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3.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2021: 5585291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may result in multiorgan failure and death. Early detection of patients at risk may allow triage and more intense monitoring. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, objective admission score, based on laboratory tests, that identifies patients who are likely going to deteriorate. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary academic medical center in New York City during the COVID-19 crisis in spring 2020. The primary combined endpoint included intubation, stage 3 acute kidney injury (AKI), or death. Laboratory tests available on admission in at least 70% of patients (and age) were included for univariate analysis. Tests that were statistically or clinically significant were then included in a multivariate binary logistic regression model using stepwise exclusion. 70% of all patients were used to train the model, and 30% were used as an internal validation cohort. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a model for COVID-19 severity based on biomarkers. RESULTS: Out of 2545 patients, 833 (32.7%) experienced the primary endpoint. 53 laboratory tests were analyzed, and of these, 47 tests (and age) were significantly different between patients with and without the endpoint. The final multivariate model included age, albumin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. The area under the ROC curve was 0.850 (CI [95%]: 0.813, 0.889), with a sensitivity of 0.800 and specificity of 0.761. The probability of experiencing the primary endpoint can be calculated as p=e (-2.4475+0.02492age - 0.6503albumin+0.81926creat+0.00388CRP+0.00143LDH)/1+e (-2.4475+ 0.02492age - 0.6503albumin+0.81926creat+0.00388CRP+0.00143LDH). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that poor outcome in COVID-19 patients can be predicted with good sensitivity and specificity using a few laboratory tests. This is useful for identifying patients at risk during admission.

4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(1): e7-e12, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have frequent thrombotic complications and laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability. The relationship of coagulation tests and thrombosis requires investigation to identify best diagnostic and treatment approaches. We assessed for hypercoagulable characteristics in critically ill COVID-19 patients using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and explored relationships of D-dimer and ROTEM measurements with thrombotic complications. METHODS: Critically ill adult COVID-19 patients receiving ROTEM testing between March and April 2020 were analyzed. Patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation before ROTEM were excluded. Rotational thromboelastometry measurements from COVID-19 patients were compared with non-COVID-19 patients matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Intergroup differences in ROTEM measurements were assessed using t tests. Correlations of D-dimer levels to ROTEM measurements were assessed in COVID-19 patients who had available concurrent testing. Intergroup differences of D-dimer and ROTEM measurements were explored in COVID-19 patients with and without thrombosis. RESULTS: Of 30 COVID-19 patients receiving ROTEM, we identified hypercoagulability from elevated fibrinogen compared with non-COVID-19 patients (fibrinogen assay maximum clot firmness [MCF], 47 ± 13 mm vs. 20 ± 7 mm; mean intergroup difference, 27.4 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1-32.7 mm; p < 0.0001). In our COVID-19 cohort, thrombotic complications were identified in 33%. In COVID-19 patients developing thrombotic complications, we identified higher D-dimer levels (17.5 ± 4.3 µg/mL vs. 8.0 ± 6.3 µg/mL; mean difference, 9.5 µg/mL; 95% CI, 13.9-5.1; p < 0.0001) but lower fibrinogen assay MCF (39.7 ± 10.8 mm vs. 50.1 ± 12.0 mm; mean difference, -11.2 mm; 95% CI, -2.1 to -20.2; p = 0.02) compared with patients without thrombosis. We identified negative correlations of D-dimer levels and ROTEM MCF in these patients (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: We identified elevated D-dimer levels and hypercoagulable blood clot characteristics from increased fibrinogen on ROTEM testing in critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, we identified lower, albeit still hypercoagulable, ROTEM measurements of fibrinogen in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic complications compared with those without. Further work is required to externally validate these findings and to investigate the mechanistic drivers for these relationships to identify best diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic, level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Thrombelastography/methods , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/diagnosis
5.
J Crit Care ; 62: 172-175, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988303

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created an enormous health crisis and this spring New York City had a severe outbreak that pushed health and critical care resources to the limit. A lack of adequate space for mechanically ventilated patients induced our hospital to convert operating rooms into critical care areas (OR-ICU). A large number of COVID-19 will develop acute kidney injury that requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). We included 116 patients with COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilation and were cared for in our OR-ICU. At 90 days and at discharge 35 patients died (30.2%). RRT was required by 45 of the 116 patients (38.8%) and 18 of these 45 patients (40%) compared to 17 with no RRT (23.9%, ns) died during hospitalization and after 90 days. Only two of the 27 patients who required RRT and survived required RRT at discharge and 90 days. When defining renal recovery as a discharge serum creatinine within 150% of baseline, 68 of 78 survivors showed renal recovery (87.2%). Survival was similar to previous reports of patients with severe COVID-19 for patients cared for in provisional ICUs compared to standard ICUs. Most patients with severe COVID-19 and AKI are likely to recover full renal function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ ; 369: m1996, 2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-423282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in a large New York City medical center and describe their clinical course across the emergency department, hospital wards, and intensive care units. DESIGN: Retrospective manual medical record review. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical center in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1000 consecutive patients with a positive result on the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who presented to the emergency department or were admitted to hospital between 1 March and 5 April 2020. Patient data were manually abstracted from electronic medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characterization of patients, including demographics, presenting symptoms, comorbidities on presentation, hospital course, time to intubation, complications, mortality, and disposition. RESULTS: Of the first 1000 patients, 150 presented to the emergency department, 614 were admitted to hospital (not intensive care units), and 236 were admitted or transferred to intensive care units. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (732/1000), fever (728/1000), and dyspnea (631/1000). Patients in hospital, particularly those treated in intensive care units, often had baseline comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Patients admitted to intensive care units were older, predominantly male (158/236, 66.9%), and had long lengths of stay (median 23 days, interquartile range 12-32 days); 78.0% (184/236) developed acute kidney injury and 35.2% (83/236) needed dialysis. Only 4.4% (6/136) of patients who required mechanical ventilation were first intubated more than 14 days after symptom onset. Time to intubation from symptom onset had a bimodal distribution, with modes at three to four days, and at nine days. As of 30 April, 90 patients remained in hospital and 211 had died in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 at this medical center faced major morbidity and mortality, with high rates of acute kidney injury and inpatient dialysis, prolonged intubations, and a bimodal distribution of time to intubation from symptom onset.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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