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1.
Curr Pollut Rep ; : 1-11, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175374

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) pose a significant risk to human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently revised healthy thresholds for both pollutants. The formation and evolution of PM2.5 and O3 are however governed by complex physical and multiphase chemical processes, and therefore, it is extremely challenging to mitigate both pollutants simultaneously. Here, we review mechanisms and discuss the science-informed pathways for effective and simultaneous mitigation of PM2.5 and O3. Recent Findings: Global warming has led to a general increase in biogenic emissions, which can enhance the formation of O3 and secondary organic aerosols. Reductions in anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown reduced PM2.5; however, O3 was enhanced in several polluted regions. This was attributed to more intense sunlight due to low aerosol loading and non-linear response of O3 to NO x . Such contrasting physical and chemical interactions hinder the formulation of a clear roadmap for clean air over such regions. Summary: Atmospheric chemistry including the role of biogenic emissions, aerosol-radiation interactions, boundary layer, and regional-scale transport are the key aspects that need to be carefully considered in the formulation of mitigation pathways. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the chemical effects of the emission reductions, changes in photolytic rates and boundary layer due to perturbation of solar radiation, and the effect of meteorological/seasonal changes are needed on a regional basis. Statistical emulators and machine learning approaches can aid the cumbersome process of multi-sector multi-species source attribution.

2.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 27(S1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2092640

ABSTRACT

Marketers infuse in various media platforms through advertisements for aligning with consumer behavior. The Consumer behavior has shifted drastically during pandemic. Current research focuses on the effects of television, Radio, e-Newspapers, e-Magazines and Social Media advertisements on consumers post Covid-19. Online survey of 300 students pursuing management courses at UG & PG level in Bihar & Jharkhand collected through questionnaire consisting of 11 items having seven-point Likert scales was conducted. Cronbach alpha, exploratory factor analysis and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for data analysis. The results reveal the consumer behaviour stages being affected by TV advertisements. Also it is evident that e-Newspapers and Social Media impact the creation of awareness, interest and conviction among consumers. The results reveal that e-Magazines and TV are effective media influencing purchase and post-purchase behaviour of consumers. This study can be used by marketers in choosing the appropriate media platforms for boosting the advertisements objectivity.

3.
Mycoses ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was followed by large number of mucormycosis cases. Indiscriminate use of immunosuppressive drugs, underlying diseases such as diabetes, cancers, or autoimmune diseases was thought to be the cause. However, the mortality was not as high as that seen in non-COVID mucormycosis. OBJECTIVE: To study the detailed characteristics of T-cells for evaluating the underlying differences in the T-cell immune dysfunction in post-COVID and non-COVID mucor patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study included histopathologically confirmed cases of mucor (13 post-COVID, 13 non-COVID) and 15 healthy individuals (HI). Expression of T-cell activation (CD44, HLADR, CD69, CD38) and exhaustion (CTLA, PD-1, LAG-3 and TIM-3) markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: All cases showed significant depletion of T-cells compared to HI. Both post-COVID and non-COVID groups showed increased activation and exhaustion as compared to HI. Non-COVID mucor group showed significant activation of CD4+ T cells for HLADR and CD38 (p = .025, p = .054) and marked T-cell exhaustion in form of expression of LAG-3 on both CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in comparison with post-COVID patients (p = .011, p = .036). Additionally, co-expression of PD-1 & LAG-3 and LAG-3 & TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells was statistically significant in non-COVID mucor patients (p = .016, p = .027). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppression in non-COVID mucor showed pronounced exhaustion of T-cells in comparison to post-COVID mucor cases implicating T-cell immune dysfunction is much more severe in non-COVID mucor which are in a state of continuous activation followed by extreme exhaustion leading to poorer outcome.

4.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; 30: 100401, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086091

ABSTRACT

This works examines the entire spectrum of 'Environmental Surveillance (EnvSurv)' of SARS-CoV-2 fragments i.e. the questions, quests, and conquests of the technology since early year 2020. The prime focus of the present work to document the journey with achieved objectives and remaining ambitions associated with the technology. Despite the EnvSurv may be regarded as the techniques, which rather achieved more than expected, will it win the struggle for its existence or lose its way once the pandemic and fear associated with it completely fades. Pertaining to this discussions, major researched topics were investigated, followed by enlisting of ten bullets of the past experiences along with corresponding challenges, and finally key targets for the techniques are enlisted. The article targets to be a simple guide of the journey of EnvSur in terms of its effectiveness for treatment, infectivity, monitoring & estimation (TIME) till date.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D106-D110, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062938

ABSTRACT

The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA, https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena), maintained at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) provides freely accessible services, both for deposition of, and access to, open nucleotide sequencing data. Open scientific data are of paramount importance to the scientific community and contribute daily to the acceleration of scientific advance. Here, we outline the major updates to ENA's services and infrastructure that have been delivered over the past year.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Nucleotides/genetics , Software , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Internet , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Nucleotides/classification
6.
Comput Electr Eng ; 104: 108405, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041640

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an evolving respiratory transmittable disease, and it holds all daily activity worldwide as a global pandemic. It appeared in the city of Wuhan (China) in November 2019 and slowly started spreading to the rest of the world. The number of cases keeps increasing drastically, leading to a shortage of medical resources and testing kids worldwide. As the physicians facing this problem, several scientists and specialists in Artificial Intelligent (AI) are rendering their support to healthcare professionals in the early detection of COVID-19 using chest X-ray image samples to determine the level of severity at a low cost. This paper proposed Genetic Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Network (GDCNN) architecture that includes Huddle Particle Swarm Optimization as an alternative to Gradient descent. Huddle PSO performs better when clubbed with GDCNN architecture. Based on publicly available datasets, trained chest X-ray images are used to predict and identify various pneumonia diseases. The proposed model performed better with an accuracy of 97.23%, a sensitivity of 98.62%, specificity of 97.0%, and precision of 93.0%. The proposed model act as a tool for earlier detection of COVID-19. In the future, we plan to apply the proposed model for the larger dataset and to predict various lung diseases.

7.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 129848, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004219

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been considered as a promising approach for population-wide surveillance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many studies have successfully quantified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA concentration in wastewater (CRNA). However, the correlation between the CRNA and the COVID-19 clinically confirmed cases in the corresponding wastewater catchments varies and the impacts of environmental and other factors remain unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to identify the correlation between CRNA and various types of clinically confirmed case numbers, including prevalence and incidence rates. The impacts of environmental factors, WBE sampling design, and epidemiological conditions on the correlation were assessed for the same datasets. The systematic review identified 133 correlation coefficients, ranging from -0.38 to 0.99. The correlation between CRNA and new cases (either daily new, weekly new, or future cases) was stronger than that of active cases and cumulative cases. These correlation coefficients were potentially affected by environmental and epidemiological conditions and WBE sampling design. Larger variations of air temperature and clinical testing coverage, and the increase of catchment size showed strong negative impacts on the correlation between CRNA and COVID-19 case numbers. Interestingly, the sampling technique had negligible impact although increasing the sampling frequency improved the correlation. These findings highlight the importance of viral shedding dynamics, in-sewer decay, WBE sampling design and clinical testing on the accurate back-estimation of COVID-19 case numbers through the WBE approach.

8.
Current pollution reports ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989878

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) pose a significant risk to human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently revised healthy thresholds for both pollutants. The formation and evolution of PM2.5 and O3 are however governed by complex physical and multiphase chemical processes, and therefore, it is extremely challenging to mitigate both pollutants simultaneously. Here, we review mechanisms and discuss the science-informed pathways for effective and simultaneous mitigation of PM2.5 and O3. Recent Findings Global warming has led to a general increase in biogenic emissions, which can enhance the formation of O3 and secondary organic aerosols. Reductions in anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown reduced PM2.5;however, O3 was enhanced in several polluted regions. This was attributed to more intense sunlight due to low aerosol loading and non-linear response of O3 to NOx. Such contrasting physical and chemical interactions hinder the formulation of a clear roadmap for clean air over such regions. Summary Atmospheric chemistry including the role of biogenic emissions, aerosol-radiation interactions, boundary layer, and regional-scale transport are the key aspects that need to be carefully considered in the formulation of mitigation pathways. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the chemical effects of the emission reductions, changes in photolytic rates and boundary layer due to perturbation of solar radiation, and the effect of meteorological/seasonal changes are needed on a regional basis. Statistical emulators and machine learning approaches can aid the cumbersome process of multi-sector multi-species source attribution.

9.
South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management ; : 23220937221113996, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1968529

ABSTRACT

Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance Company Limited ((in short, Kotak Life) is one of India?s fastest-growing insurance companies in India. It is well regarded as a reputed, admired and sustainable company that believes in and practices the value of being ?people-friendly?. Hence, the company invests significant time, effort and money in developing its employees. In this interview, we explore an HR practitioner?s perspective on human capital development and its evolvement in the COVID-19 context in India. Specifically, we interviewed the Senior Vice President Human Resources and Head Organisation Capability and Development and, DE&I of Kotak Life to understand the human capital development process at Kotak Life Insurance. Given that this interview was conducted during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India, we also explored how the human capital development process was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and, thus, appropriately modified through the medium of digitalisation.

10.
Gondwana Res ; 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966585

ABSTRACT

The high rate of transmission of the COVID-19 virus has brought various types of disinfection techniques, for instance, hydrogen peroxide vaporization, microwave generating steam, UV radiation, and dry heating, etc. to prevent the further transmission of the virus. The chemical-based techniques are predominantly used for sanitization of hands, buildings, hospitals, etc. However, these chemicals may affect the health of humans and the environment in unexplored aspects. Furthermore, the UV lamp-based radiation sanitization technique had been applied but has not gained larger acceptability owing to its limitation to penetrate different materials. Therefore, the optical properties of materials are especially important for the utilization of UV light on such disinfection applications. The germicidal or microorganism inactivation application of UV-C has only been in-use in a closed chamber, due to its harmful effect on human skin and the eye. However, it is essential to optimize UV for its use in an open environment for a larger benefit to mitigate the virus spread. In view of this, far UV-C (222nm) based technology has emerged as a potential option for the sanitization in open areas and degradation of microorganisms present in aerosol during the working conditions. Hence, in the present review article, efforts have been made to evaluate the technical aspects of UV (under the different spectrum and wavelength ranges) and the control of COVID 19 virus spread in the atmosphere including the possibilities of the human body sanitization in working condition.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119757, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936392

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based genomic surveillance can identify a huge majority of variants shed by the infected individuals within a population, which goes beyond genomic surveillance based on clinical samples (i.e., symptomatic patients only). We analyzed four samples to detect key mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome and track circulating variants in Ahmedabad during the first wave (Sep/Nov 2020) and before the second wave (in Feb 2021) of COVID-19 in India. The analysis identified a total of 34 mutations in the spike protein across samples categorized into 23 types. The spike protein mutations were linked to the VOC-21APR-02; B.1.617.2 lineage (Delta variant) with 57% frequency in wastewater samples of Feb 2021. The key spike protein mutations were T19R, L452R, T478K, D614G, & P681R and deletions at 22029 (6 bp), 28248 (6 bp), & 28271 (1 bp). Interestingly, these mutations were not seen in the samples from Sep/Nov 2020 but did appear before the massive second wave of COVID-19 cases, which in India started in early April 2021. In fact, genetic traces of the Delta variant were found in samples of early Feb 2021, more than a month before the first clinically confirmed case of this in March 2021 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The present work describes the circulating of SARS-CoV-2 variants in Ahmedabad and confirms the consequential value of wastewater surveillance for the early detection of variants of concerns (VOCs). Such monitoring must be included as a major component of future health protection systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
12.
Maedica ; 17(1):88-96, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897937

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many medical and social challenges have been noticed during lockdowns and restrictions in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. These restrictions had a profound impact on people’s lifestyle and caused psychological distress. In the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, lifestyle modifications, such as nutritional intervention and proper physical activity, are important aspects. Aims/objective:To study the effect of lockdown or self-imposed restrictions due to pandemic on glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus patients and the possible determinants, including diet, sleep, physical activity, psychological status and adherence to treatment. Materials and methods:A comparative analysis of the glycaemic status and metabolic parameters (such as random blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, weight, hypoglycaemia and lipid profile), lifestyle and psychological changes and treatment adherence was done in 103 patients. Retrospective pre-lockdown data was collected from the clinical records and interviews (offline, online or by telephone). Prospective lockdown/restrictions data was questionnaire based. Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data and ANOVA for continuous data. Results:The majority of patients were in the age group of 40-60 years. Most of them reported disturbance in their adherence to proper diet, physical activity, sleep and medication schedule. These differences of opinion were statistically significant (p <0.00001). There were more patients who reported stress and anxiety and this difference was statistically significant. Deterioration of glycaemic control and lipid profile was highly significant (p <0.00001). Mean body weight was increased by 6.67% at the end of the study and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion:In patients with diabetes, pandemic-related restrictions had a profound impact on the glycaemic control, metabolic status, adherence to medication and quality of life. This highlights the need for a multidisciplinary approach in managing patients with diabetes, focusing on various issues, including prevalence of poor diet control, physical inactivity and psychological stress, via various awareness and counselling programs, preferably through online mode.

13.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 19(3): e170122200314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The process of drug discovery and development is expensive, complex, timeconsuming, and risky. There are different techniques involved in the process of drug development, including random screening, computational approaches, molecular manipulation, and serendipitous research. Among these methods, the computational approach is considered an efficient strategy to accelerate and economize the drug discovery process. OBJECTIVE: This approach is mainly applied in various phases of the drug discovery process, including target identification, target validation, lead identification, and lead optimization. Due to the increase in the availability of information regarding various biological targets of different disease states, computational approaches such as molecular docking, de novo design, molecular similarity calculation, virtual screening, pharmacophore-based modeling, and pharmacophore mapping have been applied extensively. METHODS: Various drug molecules can be designed by applying computational tools to explore the drug candidates for the treatment of Coronavirus infection. The World Health Organization announced the coronavirus disease as COVID-19 and declared it a global pandemic on 11 February 2020. Therefore, it is thought of interest to the scientific community to apply computational methods to design and optimize the pharmacological properties of various clinically available and FDA-approved drugs such as remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, oseltamivir, ritonavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, carfilzomib, baraticinib, prulifloxacin, etc., for effective treatment of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Further, various survey reports suggest that extensive studies are carried out by various research communities to find out the safety and efficacy profile of these drug candidates. CONCLUSION: This review is focused on the study of various aspects of these drugs related to their target sites on the virus, binding interactions, physicochemical properties, etc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Chem Eng J ; 441: 135936, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814229

ABSTRACT

The global data on the temporal tracking of the COVID-19 through wastewater surveillance needs to be comparatively evaluated to generate a proper and precise understanding of the robustness, advantages, and sensitivity of the wastewater-based epidemiological (WBE) approach. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on several scientific articles pertaining to temporal variations in COVID-19 cases captured via viral RNA predictions in wastewater. This paper primarily focuses on analyzing the WBE-based temporal variation reported globally to check if the reported early warning lead-time generated through environmental surveillance is pragmatic or latent. We have compiled the geographical variations reported as lead time in various WBE reports to strike a precise correlation between COVID-19 cases and genome copies detected through wastewater surveillance, with respect to the sampling dates, separately for WASH and non-WASH countries. We highlighted sampling methods, climatic and weather conditions that significantly affected the concentration of viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in wastewater, and thus the lead time reported from the various climatic zones with diverse WASH situations were different. Our major findings are: i) WBE reports around the world are not comparable, especially in terms of gene copies detected, lag-time gained between monitored RNA peak and outbreak/peak of reported case, as well as per capita RNA concentrations; ii) Varying sanitation facility and climatic conditions that impact virus degradation rate are two major interfering features limiting the comparability of WBE results, and iii) WBE is better applicable to WASH countries having well-connected sewerage system.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 432: 128667, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788119

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for COVID-19 surveillance is largely based on the assumption of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding into sewers by infected individuals. Recent studies found that SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater (CRNA) could not be accounted by the fecal shedding alone. This study aimed to determine potential major shedding sources based on literature data of CRNA, along with the COVID-19 prevalence in the catchment area through a systematic literature review. Theoretical CRNA under a certain prevalence was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, with eight scenarios accommodating feces alone, and both feces and sputum as shedding sources. With feces alone, none of the WBE data was in the confidence interval of theoretical CRNA estimated with the mean feces shedding magnitude and probability, and 63% of CRNA in WBE reports were higher than the maximum theoretical concentration. With both sputum and feces, 91% of the WBE data were below the simulated maximum CRNA in wastewater. The inclusion of sputum as a major shedding source led to more comparable theoretical CRNA to the literature WBE data. Sputum discharging behavior of patients also resulted in great fluctuations of CRNA under a certain prevalence. Thus, sputum is a potential critical shedding source for COVID-19 WBE surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
16.
Silicon ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787263

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a dual gate dielectric modulated FET (DGDMFET) biosensor with enhanced sensitivity for covid detection. In earlier literature, the biosensors are operated using the surface interaction with the virus biomolecules that are reflected through a channel or gate. The downside of these types of sensors has limited sensitivity. In this paper, we have considered that the change in the dielectric constant due to virus proteins results in a significant shift in the threshold voltage of FET. Enhancement of sensitivity is done by using the novel dual metal gate arrangement with different work functions (higher at the source end and lower at the drain end) and the chromic oxide (Cr2O3) layer, which is carved out vertically to form nanogap. At the same time, interface charge density is maintained nearly equal to 1.0 × 1011 cm−2 at the Si-SiO2 layer. To demonstrate the proposed biosensor, electrical parameters (electron concentration, surface potential, energy band distribution, and electric field) and the absolute percentage sensitivity of threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, ON current, and transconductance are evaluated and compared with related literature. The ATLAS device simulator is used for the simulation of the proposed device.

17.
Water Res ; 218: 118451, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783834

ABSTRACT

As a cost-effective and objective population-wide surveillance tool, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been widely implemented worldwide to monitor the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA concentration in wastewater. However, viral concentrations or loads in wastewater often correlate poorly with clinical case numbers. To date, there is no reliable method to back-estimate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case numbers from SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater. This greatly limits WBE in achieving its full potential in monitoring the unfolding pandemic. The exponentially growing SARS-CoV-2 WBE dataset, on the other hand, offers an opportunity to develop data-driven models for the estimation of COVID-19 case numbers (both incidence and prevalence) and transmission dynamics (effective reproduction rate). This study developed artificial neural network (ANN) models by innovatively expanding a conventional WBE dataset to include catchment, weather, clinical testing coverage and vaccination rate. The ANN models were trained and evaluated with a comprehensive state-wide wastewater monitoring dataset from Utah, USA during May 2020 to December 2021. In diverse sewer catchments, ANN models were found to accurately estimate the COVID-19 prevalence and incidence rates, with excellent precision for prevalence rates. Also, an ANN model was developed to estimate the effective reproduction number from both wastewater data and other pertinent factors affecting viral transmission and pandemic dynamics. The established ANN model was successfully validated for its transferability to other states or countries using the WBE dataset from Wisconsin, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , RNA, Viral , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
18.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; 28: 100363, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778059

ABSTRACT

The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater systems provides a primary indication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout communities worldwide. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (dd-PCR) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) administration of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewaters provides a reliable and efficient technology for gathering secondary local-level public health data. Often the accuracy of prevalence estimation is hampered by many methodological issues connected with wastewater surveillance. Still, more studies are needed to use and create efficient approaches for deciphering the actual SARS-CoV-2 indication from noise in the specimens/samples. Nearly 39-65% of positive patients and asymptomatic carriers expel the virus through their faeces however, only ∼6% of the infected hosts eject it through their urine. COVID-19 positive patients can shed the remnants of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus within the concentrations ∼103-108 copies/L. However, it can decrease up to 102 copies/L in wastewaters due to dilution. Environmental virology and microbiology laboratories play a significant role in the identification and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) in waste and ambient waters worldwide. Virus extraction or recovery from the wastewater (However, due to lack of knowledge, established procedures, and integrated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approaches, the novel coronavirus RNA investigation for estimating current illnesses and predicting future outbreaks is insufficient and/or conducted inadequately. The present manuscript is a technical review of the various methods and factors considered during the identification of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in wastewaters and/or sludge, including tips and tricks to be taken care of during sampling, virus concentration, normalization, PCR inhibition, and trend line smoothening when compared with clinically active/positive cases.

19.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; 27: 100355, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748115

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic had taken the humankind by surprise, yet the world laid out a historical battle against all the odds. Laboratory findings have never been so rapidly made available to common public and authorities. Experimental data on COVID-19 from across the globe was directly made accessible worldwide. The second wave of the pandemic in India caused unprecedented havoc and it can be stated that all the knowledge of the game of transmission of COVID-19 acquired and shared was not played with right precision and preparations. Rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the second phase made us rethink if the choice of information given to the common people pertaining to the selective transmission restriction pathways with pressing concern on lethality were inadequate. Most of the governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) including the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended droplet-based and airborne transmission restrictions as the major steps to control rapid spread of the virus. While, no caution was advised for other plausible pathways like sewage, wastewater-based and non-ventilated indoor air-based transmissions, which are still unknown or not well investigated, and are equally dangerous. The main focus of this article is to analyse the past development about SARS-CoV-2 transmission pathway related recommendation(s) provided by WHO and track the trajectory to alert all the concerning stakeholders and policymakers to rethink and to collect adequate scientific data before they recommend or neglect any specific or all the possible transmission pathways to control the spread of infectious agents further.

20.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55:16, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1716787

ABSTRACT

Bihar's public healthcare system is not equipped to deal with the challenge of COVID-19. The density of testing centres is the worst for Bihar in the country, with one testing centre for a population of 110 million. Besides, it lacks in both infrastructure and human resources in the health arena and, thus, is unprepared to deal with and properly respond to the health crisis.

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