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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4539, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972604

ABSTRACT

Delineating the origins and properties of antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is critical for understanding their benefits and potential shortcomings. Therefore, we investigate the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-reactive B cell repertoire in unexposed individuals by flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing. We show that ∼82% of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive B cells harbor a naive phenotype, which represents an unusually high fraction of total human naive B cells (∼0.1%). Approximately 10% of these naive S-reactive B cells share an IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing, an enrichment of 18-fold compared to the complete naive repertoire. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we report an average 37-fold enrichment of IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing in the S-reactive memory B cells compared to the unselected memory repertoire. This class of B cells targets a previously undefined non-neutralizing epitope on the S2 subunit that becomes exposed on S proteins used in approved vaccines when they transition away from the native pre-fusion state because of instability. These findings can help guide the improvement of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294493

ABSTRACT

Delineating the origins and properties of antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is critical for understanding their benefits and potential shortcomings. Therefore, we investigated the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-reactive B cell repertoire in unexposed individuals by flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing. We found that ~82% of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive B cells show a naive phenotype, which represents an unusually high fraction of total human naive B cells (~0.1%). Approximately 10% of these naive S-reactive B cells shared an IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing, an enrichment of 18-fold compared to the complete naive repertoire. A proportion of memory B cells, comprising switched (~0.05%) and unswitched B cells (~0.04%), was also reactive with S and some of these cells were reactive with ADAMTS13, which is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we report an average 37-fold enrichment of IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing in the S-reactive memory B cells compared to the unselected memory repertoire. This class of B cells targets a previously undefined non-neutralizing epitope on the S2 subunit that becomes exposed on S proteins used in approved vaccines when they transition away from the native pre-fusion state because of instability. These findings can help guide the improvement of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293588

ABSTRACT

Delineating the origins and properties of antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is critical for understanding their benefits and potential shortcomings. Therefore, we investigated the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-reactive B cell repertoire in unexposed individuals by flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing. We found that ~82% of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive B cells show a naive phenotype, which represents an unusually high fraction of total human naive B cells (~0.1%). Approximately 10% of these naive S-reactive B cells shared an IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing, an enrichment of 18-fold compared to the complete naive repertoire. A proportion of memory B cells, comprising switched (~0.05%) and unswitched B cells (~0.04%), was also reactive with S and some of these cells were reactive with ADAMTS13, which is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we report an average 37-fold enrichment of IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing in the S-reactive memory B cells compared to the unselected memory repertoire. This class of B cells targets a previously undefined non-neutralizing epitope on the S2 subunit that becomes exposed on S proteins used in approved vaccines when they transition away from the native pre-fusion state because of instability. These findings can help guide the improvement of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009407, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338134

ABSTRACT

Incessant antigenic evolution enables the persistence and spread of influenza virus in the human population. As the principal target of the immune response, the hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen on influenza viruses continuously acquires and replaces N-linked glycosylation sites to shield immunogenic protein epitopes using host-derived glycans. Anti-glycan antibodies, such as 2G12, target the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env), which is even more extensively glycosylated and contains under-processed oligomannose-type clusters on its dense glycan shield. Here, we illustrate that 2G12 can also neutralize human seasonal influenza A H3N2 viruses that have evolved to present similar oligomannose-type clusters on their HAs from around 20 years after the 1968 pandemic. Using structural biology and mass spectrometric approaches, we find that two N-glycosylation sites close to the receptor binding site (RBS) on influenza hemagglutinin represent the oligomannose cluster recognized by 2G12. One of these glycan sites is highly conserved in all human H3N2 strains and the other emerged during virus evolution. These two N-glycosylation sites have also become crucial for fitness of recent H3N2 strains. These findings shed light on the evolution of the glycan shield on influenza virus and suggest 2G12-like antibodies can potentially act as broad neutralizers to target human enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Cross Reactions , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology
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