Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 69
Filter
2.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2823-2827, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 is a concerning issue among in-center hemodialysis (HD) patients. To prevent COVID-19 diffusion in our HD facility, weekly rapid nasal antigen test screening was performed for all asymptomatic patients on chronic HD. This study aimed to assess the performance of weekly rapid antigen test in detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic patients receiving HD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in HD patients who underwent rapid antigen test screening from December 2021 to March 2022. The diagnosis of COVID-19 with rapid antigen test was always confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: During the observational period, 1,748 rapid antigen tests were performed in 220 HD patients. Mean age was 68.4±14.6 years. Fifteen (8.5%) patients resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using rapid antigen tests. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed in 14 (93.3%) patients by RT-PCR. During the same period, 12 (5.4%) symptomatic patients, regularly screened with weekly rapid antigen test, resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using RT-PCR. Overall, weekly rapid antigen test screening identified 14 out of 26 (53.8%) COVID-19 cases and showed a positive predictive value of 93%. CONCLUSION: Weekly antigen test screening of asymptomatic patients on chronic HD detected around half of the COVID-19 cases in our population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Renal Dialysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097236

ABSTRACT

People with HIV on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) have longer life expectancy and are increasingly experiencing age-related comorbidities. Thus, aging with HIV has become a central issue in clinical care and research, which has been particularly challenging with the intersection of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID)-19 pandemic. Since 2009, the International Workshop on HIV and Aging has served as a multidisciplinary platform to share research findings from cross-disciplinary fields along with community advocates to address critical issues in HIV and aging. In this article, we summarize the key oral presentations from the 12th Annual International Workshop on HIV and Aging, held virtually on September 23rd and 24th, 2021. The topics ranged from basic science research on biological mechanisms of aging to quality of life and delivery of care under the COVID-19 pandemic. This workshop enriched our understanding of HIV and aging under the COVID-19 pandemic, identified challenges and opportunities to combat the impact of COVID-19 on HIV communities, and also provided updated research and future directions of the field to move HIV and aging research forward, with the ultimate goal of successful aging for older people with HIV.

4.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the effects of COVID-19 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to describe the impact of COVID-19 on the PD population. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective observational study was conducted on 146 consecutive PD patients followed from January 2020 to March 2022 at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (18.4%) PD patients experienced 29 episodes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, corresponding to an incidence rate of 0.16 episodes/patient-year. Median age of COVID-19 patients was 60.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 50.2-66.5) years. In unvaccinated patients (n. 9), COVID-19 was always symptomatic and manifested with fever (100%) and cough (77.7%). COVID-19 caused hospital admission of three (33.3%) patients and two (22.2%) died of septic shock. COVID-19 was symptomatic in 83.3% of vaccinated subjects (n.18) and manifested with fever (61.1%) and cough (55.6%). Hospital admission occurred in 27.8% of the subjects but all were discharged home. Median SARS-CoV-2 shedding was 32 and 26 days in the unvaccinated and vaccinated groups, respectively. At the end of the follow-up, COVID-19 triggered the shift from PD to HD in two subjects without affecting the residual renal function of the remaining patients. Overall, COVID-19 caused an excess death of 22.2%. COVID-19 vaccination refusal accounted for only 1.6% in this cohort of patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 incident rate was 0.16 episodes/patient-year in the PD population. About one-third of the patients were hospitalized for severe infection. Fatal outcome occurred in two (7.4%) unvaccinated patients. A low vaccination refusal rate was observed in this population.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe long-COVID symptoms among older adults, and to assess risk factors for two common long-COVID symptoms: fatigue and dyspnea. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study, conducted in Israel, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy. Included were individuals at least 30 days since COVID-19 diagnosis. We compared long-COVID symptoms between elderly individuals (age>65 years) and younger population (18-65 years); and conducted univariate and multivariable analyses for predictors of long-COVID fatigue and dyspnea. RESULTS: 2333 individuals were evaluated at an average of 5 months [146 days (95% CI 142-150)] following COVID-19 onset. Mean age was 51 and 20.5% were>65 years. Older adults were more likely to be symptomatic, with most common symptoms being fatigue (38%) and dyspnea (30%). They were more likely to complain of cough and arthralgia, and have abnormal chest imaging and pulmonary function tests. Independent risk factors for long-COVID fatigue and dyspnea included female gender, obesity, and closer proximity to COVID-19 diagnosis; older age was not an independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals with long-COVID, have different persisting symptoms, with more pronounced pulmonary impairment. Women and individuals with obesity are at risk. Further research is warranted to investigate the natural history of long-COVID among the elderly population and to assess possible interventions aimed at promoting rehabilitation and well-being.

6.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033075

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe body composition changes up to 6-7 months after severe COVID-19 and to evaluate their association with COVID-19 inflammatory burden, described by the integral of the C-reactive protein (CRP) curve. The pectoral muscle area (PMA) and density (PMD), liver-to-spleen (L/S) ratio, and total, visceral, and intermuscular adipose tissue areas (TAT, VAT, and IMAT) were measured at baseline (T0), 2-3 months (T1), and 6-7 months (T2) follow-up CT scans of severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. Among the 208 included patients (mean age 65.6 ± 11 years, 31.3% females), decreases in PMA [mean (95%CI) -1.11 (-1.72; -0.51) cm2] and in body fat areas were observed [-3.13 (-10.79; +4.52) cm2 for TAT], larger from T0 to T1 than from T1 to T2. PMD increased only from T1 to T2 [+3.07 (+2.08; +4.06) HU]. Mean decreases were more evident for VAT [-3.55 (-4.94; -2.17) cm2] and steatosis [L/S ratio increase +0.17 (+0.13; +0.20)] than for TAT. In multivariable models adjusted by age, sex, and baseline TAT, increasing the CRP interval was associated with greater PMA reductions, smaller PMD increases, and greater VAT and steatosis decreases, but it was not associated with TAT decreases. In conclusion, muscle loss and fat loss (more apparent in visceral compartments) continue until 6-7 months after COVID-19. The inflammatory burden is associated with skeletal muscle loss and visceral/liver fat loss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Body Composition/physiology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Ageing Res Rev ; 81: 101686, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982579

ABSTRACT

The post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is characterized by the persistence of fluctuating symptoms over three months from the onset of the possible or confirmed COVID-19 acute phase. Current data suggests that at least 10% of people with previously documented infection may develop PACS, and up to 50-80% of prevalence is reported among survivors after hospital discharge. This viewpoint will discuss various aspects of PACS, particularly in older adults, with a specific hypothesis to describe PACS as the expression of a modified aging trajectory induced by SARS CoV-2. This hypothesis will be argued from biological, clinical and public health view, addressing three main questions: (i) does SARS-CoV-2-induced alterations in aging trajectories play a role in PACS?; (ii) do people with PACS face immuno-metabolic derangements that lead to increased susceptibility to age-related diseases?; (iii) is it possible to restore the healthy aging trajectory followed by the individual before pre-COVID?. A particular focus will be given to the well-being of people with PACS that could be assessed by the intrinsic capacity model and support the definition of the healthy aging trajectory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 prognostic factors include age, sex, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, and time from symptom onset to seeking care. PURPOSE: The study aim was to evaluate indices combining disease severity measures and time from disease onset to predict mortality of COVID-19 patients admitted to the emergency department (ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent both computed tomography (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) at ED presentation between 27/02/2020 and 13/03/2020 were included. CT visual score of disease extension and CXR Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score were collected. The CT- and CXR-based scores, C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen saturation levels (sO2) were separately combined with time from symptom onset to ED presentation to obtain severity/time indices. Multivariable regression age- and sex-adjusted models without and with severity/time indices were compared. For CXR-RALE, the models were tested in a validation cohort. RESULTS: Of the 308 included patients, 55 (17.9%) died. In multivariable logistic age- and sex-adjusted models for death at 30 days, severity/time indices showed good discrimination ability, higher for imaging than for laboratory measures (AUCCT = 0.92, AUCCXR = 0.90, AUCCRP = 0.88, AUCsO2 = 0.88). AUCCXR was lower in the validation cohort (0.79). The models including severity/time indices performed slightly better than models including measures of disease severity not combined with time and those including the Charlson Comorbidity Index, except for CRP-based models. CONCLUSION: Time from symptom onset to ED admission is a strong prognostic factor and provides added value to the interpretation of imaging and laboratory findings at ED presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 590, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960513

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but few detailed data are available concerning immunological changes after infection in aged individuals. Here we describe main immune characteristics in 31 patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection who were >70 years old, compared to 33 subjects <60 years of age. Differences in plasma levels of 62 cytokines, landscape of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T cell repertoire, transcriptome of central memory CD4+ T cells, specific antibodies are reported along with features of lung macrophages. Elderly subjects have higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more circulating plasmablasts, reduced plasmatic level of anti-S and anti-RBD IgG3 antibodies, lower proportions of central memory CD4+ T cells, more immature monocytes and CD56+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, lower percentages of circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh), antigen-specific cTfh cells with a less activated transcriptomic profile, lung resident activated macrophages that promote collagen deposition and fibrosis. Our study underlines the importance of inflammation in the response to SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that inflammaging, coupled with the inability to mount a proper anti-viral response, could exacerbate disease severity and the worst clinical outcome in old patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cytokines , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , T Follicular Helper Cells
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938841

ABSTRACT

Specific T cells are crucial to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, avoid reinfection and confer protection after vaccination. We have studied patients with severe or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to patients who recovered from a severe or moderate infection that had occurred about 4 months before the analyses. In all these subjects, we assessed the polyfunctionality of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by quantifying cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with different SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools covering different proteins (M, N and S). In particular, we quantified the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells simultaneously producing interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-17, granzyme B, and expressing CD107a. Recovered patients who experienced a severe disease display high proportions of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells producing Th1 and Th17 cytokines and are characterized by polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells. A similar profile was found in patients experiencing a moderate form of COVID-19 pneumonia. No main differences in polyfunctionality were observed among the CD8+ T cell compartments, even if the proportion of responding cells was higher during the infection. The identification of those functional cell subsets that might influence protection can thus help in better understanding the complexity of immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 706-713, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in immunocompetent critically ill patients is common and relates to a worsening outcome. In this large observational study, we evaluated the incidence and the risk factors associated with CMV reactivation and its effects on mortality in a large cohort of patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to three ICUs from February 2020 to July 2021 were included. The patients were screened at ICU admission and once or twice per week for quantitative CMV-DNAemia in the blood. The risk factors associated with CMV blood reactivation and its association with mortality were estimated by adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: CMV blood reactivation was observed in 88 patients (20.4%) of the 431 patients studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score (HR 1031, 95% CI 1010-1053, p = 0.006), platelet count (HR 0.0996, 95% CI 0.993-0.999, p = 0.004), invasive mechanical ventilation (HR 2611, 95% CI 1223-5571, p = 0.013) and secondary bacterial infection (HR 5041; 95% CI 2852-8911, p < 0.0001) during ICU stay were related to CMV reactivation. Hospital mortality was higher in patients with (67.0%) than in patients without (24.5%) CMV reactivation but the adjusted analysis did not confirm this association (HR 1141, 95% CI 0.757-1721, p = 0.528). CONCLUSION: The severity of illness and the occurrence of secondary bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of CMV blood reactivation, which, however, does not seem to influence the outcome of COVID-19 ICU patients independently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Critical Illness , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
G Ital Nefrol ; 39(2)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801193

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Some hemodialysis patients are reluctant to undergo COVID-19 vaccination for the fear of developing adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to verify the safety of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from March 1st to April 30th, 2021. All AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. Results: Overall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54,7-76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged ≥65 years. During the observational period of 68 (IQR, 66-70) days, AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were: injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%), nausea/vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%). The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P=0.8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P=0.001). Fever (P=0.03), fatigue (P=0.02) and nausea/vomiting (P=0.03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of the vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs. Overall, vaccine-related AEs in hemodialysis patients seem to be lower than in the general population. Conclusion: The RNA-1273 vaccine was associated with the development of transient AEs after the first and second doses in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis. They were mostly local, whereas systemic AEs were more prevalent after the second dose. Overall, all AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Nausea , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779941

ABSTRACT

Although it is now widely accepted that host inflammatory response contributes to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, the pathways and mechanisms driving disease severity and clinical outcome remain poorly understood. In the effort to identify key soluble mediators that characterize life-threatening COVID-19, we quantified 62 cytokines, chemokines and other factors involved in inflammation and immunity in plasma samples, collected at hospital admission, from 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 disease who were stratified on the basis of clinical outcome (mechanical ventilation or death by day 28). Our data confirm that age, as well as neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, procalcitonin, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase are strongly associated with the risk of fatal COVID-19. In addition, we found that cytokines related to TH2 regulations (IL-4, IL-13, IL-33), cell metabolism (lep, lep-R) and interferons (IFNα, IFNß, IFNγ) were also predictive of life-threatening COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Chemokines , Humans , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Respir J ; 60(4)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775304

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used in hyperinflammation related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pulse intravenous methylprednisolone in addition to standard treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 304 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were randomised to receive 1 g of methylprednisolone intravenously for three consecutive days or placebo in addition to standard dexamethasone. The primary outcome was the duration of patient hospitalisation, calculated as the time interval between randomisation and hospital discharge without the need for supplementary oxygen. The key secondary outcomes were survival free from invasive ventilation with orotracheal intubation and overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 112 (75.4%) out of 151 patients in the pulse methylprednisolone arm and 111 (75.2%) of 150 in the placebo arm were discharged from hospital without oxygen within 30 days from randomisation. Median time to discharge was similar in both groups (15 days, 95% CI 13.0-17.0 days and 16 days, 95% CI 13.8-18.2 days, respectively; hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.20; p=0.528). No significant differences between pulse methylprednisolone and placebo arms were observed in terms of admission to intensive care unit with orotracheal intubation or death (20.0% versus 16.1%; HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.74-2.16; p=0.176) or overall mortality (10.0% versus 12.2%; HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.42-1.64; p=0.584). Serious adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Methylprenisolone pulse therapy added to dexamethasone was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Methylprednisolone , Glucocorticoids , Double-Blind Method , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
15.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 11-21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772285

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an unpredictable infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The development of effective anti-COVID-19 vaccines has enormously minimized the risk of severe illness in most immunocompetent patients. However, unvaccinated patients and non-responders to the COVID-19 vaccine are at risk of shortand long-term consequences. In these patients, the outcome of COVID-19 relies on an interplay of multiple factors including age, immunocompetence, comorbidities, inflammatory response triggered by the virus as well as the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Generally, COVID-19 is asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in young people, but it may manifest with respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation in certain susceptible groups of patients. Furthermore, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces multiorgan failure syndrome by affecting liver, kidney heart and nervous system. Since December 2019, multiple drugs have been tested to treat COVID-19, but only a few have been proven effective to mitigate the course of the disease that continues to cause death and comorbidity worldwide. Current treatment of COVID-19 patients is essentially based on the administration of supportive oxygen therapy and the use of specific drugs such as steroids, anticoagulants, antivirals, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and immunomodulators. However, the rapid spread of new variants and the release of new data coming from the numerous ongoing clinical trials have created the conditions for maintaining a continuous updating of the therapeutic management of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we believe that a well-established therapeutic strategy along with the continuum of medical care for all patients with COVID-19 is pivotal to improving disease outcomes and restoring healthcare care fragmentation caused by the pandemic. This narrative review, focusing on the therapeutic management of COVID-19 patients, aimed to provide an overview of current therapies for (i) asymptomatic or mildly/moderate symptomatic patients, (ii) hospitalized patients requiring low-flow oxygen, (iii) high-flow oxygen and (iv) mechanical ventilation.

16.
HIV Med ; 23(8): 849-858, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines were revised in 2021 for the 17th time with updates on all aspects of HIV care. KEY POINTS OF THE GUIDELINES UPDATE: Version 11.0 of the Guidelines recommend six first-line treatment options for antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adults: tenofovir-based backbone plus an unboosted integrase inhibitor or plus doravirine; abacavir/lamivudine plus dolutegravir; or dual therapy with lamivudine or emtricitabine plus dolutegravir. Recommendations on preferred and alternative first-line combinations from birth to adolescence were included in the new paediatric section made with Penta. Long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was included as a switch option and, along with fostemsavir, was added to all drug-drug interaction (DDI) tables. Four new DDI tables for anti-tuberculosis drugs, anxiolytics, hormone replacement therapy and COVID-19 therapies were introduced, as well as guidance on screening and management of anxiety disorders, transgender health, sexual health for women and menopause. The sections on frailty, obesity and cancer were expanded, and recommendations for the management of people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk were revised extensively. Treatment of recently acquired hepatitis C is recommended with ongoing risk behaviour to reduce transmission. Bulevirtide was included as a treatment option for the hepatitis Delta virus. Drug-resistant tuberculosis guidance was adjusted in accordance with the 2020 World Health Organization recommendations. Finally, there is new guidance on COVID-19 management with a focus on continuance of HIV care. CONCLUSIONS: In 2021, the EACS Guidelines were updated extensively and broadened to include new sections. The recommendations are available as a free app, in interactive web format and as an online pdf.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Lipopeptides
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(Suppl 1): S65-S72, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resilience is defined as an individual's positive adaptation to stressors. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a generalized stressor which may affect differently people living with HIV (PLWH). The objective of this study was to characterize resilience in PLWH with particular regarding the identification of frailty-resilience phenotypes, which may differently affect health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). METHODS: This was an observational study of PLWH attending Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic. Frailty was assessed in 2019, before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic by using 37-Item frailty index ranging from 0 to 1. The frailty index score was categorized as fit (<0.25) or frail (>0.25). In January 2021, PLWH were offered to complete a set of electronic questionnaires including the CD-RISC-25 for resilience and EQ-5D5L and SF-36 for HR-QoL. Resilience was defined as CD-RISC-25 score >75.7 (ranging from 0 to 100). RESULTS: Of 800 PLWH reached by mail, 575 (72%) completed the questionnaires. The median age and HIV duration were 54.5 and 24.3 years, respectively. Impaired resilience was associated with loneliness [odds ratio (OR = 2.39; 1.20 to 4.76, P < 0.001)]. Predictors for EQ-5D5L <89.7% were the phenotypes "frail/nonresilient" [OR = 5.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62 to 10.33] and "fit/nonresilient" (OR = 5.48, 95% CI: 2.8 to 10.74). Predictors for SF-36 <64.40 were the phenotypes "frail/nonresilient" (OR = 7.43, 95% CI: 2.57 to 21.22) and "fit/nonresilient" (OR = 6.27, 95% CI: 2.17 to 18.16). Both models were corrected for age, sex, HIV duration, and nadir CD4. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience characterizes the well-being of PLWH during the COVID-19 crisis. This construct is complementary to frailty in the identification of clinical phenotypes with different impacts on HR-QoL.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/psychology , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frailty/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac003, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A proposal has recently been advanced to change the traditional definition of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), to reflect the cluster of metabolic abnormalities that may be more closely associated with cardiovascular risk. Long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a smoldering inflammatory condition, characterized by several symptom clusters. This study aims to determine the prevalence of MAFLD in patients with postacute COVID syndrome (PACS) and its association with other PACS-cluster phenotypes. METHODS: We included 235 patients observed at a single university outpatient clinic. The diagnosis of PACS was based on ≥1 cluster of symptoms: respiratory, neurocognitive, musculoskeletal, psychological, sensory, and dermatological. The outcome was prevalence of MAFLD detected by transient elastography during the first postdischarge follow-up outpatient visit. The prevalence of MAFLD at the time of hospital admission was calculated retrospectively using the hepatic steatosis index. RESULTS: Of 235 patients, 162 (69%) were men (median age 61). The prevalence of MAFLD was 55.3% at follow-up and 37.3% on admission (P < .001). Insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.96), body mass index (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.24), and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.13-5.68) were independent predictors of MAFLD. The number of PACS clusters was inversely associated with MAFLD (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, .76-0.97). Thirty-one patients (13.2%) had MAFLD with no other associated PACS clusters. All correlations between MAFLD and other PACS clusters were weak. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease was highly prevalent after hospital discharge and may represent a specific PACS-cluster phenotype, with potential long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health implications.

19.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054069, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The first COVID-19-19 epidemic wave was over the period of February-May 2020. Since 1 October 2020, Italy, as many other European countries, faced a second wave. The aim of this analysis was to compare the 28-day mortality between the two waves among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Standard survival analysis was performed to compare all-cause mortality within 28 days after hospital admission in the two waves. Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Cox regression model analysis were used. The effect of wave on risk of death was shown by means of HRs with 95% CIs. A sensitivity analysis around the impact of the circulating variant as a potential unmeasured confounder was performed. SETTING: University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Patients admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first (22 February-31 May 2020) and second (1 October-31 December 2020) waves were included. RESULTS: During the two study periods, a total of 1472 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to our hospital, 449 during the first wave and 1023 during the second. Median age was 70 years (IQR 56-80), 37% women, 49% with PaO2/FiO2 <250 mm Hg, 82% with ≥1 comorbidity, median duration of symptoms was 6 days. 28-day mortality rate was 20.0% (95% CI 16.3 to 23.7) during the first wave vs 14.2% (95% CI 12.0 to 16.3) in the second (log-rank test p value=0.03). After including key predictors of death in the multivariable Cox regression model, the data still strongly suggested a lower 28-day mortality rate in the second wave (aHR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90, p value=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with severe pneumonia, the 28-day mortality appeared to be reduced by 36% during the second as compared with the first wave. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may have contributed to this improved survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 538-549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579085

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications after a SARS-CoV-2 infection are a phenomenon of relevant scientific interest. The aim of this study was to analyze the onset of post-COVID-19 cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized in a tertiary care center. This is a retrospective study conducted on patients hospitalized over a period of three months. The patients were older than 18 years of age and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection confirmed from a nasopharyngeal swab sample. Anamnestic and clinical-laboratory data were collected. Cardiovascular events at 30 days were defined as follows: arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism. Univariate analysis (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate) and multivariate analysis (multinomial logistic regression) were applied to the data. A total of 394 patients were included; they were mostly males and had a median age of 65.5 years. Previous cardiovascular disease was present in 14.7% of patients. Oxygen therapy was required for 77.9%, and 53% received anticoagulant therapy. The overall 30-day mortality was 20.3%. A cardiovascular event developed in 15.7% of the subjects. These were mainly pulmonary embolism (9.4%), followed by arrhythmias (3.3%), myocardial infarction (2.3%), and myocarditis (0.8%). Patients who developed cardiovascular events upon univariate analysis were significantly older, with major comorbidities, a more compromised respiratory situation, and a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed independent factors that were significantly associated with the development of cardiovascular events: hypertension, endotracheal intubation, and age older than 75 years. In patients with COVID-19, the development of a cardiovascular event occurs quite frequently and is mainly seen in elderly subjects with comorbidities (especially hypertension) in the presence of a severe respiratory picture.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL