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1.
Capjournal ; - (30):28-32, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1567468

ABSTRACT

Astronomers for Planet Earth (A4E) is a global collective, whose main goal is to communicate the fragility of our planet from an astronomical perspective. A4E works hard to equally engage with astronomers and educators worldwide, by encouraging the communities to reduce emissions and providing a space to collaborate and share resources. These actions have led to increased sustainability and the incorporation of climate change lessons and activities into teaching and outreach. With the global shift to online communication due to Covid-19, Astronomers for Planet Earth has utilised digital tools in the form of online conferences and seminars, high-impact journal articles, webinars, social media, and video production to engage its audience and grow a membership of around 1300 astronomers in 70 countries around the world. Our article addresses the importance of communicating the climate crisis from an astronomical perspective and explores the successes and challenges of our group's virtual communication with the astronomy community and the general public thus far.

2.
International Journal of Developmental Disabilities ; : 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1429122
3.
IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC) ; 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1395949

ABSTRACT

Pandemic measures such as social distancing and contact tracing can be enhanced by rapidly integrating dynamic location data and demographic data. Projecting billions of longitude and latitude locations onto hundreds of thousands of highly irregular demographic census block polygons is computationally challenging in both research and deployment contexts. This paper describes two approaches labeled "simple" and "fast". The simple approach can be implemented in any scripting language (Matlab/Octave, Python, Julia, R) and is easily integrated and customized to a variety of research goals. This simple approach uses a novel combination of hierarchy, sparse bounding boxes, polygon crossing-number, vectorization, and parallel processing to achieve 100,000,000+ projections per second on 100 servers. The simple approach is compact, does not increase data storage requirements, and is applicable to any country or region. The fast approach exploits the thread, vector, and memory optimizations that are possible using a low-level language (C++) and achieves similar performance on a single server. This paper details these approaches with the goal of enabling the broader community to quickly integrate location and demographic data.

4.
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1):150-150, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1326646
5.
Revue du Praticien ; 71(4):359, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282971
6.
Revue du Praticien ; 71(3):239-244, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279130
7.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):135-136, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250916

ABSTRACT

Background: We previously showed that β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (rNHC) and its orally bioavailable prodrug, molnupiravir, acts as a broad-spectrum antiviral against coronaviruses in vitro and in vivo through lethal mutagenesis. Molnupiravir is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there are concerns that rNHC could be metabolized to dNHC and cause mutations in host cells. We examined the in vitro antiviral and mammalian cell mutagenic activity of three different nucleoside/base analogs, rNHC, favipiravir, and ribavirin, on SARS-CoV-2. We further examined the in vitro genotoxicity of a panel of antiviral nucleotide/nucleoside analogs, including rNHC, using a modified HPRT gene mutation assay. Methods: A549-hACE2 cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of nucleoside analogs. After 48 hours, the supernatants were collected and viral RNA was extracted. We constructed multiplexed-Primer ID libraries from viral RNA and sequenced them using MiSeq. HPRT knockout assays were performed using CHO-K1 cells treated with a panel of nucleotide/nucleoside analogs for 32 days. After 6-thioguanine selection, resistant cell colonies were counted as a measure of HPRT knockout mutations in host cells, and HPRT mRNA was sequenced from selected colonies. Results: rNHC showed dose-dependent antiviral and mutagenic effects against SAR-CoV-2 in vitro. In the 10 μM group, we found 7-fold and 14-fold increases in the overall substitution rate and the C to U mutation rate, respectively. The HPRT assay showed an rNHC dose-dependent increase in the number of resistant colonies with HPRT gene mutations. Other analogs showed no significant increase in the number of 6-thioG resistant colonies except for a slight increase with favipiravir (Fig 1a). Most colonies had missense substitutions or frame-shift deletions within HPRT mRNA, with most being distinct. Conclusion: rNHC showed a dose-dependent inhibition and mutagenic effect of SAR-CoV-2 in vitro. However, rNHC would be expected to be metabolized into the deoxynucleotide pool (by host RNR), resulting in DNA mutation of dividing mammalian cells. We demonstrated such mutagenic potential in a simple mammalian cell detection scheme. Molnupiravir has considerable potential as an orally bioavailable direct acting antiviral against SARS-CoV2 early in infection, especially in high risk patients. However, clinical use should be carefully considered in light of its potential mutagenic effects on the host.

9.
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1 SUPPL 1):150, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1194011

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Caring for critically ill children with known or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections requires significant changes to usual pediatric intensive care unit operations related to infection control policies and frequent evolution of clinical care practice. We hypothesized that patients with known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 would more often experience delays in timely antibiotic administration. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study including all children with suspected sepsis admitted to our tertiary PICU from March 16 through June 18, 2020. Suspected sepsis was defined by an order for a broadspectrum antibiotic and blood culture. Children with known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 were defined by admission to the Pediatric Special Treatment Unit (PSTU), an isolation unit within the PICU dedicated to care of SARS-CoV-2 patients. The primary outcome of median time to antibiotic administration was compared using the Mann-Whitney-U test. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of antibiotics administered within 1 hour of the order and sepsis pathway utilization. Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of secondary outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 155 sepsis episodes were evaluated, including 14 with known/suspected SARS-CoV-2 and 141 with non-SARS-CoV-2 sepsis. Median time to antibiotic administration was 70.5 minutes in known/suspected SARSCoV- 2 versus 103 minutes in non-SARS-CoV-2 sepsis (NS). Secondary outcomes were also not different between groups. Known/suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients received 36% of new antibiotics within 60 minutes as compared to 46% of non-SARS-CoV-2 patients. Pathway utilization was 29% in known/suspected SARS-CoV-2 and 23% in non-SARSCoV- 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant operational changes enacted to care for SARS-CoV-2 patients, time to antibiotic administration and utilization of the sepsis pathway were no different than in non-SARS-CoV-2 patients with suspected sepsis. Operational challenges may have been overcome by a staffing model that emphasized attending physicians as well as a higher nurse to patient ratio for this population.

10.
Revue du Praticien ; 70(10):1066, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141050
12.
European Respiratory Journal ; 56, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1007179

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective treatment for people with chronic respiratory disease, but is delivered to <5% of eligible individuals. Due to COVID-19 remote rehabilitation models may be critical for future delivery of services. Aims: To compare the efficacy of home-based telerehabilitation (TR) and centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in people with chronic respiratory disease. Methods: Assessor blinded, multi-centre RCT, powered for equivalence. Participants were randomised to centre-based PR or home-based TR. Both programs were 2 sessions/week for 8 weeks. Telerehabilitation used a stationary cycle and group videoconferencing to enable social interaction and real time monitoring. The primary outcome was change in chronic respiratory disease questionnaire dyspnea domain (CRQ-D) at end rehabilitation, with a pre-specified equivalence margin of 2.5 points. Results: We randomised 142 participants to PR (n=72) orTR (n=72). Both groups had clinically important improvements in CRQ-D following rehabilitation (TR mean (95%CI) 4 (2 to 5) vs PR 5 (3 to 7)), however equivalence of TR was not confirmed (mean difference between groups (MD) -1 point (-3 to 1)), with similar findings at 12 month followup (MD -1 point (-4 to 1)). The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) was equivalent at end rehabilitation (MD -6 metres (-26 to 15) and at 12 months superiority of TR could not be excluded (MD 14 metres (-10 to 38). The proportion of participants who completed >70% of prescribed sessions was high (84% TR vs 79% PR). Conclusions: Home-based TR achieved clinically important gains in health-related quality of life, but equivalence to centre-based PR was not confirmed.

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