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1.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334729

ABSTRACT

We recently published a preliminary assessment of the activity of a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, stenoparib, also known as 2X-121, which inhibits viral replication by affecting pathways of the host. Here we show that stenoparib effectively inhibits a SARS-CoV-2 wt (BavPat1/2020) strain and four additional variant strains;alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351), delta (B.1.617.2) and gamma (P.1) in vitro, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) estimates of 4.1 μM, 8.5 μM, 24.1 μM, 8.2 μM and 13.6 μM, respectively. A separate experiment focusing on a combination of 10 μM stenoparib and 0.5 μM remdesivir, an antiviral drug, resulted in over 80% inhibition of the alpha (B.1.1.7) variant, which is substantially greater than the effect achieved with either drug alone, suggesting at least additive effects from combining the different mechanisms of activity of stenoparib and remdesivir.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in social isolation and reports of insomnia. However, reports of changes in sleep duration and associated factors are few. METHODS: Data were from an online survey of adults recruited via social media that included a question asking whether the respondent slept less or more after the onset of the pandemic. Analyses determined the association between changes in sleep duration and self reported sociodemographic and occupational information;beliefs about COVID-19;changes in sleep patterns;and responses pertaining to loneliness, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: There were 5,175 respondents;53.9% had a change in sleep duration. 17.1% slept less and 36.7% slept more. Sleeping more was related to greater education, being single/divorced/separated, unemployed or a student. Being retired, divorced/separated or a homemaker, and living in the Mountain or Central time zones were associated with less sleep. Beliefs that COVID-19 would result in personal adverse consequences was associated with both more and less sleep. However, the strongest associations with both more and less sleep were seen with depression, anxiety, and loneliness with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.92 ( 95% CI 1.67-2.21) for sleeping more and loneliness to 5.29 ( 95% CI 4.1-6.7) for sleeping less and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in sleep duration since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were highly prevalent among social media users and were associated with several sociodemographic factors and beliefs that COVID-19 would have adverse personal impacts. However, the strongest associations occurred with worse mental health suggesting that improvements may occur with better sleep.

3.
Respirology ; 27(SUPPL 1):67, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816631

ABSTRACT

Introduction/Aim: Fewer exacerbations of chronic lung disease during the COVID-19 pandemic may be due to the introduction of measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission and the associated lower prevalence of other respiratory viruses. Our aim was to determine the acceptability of continuing with (COVID-19) infection control measures to lower future exacerbation risk. Methods: Adults with chronic lung disease in Australia were asked via an online survey to specify the infection control measures and policies that should continue, during the flu season or at all times, once most of the population have received the COVID-19 vaccine. Pre-specified thresholds: general support for measure: ≥66% of respondents;absence of significant support: ≤33%;meaningful difference between lung disease groups: ≥10%. Results: 137 people (asthma = 29, bronchiectasis = 29, COPD = 58, ILD = 21) from all Australian states and territories participated. Mean (SD) MRC breathlessness score was 2.4(1.0) and 75% were Female. 94% and 85% reported COVID-19 (86% two doses) and flu vaccination respectively. The table summarizes all survey responses. Responses were generally consistent across lung disease groups, except those with bronchiectasis were more supportive of continuation of face coverings on public transport (66%) and people with asthma would continue to physically distance outdoors (69%). People with ILD did not support (30%) face coverings outdoors during flu season but were supportive (75%) of healthcare staff wearing masks. People with bronchiectasis (24%) did not support a policy of physically distancing outdoors for everyone at all times. Conclusion: Adults with chronic lung diseases in Australia are supportive of physically distancing indoors and hand hygiene as measures to reduce exacerbations. There was lack of support for widespread continuation of face coverings but policies for use on public transport during the flu season were acceptable. Avoidance of busy places and friends/ family who are unwell with colds/flu are strategies they will adopt when majority of the population are vaccinated for COVID-19. (Figure Presented).

4.
J Aging Health ; : 8982643221086065, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1794141

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To examine anxiety disorders in aging Black adults. Methods: Using nationally representative data from the National Survey of American Life, we estimated lifetime/12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth Edition anxiety disorders in Black men and women, age 50+ (N = 1561). Disorder-specific persistence and severity, functional impairment, and mental health service utilization were investigated using multivariate regressions. Results: Black men and women who met criteria for anxiety disorders (lifetime prevalence=12.4%/18.3% in men/women) also demonstrated persistent disorders (percent meeting criteria = 40.3%-61.2%). Those with a 12-month anxiety disorder (6.2%/10.5% of men/women) typically reported severe task interference (38.3%-85.7%). Those with any 12-month anxiety disorder, compared to those without, experienced greater impairment in days out of role, work, family burden, cognition and, in women, mobility (p's < .05). Only 47.0%/65.2% of Black men/women with any lifetime anxiety disorder used mental health services. Discussion: Despite low prevalence, older Blacks with anxiety disorders experience substantial mental health burden in middle age and later.

6.
Non-conventional in English | NTIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-753807

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An Evening with NASA Scientists and Engineers is an outreach program for senior living communities, where participants learn from and interact with a scientist or engineer in a virtual setting. Participants learn about NASA science and engineering through a behind-the-scenes look from the people who work at NASA. The program focuses on both the stories behind the discoveries and the stories behind the people.The audience tunes in to the events via the NASA Zoom Webinar platform, where they have the opportunity to ask questions throughout the approximately 30-minute program. By bringing the audience into the conversation, we build rapport and thus improve their connection with NASA.Overview: An Evening with NASA Scientists and Engineers began in September 2020 when we identified a need for outreach to this particular demographic, as senior living communities had been hit especially hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. The program covers a wide range of topics, including heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary science, Earth science, planetary defense, and more, depending on what is topically appropriate at the time, and occurs on a roughly monthly basis.Each interactive presentation is between 20-25 minutes with 5-10 minutes of dedicated Q&A. Future dates and topics may change depending on new developments to NASA missions and stories.Audience: As of December 2021, we have four regularly attending senior living communities, spanning the East Coast from New Hampshire to Florida, with each joining the overall program at various stages of its development. The ability to reach many different senior living communities is crucial so that a diversity of people may benefit from this program.The audience consists of seniors with varying experience and comprehension levels – some are very familiar with the sciences while others are simply curious to learn more. Residents tune in to each event from their individual rooms or from their larger community rooms.RiverWoods Exeter. The RiverWoods Exeter community was our initial audience who acted as our “guinea pig” to see how this program might be implemented and to work out any major issues. They are located in Exeter, NH but also have two additional campuses in Durham, NH and Manchester, NH, that joined us a few months into the program.Culpepper Garden. Our second community to join the program was Culpepper Garden, a senior living community in Arlington, VA that provides both independent and assisted living housing to low-income seniors.Edinburgh Square. Our third community, Edinburgh Square, connected with us after hearing about the program through Culpepper Garden. Edinburgh Square is an HUD-subsidized retirement community in Roanoke, VA that houses both seniors and those living with disabilities.Moonstruck Astronomy Club. The Moonstruck Astronomy Club consists of residents from the On Top of the World retirement community in Ocala, FL and was the latest senior living community to join us.NASA Zoom Webinar: An Evening with NASAScientists and Engineers reaches numerous senior living communities through live presentations that we host using the NASA Zoom Webinar virtual platform. Participants are typically already familiar with the Zoom platform which enables a lower barrier to entry.A recording of each talk is added to a designated video playlist on the NASA STEM YouTube channel so that audiences worldwide may view them [1]. These recordings began with our April 1, 2021 presentation, as this was when NASA Zoom Webinar wasimplemented, thus enabling us to record each talk.Metrics: We record attendance numbers from the senior living communities for each event as well as those from YouTube views after the presentation recording is posted online. Depending on which communities tune in, typical attendance numbers are between 60-100 people. RiverWoods Exeter has the most regularly attending residents, with an average of 55 attendees per event. As of December 2021, we have hosted fourteen events, nine of which were recorded and posted to our designated NASA STEM YouTube Cha nel playlist. The nine recordings combined have roughly 4,000 YouTube views thus far, with specific videos seeing higher view counts around launch dates (e.g. NASA’s DART mission) and trending topics (e.g. JWST). A list of speakers, topics, and links to presentation recordings is shown in Table 1. Future Program Expansion: Thus far, we have been adding communities on an individual basis. To make this process more streamlined, we are looking into working with senior living community networks and organizations such as LeadingAge [2]. In this manner, we will be able to reach more communities while also making it easier to send and receive relevant information.

7.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-331128

ABSTRACT

Genomic epidemiology has proven successful for real-time and retrospective monitoring of small and large-scale outbreaks. Here, we report two genomic sequencing and analysis strategies for rapidturnaround or high-throughput processing of metagenomic samples. The rapid-turnaround method was designed to provide a quick phylogenetic snapshot of samples at the heart of active outbreaks, and has a total turnaround time of <48 hours from raw sample to analyzed data. The high-throughput method was designed for semiretrospective data analysis, and is both cost effective and highly scalable. Though these methods were developed and utilized for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic response in Arizona, U.S, and we envision their use for infectious disease epidemiology in the 21st Century.

8.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S117-S118, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746756

ABSTRACT

Background. There is significant global concern that the COVID-19 pandemic may negatively impact tuberculosis (TB) control. This is a descriptive analysis of TB evaluations and diagnosis during 2019 (pre COVID-19 period) and 2020 (COVID-19 period) at the largest safety net hospital in Los Angeles County (LAC+USC Medical Center). Methods. The medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020 were identified through laboratory and electronic medical records. We included all patients with ≥ 1 sputum positive result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture and reviewed their Xpert MTB/RIF MTB PCR. Results. Table 1 shows summary of results. During the COVID-19 period, the number of patients evaluated for pulmonary TB decreased by 64% compared to the previous year (Figure 1). The proportion of patients with culture-confirmed TB disease however, was nearly identical (P=0.913) (Table 1). Sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positivity increased 52% to 64% during COVID-19 (P=0.324) and disease severity as measured by chest radiograph, was significantly higher during the COVID-19 period (P = 0.031) (Figure 2). Trend of sputum AFB smear and culture samples collected from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020. Summary of results of patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020 at LAC+USC Medical Center. Results of two-sample test for proportions of 2019 vs 2020 for cavitary lesions, extent of disease, and sputum positive AFB smear microscopy. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that when compared to the previous year, the number of pulmonary TB evaluations decreased by 64% during the COVID period. Whereas the proportion of patients diagnosed with TB disease was similar, TB patients during the COVID-19 period had more advanced disease at diagnosis, as measured by sputum smear AFB microscopy and disease severity on chest radiograph (P=0.031). These data suggest potentially consequential interruptions and delays in pulmonary TB diagnosis during the COVID-19 period.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S288, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746622

ABSTRACT

Background. Tissue donors are evaluated for communicable disease in order to minimize the risk of transmission to recipients. Although there are data suggesting SARS-CoV-2 viremia across a wide spectrum of illness, prevalence in deceased tissue donors and the potential for transplant transmission are unknown. Methods. Eight tissue banks participated in a retrospective analysis of samples from eligible deceased tissue donors from Oct 2019 through June 2020, one participant in Canada and the remainder located in the United States. All four Census regions of the continental US and all major racial-ethnic groups were represented. EDTA or sodium citrate plasma aliquots were tested in singlicate with the Research Use Only Procleix SARS-CoV-2 Assay on the Procleix Panther System, which uses transcription-mediated nucleic acid amplification (TMA) technology for detection of the SARSCoV-2 RNA. Plasma (or if unavailable, serum) aliquots were sent to Grifols for an alternate SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification (NAT) test to verify reactivity and also sent for antibody testing using the emergency use authorization Ortho VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total test. The VITROS assay uses immunometric technology for qualitative measurement of total antibody (IgG, IgA and IgM) to SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of donors with confirmed RNAemia (i.e., presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma or serum) and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Results. Of 3,455 donor samples with valid final results, 26 (0.76%) were initially positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA;of these, 3 were confirmed by alternate NAT. Of donor samples collected in 2019 0.00% (95% CI: 0.00%,0.43%) were confirmed RNAemic, while of those collected in 2020, 0.12% (0.04%,0.34%) were confirmed RNAemic. One of 26 initial positive, and none of the three samples confirmed by alternate NAT, tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies by serology. Infectivity studies are pending on one sample with sufficient available volume. Conclusion. The rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in deceased tissue donors is approximately 1 per 1,000, and it is unknown whether this RNAemia reflects the presence of infectious virus. Given these results, the risk of transmission through tissue is most likely to be low.

11.
AIDS Behav ; 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706377

ABSTRACT

We examined PrEP use, condomless anal sex (CAS), and PrEP adherence among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending sexual health clinics in Wales, UK. In addition, we explored the association between the introduction of measures to control transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on these outcomes. We conducted an ecological momentary assessment study of individuals in receipt of PrEP in Wales. Participants used an electronic medication cap to record PrEP use and completed weekly sexual behaviour surveys. We defined adherence to daily PrEP as the percentage of CAS episodes covered by daily PrEP (preceded by ≥ 3 days of PrEP and followed by ≥ 2 days). Sixty participants were recruited between September 2019 and January 2020. PrEP use data prior to the introduction of control measures were available over 5785 person-days (88%) and following their introduction 7537 person-days (80%). Data on CAS episodes were available for 5559 (85%) and 7354 (78%) person-days prior to and following control measures respectively. Prior to the introduction of control measures, PrEP was taken on 3791/5785 (66%) days, there were CAS episodes on 506/5559 (9%) days, and 207/406 (51%) of CAS episodes were covered by an adequate amount of daily PrEP. The introduction of pandemic-related control measures was associated with a reduction in PrEP use (OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.20-0.95), CAS (OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.17-0.69), and PrEP adherence (RR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.34-0.89) and this may have implications for the health and wellbeing of PrEP users and, in addition to disruption across sexual health services, may contribute to wider threats across the HIV prevention cascade.

12.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-328527

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated clinical benefit in cases of mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection, substantially reducing the risk for hospitalization and severe disease1-4. Treatment generally requires the administration of high doses of these mAbs with limited efficacy in preventing disease complications or mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients5. Here we report the development and evaluation of Fc-optimized anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs with superior potency to prevent or treat COVID-19 disease. In several animal models of COVID-19 disease6,7, we demonstrate that selective engagement of activating FcgammaRs results in improved efficacy in both preventing and treating disease-induced weight loss and mortality, significantly reducing the dose required to confer full protection upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge and treatment of pre-infected animals. Our results highlight the importance of FcgammaR pathways in driving antibody-mediated antiviral immunity, while excluding any pathogenic or disease-enhancing effects of FcgammaR engagement of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies upon infection. These findings have important implications for the development of Fc-engineered mAbs with optimal Fc effector function and improved clinical efficacy against COVID-19 disease.

13.
International Journal of Workplace Health Management ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1684992

ABSTRACT

Purpose The health and well-being of healthcare staff came into focus during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as already strained workforces responded to new and additional challenges. Organisational support services made efforts to adapt staff support provision. However, most literature and recommendations are centred on surveys of medical and clinical staff. The present study included staff across clinical and non-clinical workforces within a mental health trust over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic to date, and aimed to understand workforces' access to and experiences of organisational support. Design/methodology/approach The current study was a qualitative one using convenience and purposive sampling. Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted using a topic guide. Reflexive thematic analysis was used in a phenomenological framework to analyse data. Findings 35 staff, broadly representative of the trust workforce, were recruited. Six global themes summarised the experiences of staff in relation to work practices, personal well-being and support access over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: COVID-19 disease, interpersonal relationships, individual considerations, change, working environment and support. Practical implications The findings from the study have implications for organisational support provisions for healthcare workers and the dissemination of these services. Originality/value Acknowledging the multi-various experiences of different workforces within National Healthcare Service organisations and how these change over time will facilitate innovative changes to staff support provision.

15.
Housing, Care and Support ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1566123

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the challenges of conducting research with homelessness services frontline workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: Between 2015 and 2019, the research team surveyed frontline staff in three cities about their psychosocial stressors and needs. In 2020, the authors replicated the previous study and expanded data collection to seven cities across Canada to determine the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the well-being of frontline staff. This report describes how the authors adapted the research methodologies to continue work throughout the pandemic, despite various restrictions. Findings: The original studies had very high participation rates because of several methodological approaches that minimized barriers, especially in-person data collection. During the pandemic, distancing requirements precluded replication of these same methods. Research strategies that enabled staff participation during working hours, with designated time allotted for participation, was key for ensuring high participation rates, as access to technology, availability of free time and other factors frequently make online survey research a hardship for these staff. Restrictive interpretation and regional variations of COVID-19 guidelines by some research ethics boards were also a challenge to rapid and responsive data collection. Originality/value: Few studies describe the experiences of frontline workers in the homelessness sector, and quantitative reports of their experiences are particularly scant. Consequently, little is known about specific methodologies that facilitate large-scale data collection in the homelessness services sector. The present research advances the field by providing lessons learned about best practice approaches in pre and post COVID-19 front line worker contexts. A strength of this research is the well-controlled design. The authors collected data within several of the organizations that had previously participated. This fortunate baseline provided opportunity for comparison before and during the pandemic;the authors can highlight factors that might have had influence during the pandemic. © 2021, Jeannette Waegemakers Schiff, Eric Paul Weissman, Deborah Scharf, Rebecca Schiff, Stephanie Campbell, Jordan Knapp and Alana Jones.

16.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology ; 156:S114-S115, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1532445
17.
Thorax ; 76(Suppl 2):A18, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1505824

ABSTRACT

S22 Table 1Number of patients achieving minimal clinically important differences in CRQ and HADS following Virtual Pulmonary Rehabilitation (VPR) or Face-to-Face pulmonary rehabilitation (VPR)Outcomes VPR n (%) F2F n (%) p value (Chi-square test) CRQ-Dyspnoea 32 (54) 30 (55) 0.974 CRQ-Fatigue 30 (50) 34 (62) 0.203 CRQ-Emotion 23 (38) 29 (53) 0.121 CRQ-Mastery 24 (40) 34 (62) 0.019 HADS-Anxiety 17 (33) 24 (44) 0.214 HADS-Depression 12 (23) 27 (50) 0.004 ConclusionsF2F PR provided larger improvements in outcomes and a greater number of COPD patients achieving meaningful improvements in mastery and depression. However, the number of patients achieving clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnoea, fatigue, emotional function and anxiety with VPR demonstrates the success of transitioning to this model during the pandemic and supports the potential use of such alternative delivery models to increase access to PR.

18.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-291823

ABSTRACT

Genomic epidemiology has proven successful for real-time and retrospective monitoring of small and large-scale outbreaks. Here, we report two genomic sequencing and analysis strategies for rapidturnaround or high-throughput processing of metagenomic samples. The rapid-turnaround method was designed to provide a quick phylogenetic snapshot of samples at the heart of active outbreaks, and has a total turnaround time of <48 hours from raw sample to analyzed data. The high-throughput method was designed for semiretrospective data analysis, and is both cost effective and highly scalable. Though these methods were developed and utilized for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic response in Arizona, U.S, and we envision their use for infectious disease epidemiology in the 21st Century.

19.
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1483755

ABSTRACT

Many currently available hardware implementations of the unsupervised self-organizing feature map (SOFM) algorithm utilize CMOS-only circuits that often compromise key behaviors of the SOFM algorithm due to complexity. We propose a neuromorphic architecture harnessing the unique properties of FeFETs and gated-RRAM for in-memory computing to implement the SOFM algorithm. The FeFET-based synapse, organized in a novel circuit, is able to compute the input-weight Euclidean error in memory via the saturation drain current. The self-decaying states of the gated-RRAM allow for a self-decaying neighborhood and learning rate implementation to allow for convergence and lifelong learning. This novel architecture is able to successfully cluster benchmarks (RGB colors and MNIST handwritten digits) and real-life datasets such as COVID-19 patient chest x-rays completely unsupervised. The architecture also demonstrates a significant amount of robustness to device variability and damaged neurons. Additionally, the proposed architecture is completely parallelized and provides a power efficient platform for implementing the SOFM algorithm. Author

20.
Chest ; 160(4):A568-A569, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1458053

ABSTRACT

TOPIC: Chest Infections TYPE: Original Investigations PURPOSE: Severe COVID-19 infections have been associated with alterations in blood eosinophil counts and elevated blood interleukin (IL)-5 levels [1,2]. The aim of this study was to explore whether eosinophils and IL-5 receptors are observed in post-mortem lung tissue from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining (major basic protein [MBP], eosinophil-derived neurotoxin [EDN], interleukin-5 receptor alpha [IL-5Rα] + neutrophil elastase duplex, IL-5Rα + tryptase duplex, and basophils [2D7]) were performed on post-mortem lung tissue samples from 10 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, 5 patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia, and 5 patients without pneumonia. RESULTS: Low to moderate numbers of eosinophils were identified in H&E-stained samples of post-mortem lung tissue from patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. There was also moderate to marked immunohistochemical expression of IL-5Rα in both pneumonia groups, and some IL-5Rα–expressing cells also expressed neutrophil elastase. IL-5Rα expression did not generally colocalize with tryptase expression, but rare colocalization was also observed in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophils and eosinophil activation products are present in COVID-19 lung disease, suggesting that eosinophils may play a role in the pathogenesis of viral pneumonias. Co-expression of IL-5Rα and neutrophil elastase suggests that, within pathological contexts including viral pneumonia, IL-5Ra-dependent processes may influence neutrophil function. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Eosinophil-depleting therapies such as benralizumab may be potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19 disease and other viral pneumonias. REFERENCEs 1. Lucas C, Wong P, Klein J, et al. Longitudinal analyses reveal immunological misfiring in severe COVID-19. Nature. 2020;584(7821):463–9. 2. Rodriguez L, Pekkarinen PT, Lakshmikanth T, et al. Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19. Cell Rep Med. 2020;1(5):100078. DISCLOSURES: Employee relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 7.5 years Added 04/30/2021 by Jennifer Cann, source=Web Response, value=stock grants No relevant relationships by David Chain, source=Web Response Employee relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 15/06/2020 Added 04/30/2021 by Ron Chen, source=Web Response, value=Salary No relevant relationships by Karma Dacosta, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Adrian Freeman, source=Web Response Employee relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 1996 to date Added 04/29/2021 by Andrew Jones, source=Web Response, value=Salary Stock Owner relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 1996 to date Added 04/29/2021 by Andrew Jones, source=Web Response, value=Stock Owner Employee relationship with astrazeneca Please note: current Added 04/30/2021 by Rohit Katial, source=Web Response, value=Salary Employee relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: July 2019-present Added 04/29/2021 by Allen McAlexander, source=Web Response, value=Salary Employee relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: Jul 1999 to present Added 04/29/2021 by Christopher McCrae, source=Web Response, value=Salary Employee relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: Jul 1999 to present Added 04/29/2021 by Christopher McCrae, source=Web Response, value=Ownership interest No relevant relationships by Hitesh Sanganee, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by WEIGUANG ZHAO, source=Web Response

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