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1.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198881

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite numerous efforts to describe COVID-19's immunological landscape, there is still a gap in our understanding of the virus's infections after-effects, especially in the recovered patients. This would be important to understand as we now have huge number of global populations infected by the SARS-CoV-2 as well as variables inclusive of VOCs, reinfections, and vaccination breakthroughs. Furthermore, single-cell transcriptome alone is often insufficient to understand the complex human host immune landscape underlying differential disease severity and clinical outcome. Method(s): By combining single-cell multi-omics (Whole Transcriptome Analysis plus Antibody-seq) and machine learning-based analysis, we aim to better understand the functional aspects of cellular and immunological heterogeneity in the COVID-19 positive, recovered and the healthy individuals. Result(s): Based on single-cell transcriptome and surface marker study of 163,197 cells (124,726 cells after data QC) from the 33 individuals (healthy=4, COVID-19 positive=16, and COVID-19 recovered=13), we observed a reduced MHC Class-I-mediated antigen presentation and dysregulated MHC Class-II-mediated antigen presentation in the COVID-19 patients, with restoration of the process in the recovered individuals. B-cell maturation process was also impaired in the positive and the recovered individuals. Importantly, we discovered that a subset of the naive T-cells from the healthy individuals were absent from the recovered individuals, suggesting a post-infection inflammatory stage. Both COVID-19 positive patients and the recovered individuals exhibited a CD40-CD40LG-mediated inflammatory response in the monocytes and T-cell subsets. T-cells, NK-cells, and monocyte-mediated elevation of immunological, stress and antiviral responses were also seen in the COVID-19 positive and the recovered individuals, along with an abnormal T-cell activation, inflammatory response, and faster cellular transition of T cell subtypes in the COVID-19 patients. Importantly, above immune findings were used for a Bayesian network model, which significantly revealed FOS, CXCL8, IL1beta, CST3, PSAP, CD45 and CD74 as COVID-19 severity predictors. Discussion(s): In conclusion, COVID-19 recovered individuals exhibited a hyper-activated inflammatory response with the loss of B cell maturation, suggesting an impeded post-infection stage, necessitating further research to delineate the dynamic immune response associated with the COVID-19. To our knowledge this is first multi-omic study trying to understand the differential and dynamic immune response underlying the sample subtypes. Copyright © 2022 Chattopadhyay, Khare, Kumar, Mishra, Anand, Maurya, Gupta, Sahni, Gupta, Wadhwa, Yadav, Devi, Tardalkar, Joshi, Sethi and Pandey.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1):47, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increased the utilisation of healthcare services. Such utilization could lead to higher out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and catastrophic health expenditures (CHE). We estimated OOPE and the proportion of households that experienced CHE by conducting a cross-sectional survey of 1200 randomly selected confirmed COVID-19 cases. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by telephonic interviews of 1200 randomly selected COVID-19 patients who tested positive between 1 March and 31 August 2021. We collected household-level information on demographics, income, expenditure, insurance coverage, direct medical and non-medical costs incurred toward COVID-19 management. We estimated the proportion of CHE with a 95% confidence interval. We examined the association of household characteristics;COVID-19 cases, severity, and hospitalisation status with CHE. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to ascertain the effects of variables of interest on the likelihood that households face CHE due to COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean (95%CI) OOPE per household was INR 122,221 (92,744-1,51,698) [US$1,643 (1,247-2,040)]. Among households, 61.7% faced OOPE, and 25.8% experienced CHE due to COVID-19. The odds of facing CHE were high among the households;with a family member over 65 years [OR = 2.89 (2.03-4.12)], with a comorbid individual [OR = 3.38 (2.41-4.75)], in the lowest income quintile [OR = 1.82 (1.12-2.95)], any member visited private hospital [OR = 11.85 (7.68-18.27)]. The odds of having CHE in a household who have received insurance claims [OR = 5.8 (2.81- 11.97)] were high. Households with one and more than one severe COVID-19 increased the risk of CHE by more than two-times and three-times respectively [AOR = 2.67 (1.27-5.58);AOR = 3.18 (1.49-6.81)]. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 severity increases household OOPE and CHE. Strengthening the public healthcare and health insurance with higher health financing is indispensable for financial risk protection of households with severe COVID-19 from CHE.

3.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Conference: 11th Congress of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, WFPICCS ; 23(11 Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a new entity and needs data to study its evolution. To describe the clinicolaboratory profile, intensive care needs, and outcome of MIS-C during the first and second waves. METHOD(S): Retrospective analysis of 122 children with MIS-C admitted to Pediatric emergency and PICU of a tertiary-teaching hospital during first and second wave of Covid-19. RESULT(S): Median (IQR) age was 7 (4-10) years with 67% boys. Common manifestations included fever (99%), abdominal symptoms (81%), rash (66%), conjunctival injection (65%), oral mucosa and respiratory involvement (43% each). Elevated CRP (97%), D-dimer (89%), procalcitonin (80%), IL-6 (78%), ferritin (56%), NT-pro- BNP (84%), and positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody (81%) were common laboratory abnormalities. Cardiovascular manifestations included myocardial dysfunction (55%), shock (48%), and coronary artery changes (10%). The treatment included intensive care support (57%), non-invasive (33%) and invasive (18%) ventilation, vasoactive drugs (47%), IVIG (83%), steroids (85%), and aspirin (87%). Mortality was 5% (n=6). Duration of hospital stay was 5 (3-8) days. During second wave, significantly higher proportion had positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody, contact with COVID-19 case, and oral mucosal changes;lower markers of inflammation (CRP, procalcitonin, ferritin, and IL-6);lower rates of shock, myocardial dysfunction, and coronary artery changes;lesser need of PICU, vasoactive drugs, and IVIG;and shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION(S): MIS-C is febrile multisystemic disease characterized by hyperinflammation, cardiovascular involvement, relationship to SARS-CoV-2, and good outcome with immunomodulation and intensive care. During the second wave, the severity of illness, degree of inflammation, and intensive care needs was lesser.

4.
Inhalation Toxicology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The air quality index (AQI) forecasts are one of the most important aspects of improving urban public health and enabling society to remain sustainable despite the effects of air pollution. Pollution control organizations deploy ground stations to collect information about air pollutants. Establishing a ground station all-around is not feasible due to the cost involved. As an alternative, satellite-captured data can be utilized for AQI assessment. This study explores the changes in AQI during various COVID-19 lockdowns in India utilizing satellite data. Furthermore, it addresses the effectiveness of state-of-the-art deep learning and statistical approaches for forecasting short-term AQI.

5.
Vaccine ; 41(2):486-495, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2184268

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSupplementary immunization activities (SIAs) aim to interrupt measles transmission by reaching susceptible children, including children who have not received the recommended two routine doses of MCV before the SIA. However, both strategies may miss the same children if vaccine doses are highly correlated. How well SIAs reach children missed by routine immunization is a key metric in assessing the added value of SIAs.MethodsChildren aged 9 months to younger than 5 years were enrolled in cross-sectional household serosurveys conducted in five districts in India following the 2017–2019 measles-rubella (MR) SIA. History of measles containing vaccine (MCV) through routine services or SIA was obtained from documents and verbal recall. Receipt of a first or second MCV dose during the SIA was categorized as "added value” of the SIA in reaching un- and under-vaccinated children.ResultsA total of 1,675 children were enrolled in these post-SIA surveys. The percentage of children receiving a 1st or 2nd dose through the SIA ranged from 12.8% in Thiruvananthapuram District to 48.6% in Dibrugarh District. Although the number of zero-dose children prior to the SIA was small in most sites, the proportion reached by the SIA ranged from 45.8% in Thiruvananthapuram District to 94.9% in Dibrugarh District. Fewer than 7% of children remained measles zero-dose after the MR SIA (range: 1.1–6.4%) compared to up to 28% before the SIA (range: 7.3–28.1%).DiscussionWe demonstrated the MR SIA provided considerable added value in terms of measles vaccination coverage, although there was variability across districts due to differences in routine and SIA coverage, and which children were reached by the SIA. Metrics evaluating the added value of an SIA can help to inform the design of vaccination strategies to better reach zero-dose or undervaccinated children.

6.
Journal of Molecular Structure ; 1275, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2181708

ABSTRACT

A novel Schiff base (SB) ligand, abbreviated as HDMPM, resulted from the condensation of 2-amino-4 -phenyl-5-methyl thiazole and 4-(diethylamino)salicyaldehyde, and its metal complexes with [Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)] ions in high yield were formed. The physico-chemical techniques such as elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and electronic absorption studies were utilized to characterize the synthesized compounds. The studied compounds were examined for their possible anticancer activity against a number of human cancerous cell lines, including A549 lung carcinoma, HepG2 liver cancer, HCT116 colorectal cancer, and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines, with dox-orubicin serving as the standard. The study revealed that Zn(II) complex showed significant activity to inhibit growth of HepG2, MCF7, A549, and HCT116 cell lines by a factor of 88, 70, 75, and 70, respec-tively, when compared to untreated. In addition, the reported compounds were optimized by employing Gaussian16 program package with B3LYP functional incorporating dispersion with two different basis sets (LanL2DZ and 6-31G(d,p)). Moreover, Autodock Vina software was used to assess the biological effective-ness of the studied compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (PDB ID: 7T9K).(c) 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

7.
Progress in Additive Manufacturing ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175384

ABSTRACT

The exponential rise of healthcare problems like human aging and road traffic accidents have developed an intrinsic challenge to biomedical sectors concerning the arrangement of patient-specific biomedical products. The additively manufactured implants and scaffolds have captured global attention over the last two decades concerning their printing quality and ease of manufacturing. However, the inherent challenges associated with additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, namely process selection, level of complexity, printing speed, resolution, biomaterial choice, and consumed energy, still pose several limitations on their use. Recently, the whole world has faced severe supply chain disruptions of personal protective equipment and basic medical facilities due to a respiratory disease known as the coronavirus (COVID-19). In this regard, local and global AM manufacturers have printed biomedical products to level the supply-demand equation. The potential of AM technologies for biomedical applications before, during, and post-COVID-19 pandemic alongwith its relation to the industry 4.0 (I4.0) concept is discussed herein. Moreover, additive manufacturing technologies are studied in this work concerning their working principle, classification, materials, processing variables, output responses, merits, challenges, and biomedical applications. Different factors affecting the sustainable performance in AM for biomedical applications are discussed with more focus on the comparative examination of consumed energy to determine which process is more sustainable. The recent advancements in the field like 4D printing and 5D printing are useful for the successful implementation of I4.0 to combat any future pandemic scenario. The potential of hybrid printing, multi-materials printing, and printing with smart materials, has been identified as hot research areas to produce scaffolds and implants in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and orthopedic implants.

8.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 38(Supplement 1):S90, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2175130

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was followed by large number of mucormycosis cases. Indiscriminate use of immunosuppressive drugs, underlying diseases like diabetes cancers, or autoimmune diseases was thought to be the cause. However, the mortality was not as high as that seen in non-COVID mucormycosis. Aims & Objectives: To study the detailed characteristics of T-cells for evaluating the underlying differences in the T-cell immune dysfunction in post-COVID and non-COVID mucor patients. Material(s) and Method(s): The study included histopathologically confirmed cases of mucor (13 post-COVID, 13 non-COVID) and 15 healthy individuals (HI). Expression of T-cell activation (CD44, HLADR, CD69, CD38) and exhaustion (CTLA, PD-1, LAG-3 and TIM-3) markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. Result(s): All cases showed significant depletion of T-cells compared to HI. Both post-COVID and non-COVID groups showed increased activation and exhaustion as compared to HI. Non-COVID mucor group showed significant activation of CD4 + T cells for HLADR and CD38 ((P = 0.025, P = 0.054) and marked T-cell exhaustion in form of co-expression of PD-1 and LAG-3 on both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in comparison to post-COVID patients (P = 0.002, P = 0.001). Additionally, co-expression of PD-1 & CTLA and LAG-3 & TIM-3 on CD8 + T cells was statistically significant in non- COVID mucor patients ((P = 0.031, P = 0.003). Conclusion(s): Immunosuppression in non-COVID mucor showed pronounced exhaustion of T-cells in comparison to post-COVID mucor cases implicating T-cell immune dysfunction is much more severe in non-COVID mucor which are in a state of continuous activation followed by extreme exhaustion leading to poorer outcome.

9.
7th International Conference on Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, ERCICA 2022 ; 928:577-586, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173910

ABSTRACT

As the range of COVID-19 sufferers increased, many nations imposed a complete lockdown. As a result, it caused a devastating international financial disaster everywhere in the world. Technical and essential evaluation are two methods for determining future worth. Different strategies use statistics from outside the market, such as monetary conditions, hobby rates, and geopolitical events, to forecast future charge. We use technical evaluation forecasts potential charge using buying and selling statistics from the market, which includes charge and buying and selling volume, whereas other strategies use statistics from outside the market, such as monetary conditions, hobby rates, and geopolitical events. The objective of this project is to give technical and fundamental analysis using machine learning approaches. In business, AI is broadly used to remedy and optimize various problems, including marketing, credit score card fraud detection, algorithmic trading, patron service, portfolio management, and product advice primarily based totally on patron needs. Furthermore, the technology due used in this finished greater to optimize the proposed set of rules to attain the maximum correct result primarily based totally on the current valuation of cryptocurrency. This project is to use machine learning techniques to provide technical analysis. The incorporation of new technology into financial institutions has the potential to propel cryptocurrency values to time highs. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

10.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(7):5965-5970, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169693

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) has been a challenge and burden in clinical practice in the tropics. COVID-19 cases that present with fever alone may be difficult to distinguish from other AUFIs in the tropics. Malaria, Scrub Typhus and Dengue fever are among the most common endemic diseases in the tropics. With the availability of rapid sero-diagnostic tests for these infections, it has been observed that patient's samples frequently show seropositivity for two or more infections posing challenges in clinical diagnosis and treatment. This study was performed to determine the false-positive serological test (seropositivity) in COVID-19 patients for Scrub typhus, Dengue and Malaria. Material(s) and Method(s): The present study was a type of observational prospective study conducted from April 2020 to November 2020. A total of 574 febrile patients which were positive in Real time PCR for Covid-19, were included in the study. Result(s): Dengue IgM antibody positive for 124, Scrub typhus IgM antibody positive in 107 and no positive in malarial test, were found. Conclusion(s): Our experience suggests that false-positive in the serological test should be interpreted with caution and requires surveillance. There should be a continuous follow-up of these patients during COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of recognising false positive serological results in patients with COVID-19, especially in the resource-constrained tropical settings. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

11.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 10(1):1335-1345, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168813

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well knowledge that various viral illnesses may interfere with a man's ability to father children. Through the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, which is highly concentrated in testicular tissue, the corona virus illness known as COVID-19 may cause harm to several organs. On the other hand, there is a paucity of data about the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sperm, as well as the virus's influence on spermatogenesis and the capacity for fertility. We intended to look into whether or not COVID-19 guys' sperm contained SARS-CoV-2 as well as examine how COVID-19 affected the overall quality of the sperm and the degree to which it's DNA was fragmented. Material(s) and Method(s): The survey was conducted between May 2022 to October 2022, with the participation of 40 male COVID-19 patients who were between the ages of 19 and 45 and enrolled at the RSDKS, Government Medical College, Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh. We tested each sample of sperm with a real-time reverse transcriptase and found no abnormalities. At the time of the initial sample, which took place during COVID-19, a comprehensive examination of the sperm was carried out. This analysis included the calculation of the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index. After 74 days had passed since the first sample, we were able to get the second specimen and carried out the aforementioned tests once again. Result(s): All of the sperm samples that were examined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) came back negative for SARS-CoV-2. These samples were taken during the first and second sampling. The initial sample had considerably lower levels of fructose, semen volume, vitality, total motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, percentage of normal morphology, and cytoplasmic droplet percentage than the subsequent samples. On the other hand, the agglutination of the semen, the percentage of head defects, the DNA Fragmentation Index, the liquefaction time, the viscosity of the semen, and the number of leukocytes all rose. At the second sample, these results were inverted, but not to the level that would be considered optimal. These results all had a p-value less than 0.05, meaning they were statistically significant. As a result, COVID-19 has a detrimental impact on the characteristics of the sperm, including the sperm DNA fragmentation index. Conclusion(s): The quality of the semen remained low up until the second time it was sampled, despite the fact that we were unable to discover SARS-CoV-2 in the sample. It is recommended that assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics and sperm banking facilities evaluate the quality of the sperm produced by males infected with COVID-19 and exclude men who have a history of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 until the men's sperm quality recovers to normal. Copyright © 2023 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

12.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 14:155-162, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206833

ABSTRACT

There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the consumption habits of street foods, despite the fact that individuals in low- and middle-income nations rely heavily on SF for their diet. An online survey employing a structured questionnaire was used to perform a cross-sectional study on 200 street food consumers in the Prayagraj/Allahabad District. Customers were approached and requested to participate who went to the randomly sampled Street Foods vendors and stores. The majority of consumers were male, between the ages of, and had at least a 10+2 and a Bachelor's degree. The primary findings showed that 91.5% of these consumers virtually always ate street food. In Prayagraj/Allahabad District, the most frequently consumed items were various types of street food products. chaat, bun, samosa, kachauri/khasta, fritters, south and north Indian chow mein, non-vegetarian, eggs, and dried goods. Consumers answered that they would prefer to buy healthier street foods (91.5%) if they were accessible. In the Prayagraj/Allahabad District, there is a sizable market for consumers of street food. Although street food is the majority of what is eaten, if healthier options are offered, people would be eager to buy them. Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

13.
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management ; 17(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2205247

ABSTRACT

AIMThis study was undertaken to assess the concerns of the parents of dental profession students during the COVID-19 pandemic.MATERIALS AND METHODSIn this survey a structured questionnaire was sent to all the participants through Google Fforms. The questionnaire was designed into five sections. The complete questionnaire consisted of 19 questions. In the first section, participants needed to answer demographic information (five Questions). The second part of the questionnaire (four questions) assessed anxiety of parents and the third part was related to their professional career (three questions), the fourth part asked about effective disinfection practices (four questions) in the college premises and hostel, while the fifth part questioned about learning mode (three questions) during COVID-19 pandemic.RESULTSThe total response rate in this present survey was 78.02%. 52.2% of parents stated that they are really anxious and have disturbed mental health. Significant percentages (more than 80%) of the parents were worried about their son/daughter's career advancement and dental profession but, 87.7% of the parents were not ready to change their son/daughter 's profession. 53.2 % of the parents believed that their wards were unable to learn efficiently without attending college and 44.9 % of the parents were not satisfied in online assessment during COVID-19 pandemic.CONCLUSIONWithin the limitations of this present study, it was concluded that majority of the parents expressed fear and anxiety about their children's profession. Regarding the mode of learning, half of the parents expressed concern that their wards were unable to learn efficiently without attending college and clinics and also, they were unsatisfied with online assessment.

15.
2022 IEEE Global Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies, GlobConPT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152455

ABSTRACT

Generation of photo-realistic fake content using Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based Generative Adversarial Networks has not only engulfed media, facial recognition or social networks, but is now rapidly surging ahead in the realm of medical imaging and is further facilitated by worldwide Covid-19 outbreak. Medical Deepfake pertains to application of AI-triggered deepfake technology on to medical modalities like Computed Tomography (CT) scan, X-Ray, Ultrasound etc. Owing to its high degree of privacy and sensitivity, any threats originating from exposed vulnerabilities, or, attacks on patients medical imagery takes an extremely threatening stance, either devastating the patients remaining lifespan, or resulting in grave financial frauds while satiating corrupt business motives. These tampering attacks, involve either insertion or removal of certain disease conditions, tumors in/from the modality under analysis. This paper implements and demonstrates a practical, lightweight technique which aims to accelerate deepfake detection for biomedical imagery by detecting malignant tumors injected in modalities of healthy patients. The developed technique makes use of convolutional reservoir networks (CoRN), which enable ensemble feature extraction and results in improved classification metrics. We further corroborate its effectiveness while working with a miniscule (< 100) set of images and illustrate the extent of generalization attained with different forms of the same medical imagery. © 2022 IEEE.

16.
5th International Conference on Innovative Computing and Communication, ICICC 2022 ; 492:33-49, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148656

ABSTRACT

Deep learning has immense prospective in many real-life practices, one of them being object detection. Object detection based on deep learning has shown encouraging results. Since December 2019, deadly virus named CORONA or COVID-19 started to engulf the whole planet with its impact. One of the easiest and simplest ways to protect oneself from this virus is by wearing a mask. In order to detect whether a person is wearing mask or not, we propose a model to detect various face masks that include cloth masks, N-95 masks, medical masks, and no mask. The proposed model consists of two major components—annotating, labeling images and detection of face masks. A new dataset has been created by combining images from Medical Masks Dataset and Google Images, and then these images were annotated according to the mentioned categories. A comparative study has been presented among different object detection algorithms along with a proposed detection algorithm. Results show that YOLOv5 performs best in the detection of face masks when compared to other detection models. It achieved a mAP of 0.51 in just 0.24 h on our dataset. On comparing YOLOv5 to the proposed model, we found that our model achieved a precision of 0.9 as compared to 0.88 of YOLOv5. Among existing approaches YOLOv5 performed the best with precision of 0.88. The model proposed in the work results in precision of 0.90 outperforming all existing models. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

17.
Geo-economic Perspectives in the Global Environment ; : 88-100, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164046
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13):49-58, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162910

ABSTRACT

Since 2003, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported implementation and maintenance of health information systems for HIV/AIDS and related diseases, such as tuberculosis, in numerous countries. As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, several countries conducted rapid assessments and enhanced existing PEPFAR-funded HIV and national health information systems to support COVID-19 surveillance data collection, analysis, visualization, and reporting needs. We describe efforts at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and CDC country offices that enhanced existing health information systems in support COVID-19 pandemic response. We describe CDC activities in Haiti as an illustration of efforts in PEPFAR countries. We also describe how investments used to establish and maintain standards-based health information systems in resource-constrained settings can have positive effects on health systems beyond their original scope.

19.
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology ; 8(3):388-392, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145773

ABSTRACT

Background: The study aims to compare the effect of long-term exposure to digital devices during covid-19 and before the lockdown. Objective: To assess the impact of the lockdown on digital device usage & consequently, the ocular surface health implication related to digital eye strain. Materials and Methods: An open online survey was distributed to people via social media platforms (email, Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, Telegram, and so on). Result: Females participated more than males, with 58.3%. With 30.76%, the >50 age group was found to participate, and at 13-31 years of age, participation was found to be more with 60%. Most individuals use digital devices for education with 44.2%. Before the lockdown, the duration of digital device usage is not there between 4 to 6 hours, but during the lockdown, it has been increased by 35% due to working from home. 76.3% of participants feel restless due to prolonged use of digital devices. Conclusion: It was discovered that before the lockdown the duration of digital device usage is not there between 4 to 6 hrs but during the lockdown, due to working from home it has increased and headache as an asymptomatic symptom is noticed more during prolonged use of digital devices in lockdown. © 2022 Innovative Publication, All rights reserved.

20.
5th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Technologies, CCICT 2022 ; : 358-364, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136137

ABSTRACT

This review aims to examine the writing in order to assist specialists and scientists in better understanding and dealing with the impact of Coronavirus on the tourism sector. The study examines the situations and questions created as a result of the pandemic to see why and how Coronavirus - 19 has impacted people's lives. As a result, the report identifies the qualities, establishments, and preconceptions that the travel industry should question, as well as the activities that should be made to take a step ahead. The study also looks into the considerable loss the travel sector is experiencing throughout the Coronavirus stages and proposes a solution based on the Salesforce platform to address some of the issues. This provides an overview of how the Coronavirus affects the travel business, as well as recommendations for the industry, examining and settling some of them with 'Travel Log Analysis utilizing Salesforce'. © 2022 IEEE.

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