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1.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 39(2): 363-377, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240167

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached New York City, resulting in thousands of deaths over the following months. Because of the exponential spread of disease, the New York City hospital systems became rapidly overwhelmed. The Department of Anesthesiology at New York Presbyterian (NYP)-Columbia continued to offer anesthesia services for obstetrics and emergency surgery, while redirecting the rest of its staff to the expanded airway management role and the creation of the largest novel intensive care unit in the NYP system. Tremendous innovation and optimization were necessary in the face of material, physical, and staffing constraints.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/statistics & numerical data , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Health Resources/organization & administration , Hospitals , Pandemics , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Humans , New York City , Operating Rooms/organization & administration
2.
Anesth Analg ; 132(5): 1182-1190, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a public health crisis that disrupted normal patterns of health care in the New York City metropolitan area. In preparation for a large influx of critically ill patients, operating rooms (ORs) at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center (NYP-Columbia) were converted into a novel intensive care unit (ICU) area, the operating room intensive care unit (ORICU). METHODS: Twenty-three ORs were converted into an 82-bed ORICU. Adaptations to the OR environment permitted the delivery of standard critical care therapies. Nonintensive-care-trained staff were educated on the basics of critical care and deployed in a hybrid staffing model. Anesthesia machines were repurposed as critical care ventilators, with accommodations to ensure reliable function and patient safety. To compare ORICU survivorship to outcomes in more traditional environments, we performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of all patients cared for in the ORICU, censoring data at the time of ORICU closure. We hypothesized that age, sex, and obesity may have influenced the risk of death. Thus, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) for death using Cox proportional hazard regression models with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) as covariables and, separately, using older age (65 years and older) adjusted for sex and BMI. RESULTS: The ORICU cared for 133 patients from March 24 to May 14, 2020. Patients were transferred to the ORICU from other ICUs, inpatient wards, the emergency department, and other institutions. Patients remained in the ORICU until either transfer to another unit or death. As the hospital patient load decreased, patients were transferred out of the ORICU. This process was completed on May 14, 2020. At time of data censoring, 55 (41.4%) of patients had died. The estimated probability of survival 30 days after admission was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.69). Age was significantly associated with increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI, 1.03-1.08, P < .001 for a 1-year increase in age). Patients who were ≥65 years were an estimated 3.17 times more likely to die than younger patients (95% CI, 1.78-5.63; P < .001) when adjusting for sex and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of critically ill COVID-19 patients were cared for in the ORICU, which substantially increased ICU capacity at NYP-Columbia. The estimated ORICU survival rate at 30 days was comparable to other reported rates, suggesting this was an effective approach to manage the influx of critically ill COVID-19 patients during a time of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Operating Rooms/trends , Organization and Administration , Survival Rate/trends , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Crit Care ; 62: 172-175, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988303

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created an enormous health crisis and this spring New York City had a severe outbreak that pushed health and critical care resources to the limit. A lack of adequate space for mechanically ventilated patients induced our hospital to convert operating rooms into critical care areas (OR-ICU). A large number of COVID-19 will develop acute kidney injury that requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). We included 116 patients with COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilation and were cared for in our OR-ICU. At 90 days and at discharge 35 patients died (30.2%). RRT was required by 45 of the 116 patients (38.8%) and 18 of these 45 patients (40%) compared to 17 with no RRT (23.9%, ns) died during hospitalization and after 90 days. Only two of the 27 patients who required RRT and survived required RRT at discharge and 90 days. When defining renal recovery as a discharge serum creatinine within 150% of baseline, 68 of 78 survivors showed renal recovery (87.2%). Survival was similar to previous reports of patients with severe COVID-19 for patients cared for in provisional ICUs compared to standard ICUs. Most patients with severe COVID-19 and AKI are likely to recover full renal function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Lancet ; 395(10239): 1763-1770, 2020 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 40 000 patients with COVID-19 have been hospitalised in New York City (NY, USA) as of April 28, 2020. Data on the epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in this setting are needed. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study took place at two NewYork-Presbyterian hospitals affiliated with Columbia University Irving Medical Center in northern Manhattan. We prospectively identified adult patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to both hospitals from March 2 to April 1, 2020, who were diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and were critically ill with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, and collected clinical, biomarker, and treatment data. The primary outcome was the rate of in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes included frequency and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, frequency of vasopressor use and renal replacement therapy, and time to in-hospital clinical deterioration following admission. The relation between clinical risk factors, biomarkers, and in-hospital mortality was modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. Follow-up time was right-censored on April 28, 2020 so that each patient had at least 28 days of observation. FINDINGS: Between March 2 and April 1, 2020, 1150 adults were admitted to both hospitals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, of which 257 (22%) were critically ill. The median age of patients was 62 years (IQR 51-72), 171 (67%) were men. 212 (82%) patients had at least one chronic illness, the most common of which were hypertension (162 [63%]) and diabetes (92 [36%]). 119 (46%) patients had obesity. As of April 28, 2020, 101 (39%) patients had died and 94 (37%) remained hospitalised. 203 (79%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 18 days (IQR 9-28), 170 (66%) of 257 patients received vasopressors and 79 (31%) received renal replacement therapy. The median time to in-hospital deterioration was 3 days (IQR 1-6). In the multivariable Cox model, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·31 [1·09-1·57] per 10-year increase), chronic cardiac disease (aHR 1·76 [1·08-2·86]), chronic pulmonary disease (aHR 2·94 [1·48-5·84]), higher concentrations of interleukin-6 (aHR 1·11 [95%CI 1·02-1·20] per decile increase), and higher concentrations of D-dimer (aHR 1·10 [1·01-1·19] per decile increase) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. INTERPRETATION: Critical illness among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in New York City is common and associated with a high frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation, extrapulmonary organ dysfunction, and substantial in-hospital mortality. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, and the Columbia University Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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