This review describes the in vivo metabolism of favipiravir, the mechanism of its antiviral activity, clinical findings, toxic properties, and the chemical synthesis routes for its production. We provide data on the synthesis and antiviral activity of structural analogs of favipiravir, including nucleosides and nucleotides based on them.

12.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 51(8): 626-629, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, 56 temporary Medicare Benefits Schedule telehealth item numbers were introduced for Australian general practitioners (GPs) in response to COVID-19. Telehealth is now a permanent part of Australian primary care and, as such, an adequate understanding of the benefits, barriers and facilitators is essential for GPs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine the use of telehealth in general practice in Australia and to explore the benefits, barriers and facilitators to performing telehealth consultations. A narrative review was performed. DISCUSSION: Benefits of telehealth include increased access to healthcare and reduced risk of COVID-19 transmission. Barriers can include lack of technological infrastructure, limitations to performing physical examination and concerns regarding privacy and confidentiality. Facilitators include tailored GP training and sustainable funding models. Further research and training are needed to ensure that telehealth is used optimally and equitably in Australia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , Telemedicine , Aged , Australia , Humans , National Health Programs
13.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 61(4): 344-352, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975772

ABSTRACT

Bats are known natural reservoirs of several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses, including Hendra virus, Nipah virus, rabies virus, SARS-like coronaviruses, and suspected ancestral reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The capacity to survive infections of highly pathogenic agents without severe disease, together with many other unique features, makes bats an ideal animal model for studying the regulation of infection, cancer, and longevity, which is likely to translate into human health outcomes. A key factor that limits bat research is lack of breeding bat colonies. To address this need, a captive bat colony was established in Singapore from 19 wild-caught local cave nectar bats. The bats were screened for specific pathogens before the start of captive breeding. Custom-made cages and an optimized diet inclusive of Wombaroo dietary formula, liquid diet, and supplement of fruits enabled the bats to breed prolifically in our facility. Cages are washed daily and disinfected once every fortnight. Bats are observed daily to detect any sick bat or abnormal behavior. In addition, bats undergo a thorough health check once every 3 to 4 mo to check on their overall wellbeing, perform sampling, and document any potential pregnancy. The current colony houses over 80 bats that are successfully breeding, providing a valuable resource for research in Singapore and overseas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Breeding , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Plant Nectar , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore
14.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(7): 506-514, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975742

ABSTRACT

Background: The education sector is one of the major sectors adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic globally, and education of health professionals is no exception. Thousands of health professional institutions in the Eastern Mediterranean Region were closed abruptly to ensure the safety of students and staff. Aims: This study aims to describe the situation of health professionals' education in the EMR during COVID-19 and review strategies adopted by institutions to ensure continuity of education. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, key informant-based survey involving 50 institutions was conducted in 13 Member States of the EMR. The survey included medicine (n=23), dentistry (n=9), nursing (n=13), and pharmacy (n=5) colleges. The questionnaire included 40 open-ended questions about the challenges facing health professionals' education during the COVID-19 lockdown and strategies adopted for the continuation of education. Data were analysed and summarized to reach meaningful conclusions. Results: Almost all institutions in the EMR were closed during February and March 2020 as the number of cases increased. Most institutions, with few exceptions, in resource-constrained countries switched to online learning through emergency remote teaching mechanisms. COVID-19 caused delays in the completion of academic sessions and modifications to the curricula to cover courses within a short time. Conclusion: COVID-19 may continue to impact health professionals' education. However, countries with better IT infrastructure and support will likely continue to develop their online educational capacities to reap the benefits of e-learning in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Curriculum , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(7): 469-477, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975741

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the delivery of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) services globally as health systems are overwhelmed by the response to the pandemic. Aims: The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean conducted an assessment to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on NCD-related services, programmes, funding and consideration of NCDs in COVID-19 response. Methods: Data were collected from countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in mid-2020 through a web-based questionnaire on NCD services-related infrastructure, policies and plans, staffing, funding, NCD services disruptions and their causes, disruption mitigation strategies, data collection on comorbidity, surveillance, and suggestions for WHO technical guidance. The data were exported into Microsoft Excel and summarized. Countries were grouped according to socioeconomic level. Results: Nineteen of the 22 countries in the EMR responded: 95% had NCD staff reallocated to support their COVID-19 response. Lower-income countries were less likely to include NCDs in their pandemic response plans and more likely to report disruption of services. The most commonly disrupted services were hypertension management (10 countries 53%), dental care (10 countries 53%), rehabilitation (9 countries 47%), palliative care (9 countries 47%) and asthma management (9 countries 47%). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the continuity of NCD-related services in EMR countries. The ability to mitigate service disruptions varied noticeably between countries. The mitigation measures implemented included triaging of patients, novel NCD medicines supply chains and dispensing interventions, and the use of digital health and telemedicine. Guidance and support for systems resilience, preparedness and response to crises are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , World Health Organization
16.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(12)2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975736

ABSTRACT

Human milk is important for antimicrobial defense in infants and has well demonstrated antiviral activity. We evaluated the protective ability of human milk against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a human fetal intestinal cell culture model. We found that, in this model, human milk blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication, irrespective of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies. Complete inhibition of both enveloped Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human respiratory syncytial virus infections was also observed, whereas no inhibition of non-enveloped enterovirus A71 infection was seen. Transcriptome analysis after 24 h of the intestinal monolayers treated with human milk showed large transcriptomic changes from human milk treatment, and subsequent analysis suggested that ATP1A1 down-regulation by milk might be of importance. Inhibition of ATP1A1 blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection in our intestinal model, whereas no effect on EV-A71 infection was seen. Our data indicate that human milk has potent antiviral activity against particular (enveloped) viruses by potentially blocking the ATP1A1-mediated endocytic process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Milk, Human
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 5307-5310, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are detected in approximately a quarter of COVID-19 patients when assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Since there is no information, our study investigated the presence of ANA detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and its clinical and laboratory associations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on 92 patients with severe COVID-19, 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 25 healthy subjects. Blood samples were obtained at hospital admission. Commercial ELISA was used to detect ANA, while flow cytometry was used to measure serum interferons. RESULTS: ANAs were positive in 8.6% of COVID-19 patients, 10% of myocardial infarction patients, and 4% in healthy individuals (p=0.676). COVID-19 patients with ANA+ had less ferritin, troponin, and neutrophils but more albumin and lymphocytes than ANA- patients. Serum levels of type I, II, and III interferons were similar between groups. At follow-up, all ANA+ patients survived, while mortality was significant in ANA- patients (0 vs. 36%; p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: ANA detection is not increased in severe cases of COVID-19 when assessed by ELISA. However, its presence appears to be associated with a less aggressive disease phenotype, regardless of circulating levels of interferons.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antinuclear , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferons , Longitudinal Studies
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 5297-5306, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the different protective mechanisms of approved vaccines, this study focuses on the comparison of humoral and cellular immune responses of five widely used vaccines including ChAdOx1 (AZD1222, AstraZeneca), BNT162b2 (Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm), and Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated plasma from 95 volunteers' blood samples was used to measure anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses. Positive controls were recovered patients from COVID-19 (unvaccinated). Specific quantification kits for anti-nucleocapsid IgG, anti-Spike protein IgG, neutralizing antibodies as well as specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens for T-cell activation were used and Spearman correlation and matrix analyses were performed to compare overall immune responses. RESULTS: Nucleocapsid antibodies were significantly higher for the BBIBP-CorV and convalescent group when compared to other vaccines. In contrast, subjects vaccinated with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 presented significantly higher anti-spike IgG. In fact, 9.1% of convalescent, 4.5% of Gam-COVID-Vac, 28.6% of ChAdOx1, and 12.5% of BBIBP-CorV volunteers did not generate anti-spike IgG. Similarly, a positive correlation was observed after the neutralization assay. T-cell activation studies showed that mRNA-based vaccines induced a T-cell driven immune response in all cases, while 55% of convalescents,  8% of BNT162b1,  12,5% of mRNA-1273, 9% of Gam-COVID-Vac,  57% of ChAdOx1,  and  56% of BBIBP-CorV subjects presented no cellular response. Further correlation matrix analyses indicated that anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibodies production, and T-cell activation follow the same trend after immunization. CONCLUSIONS: RNA-based vaccines induced the most robust adaptive immune activation against SARS-CoV-2 by promoting a significantly higher T-cell response, anti-spike IgG and neutralization levels. Vector-based vaccines protected against the virus at a comparable level to convalescent patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Hungary , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 5285-5296, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory lung disease that has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It's an acute diffusive lung injury caused by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the lungs. Specific microRNAs have been identified to play a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin system signaling pathways the main pathophysiological pathway responsible for ARDS. Since the ARDS life-threatening complication associated with COVID-19 is an ongoing challenge, this current study aimed to investigate the potential efficacy of xanthenone in the treatment of ARDS induced with LPS in mice through ACE2 activation and modulation of miR-200 and ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were categorized into three groups randomly. The first set of mice served as the normal control group. The ARDS group was injected with LPS (15 mg/kg; i.p.). The last group was treated with xanthenone (2 mg/kg/day; p.o.) for one week before the LPS injection. RESULTS: Xanthenone treatment resulted in a significant down-regulation of miRNA-200 expression, leading to the activation of ACE2 accompanied with marked inhibition of Angiotensin II as well as increases the levels of Ang 1-7 and SP-A. CONCLUSIONS: Xanthenone has the potential to be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of ARDS COVID-19 complication through activation of ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathways. Graphical Abstract: https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/Graphical_abstract.tif.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 5278-5284, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic broke out, caused by the coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Reinfections can be observed with various respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses. Moreover, they may result from weak or waning initial immune response, reinfection with another genotype/subtype, or the rapid antigenic changes in the virus. The aim of this study was to investigate the likelihood of reinfection in COVID-19 patients that had a positive qPCR test result at least 60 days after a negative test result in patients that were confirmed with COVID-19 on qPCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results of a total of 105,000 samples that had been obtained between April 1, 2020, and February 1, 2021, in two separate authorized laboratories were retrospectively analyzed. 22 samples from 11 patients included in the study, qPCR tests were repeated for each sample using the Rotorgene Q PCR system with Diagnovital SARS-CoV-2 (RTA Labs, Turkey) Real-Time PCR kits. Positive samples were screened for B.1.1.7 and E484K mutations using the qPCR method on the Rotorgene Q PCR system with Bio-Speedy SARS-CoV-2 Variant Plus kits (Bioeksen Technology, Turkey). RESULTS: The 105,000 individuals comprised 55,614 men and 49,386 women. In the qPCR test, 14,511 (13.82%) individuals were found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 11 (0.076%) patients were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria. Accordingly, the risk of reinfection was calculated as 0.076% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.056%-0.096%) and the incidence was 1.04 per 10,000 population (95% CI: 0.62-1.38 per 10,000). No patient was admitted to the intensive care unit or died during both episodes. Moreover, no B.1.1.7 or E484K mutation was detected in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of COVID-19 infection poses serious risks for the development of new variants and the currently used vaccines are likely to lose their efficacy against new variants. To reduce these risks and to be successful in the fight against the pandemic, we suggest compliance with personal protective measures as well as rapid and widespread application of vaccination not only in developed countries but also in the whole world and the modification of currently used vaccines in such a way to fight against newly emerged variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Reinfection/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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