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1.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2823-2827, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 is a concerning issue among in-center hemodialysis (HD) patients. To prevent COVID-19 diffusion in our HD facility, weekly rapid nasal antigen test screening was performed for all asymptomatic patients on chronic HD. This study aimed to assess the performance of weekly rapid antigen test in detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic patients receiving HD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in HD patients who underwent rapid antigen test screening from December 2021 to March 2022. The diagnosis of COVID-19 with rapid antigen test was always confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: During the observational period, 1,748 rapid antigen tests were performed in 220 HD patients. Mean age was 68.4±14.6 years. Fifteen (8.5%) patients resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using rapid antigen tests. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed in 14 (93.3%) patients by RT-PCR. During the same period, 12 (5.4%) symptomatic patients, regularly screened with weekly rapid antigen test, resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using RT-PCR. Overall, weekly rapid antigen test screening identified 14 out of 26 (53.8%) COVID-19 cases and showed a positive predictive value of 93%. CONCLUSION: Weekly antigen test screening of asymptomatic patients on chronic HD detected around half of the COVID-19 cases in our population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Renal Dialysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the effects of COVID-19 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to describe the impact of COVID-19 on the PD population. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective observational study was conducted on 146 consecutive PD patients followed from January 2020 to March 2022 at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (18.4%) PD patients experienced 29 episodes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, corresponding to an incidence rate of 0.16 episodes/patient-year. Median age of COVID-19 patients was 60.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 50.2-66.5) years. In unvaccinated patients (n. 9), COVID-19 was always symptomatic and manifested with fever (100%) and cough (77.7%). COVID-19 caused hospital admission of three (33.3%) patients and two (22.2%) died of septic shock. COVID-19 was symptomatic in 83.3% of vaccinated subjects (n.18) and manifested with fever (61.1%) and cough (55.6%). Hospital admission occurred in 27.8% of the subjects but all were discharged home. Median SARS-CoV-2 shedding was 32 and 26 days in the unvaccinated and vaccinated groups, respectively. At the end of the follow-up, COVID-19 triggered the shift from PD to HD in two subjects without affecting the residual renal function of the remaining patients. Overall, COVID-19 caused an excess death of 22.2%. COVID-19 vaccination refusal accounted for only 1.6% in this cohort of patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 incident rate was 0.16 episodes/patient-year in the PD population. About one-third of the patients were hospitalized for severe infection. Fatal outcome occurred in two (7.4%) unvaccinated patients. A low vaccination refusal rate was observed in this population.

3.
Int J Nephrol ; 2022: 4678717, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029562

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients receiving in-center hemodialysis are extremely vulnerable to COVID-19. It is unclear if routine screening of asymptomatic hemodialysis patients is an effective strategy to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks within the dialysis unit. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent bimonthly COVID-19 rapid antigen test screening from February 15th to December 26th, 2021. Nasal rapid antigen testing was performed in all asymptomatic patients. All rapid antigen-positive tests were confirmed by RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab. Besides universal rapid antigen screening, RT-PCR testing was conducted in all symptomatic patients and contacts of COVID-19 subjects. Results: Overall, 4079 rapid antigen tests were performed in 277 hemodialysis patients on chronic hemodialysis with a mean age of 68.4 ± 14.6 years. Thirty-eight (0.9%) rapid antigen tests resulted positive. Only five (13.8%) positive-rapid antigen tests were also positive by RT-PCR testing. During the same period, 219 patients regularly screened by rapid antigen tests bimonthly underwent 442 RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs for clinical reasons. RT-PCR testing yielded a positive result in 13 (5.9%) patients. The time elapsed between PCR and the negative-rapid antigen test was 7.7 ± 4.6 days (range 1.8-13.9 days). At the end of the follow-up, 6.4% of the population on in-center hemodialysis contracted COVID-19, and routine rapid antigen tests detected only 5 out of 18 (27.7%) COVID-19 cases. No outbreaks of COVID-19 were identified within the dialysis unit. Conclusion: Bimonthly rapid antigen screening led to the early diagnosis of COVID-19 in less than one-third of cases. The short incubation period of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants makes bimonthly test screening inadequate for an early diagnosis of COVID-19. More frequent tests are probably necessary to improve the utility of COVID-19 nasal rapid antigen test in patients on hemodialysis.

4.
G Ital Nefrol ; 39(2)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801193

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Some hemodialysis patients are reluctant to undergo COVID-19 vaccination for the fear of developing adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to verify the safety of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from March 1st to April 30th, 2021. All AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. Results: Overall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54,7-76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged ≥65 years. During the observational period of 68 (IQR, 66-70) days, AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were: injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%), nausea/vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%). The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P=0.8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P=0.001). Fever (P=0.03), fatigue (P=0.02) and nausea/vomiting (P=0.03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of the vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs. Overall, vaccine-related AEs in hemodialysis patients seem to be lower than in the general population. Conclusion: The RNA-1273 vaccine was associated with the development of transient AEs after the first and second doses in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis. They were mostly local, whereas systemic AEs were more prevalent after the second dose. Overall, all AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Nausea , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting
6.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 231-240, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of within-day sCr variation serum creatinine variation is unknown in the setting of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the prognostic significance of 24-hour serum creatinine variation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective analysis was conducted in COVID-19 patients not admitted to the intensive care unit. Three groups were subdivided based on 24 hours serum creatinine variation from admission. In the stable kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation ranged from +0.05 to -0.05 mg/dL; in the decreased kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was >0.05 mg/dL; in the improved kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was <-0.05 mg/dL. RESULTS: The study population included 224 patients with a median age of 66.5 years and a predominance of males (72.3%). Within 24 hours of admission, renal function remained stable in 37.1% of the subjects, whereas it displayed improved and deteriorated patterns in 45.5% and 17.4%, respectively. Patients with decreased kidney function were older and had more severe COVID-19 symptoms than patients with stable or improved kidney function. About half of patients with decreased kidney function developed an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization. Decreased kidney function was significantly associated with AKI during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-10.8; p < 0.001) and was an independent risk factor for 30-day in-hospital mortality (HR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.1-28; p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with decreased kidney function within 24 hours of admission were at high risk of AKI and 30-day in-hospital mortality.

7.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(2): 405-410, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265550

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acid-base derangement has been poorly described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Considering the high prevalence of pneumonia and kidneys injury in COVID-19, frequent acid-base alterations are expected in patients admitted with SARS-Cov-2 infection. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of acid-base disorders in symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: The retrospective study enrolled COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena from 4 March to 20 June 2020. Baseline arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was collected in 211 patients. In subjects with multiple ABG analysis, we selected only the first measurement. A pH of less than 7.37 was categorized as acidemia and a pH of more than 7.43 was categorized as alkalemia. RESULTS: ABG analyses revealed a low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2, 70.2 ± 25.1 mmHg), oxygen saturation (SO2, 92%) and a mild reduction of PO2/FiO2 ratio (231 ± 129). Acid-base alterations were found in 79.7% of the patient. Metabolic alkalosis (33.6%) was the main alteration followed by respiratory alkalosis (30.3%), combined alkalosis (9.4%), respiratory acidosis (3.3%), metabolic acidosis (2.8%) and other compensated acid-base disturbances (3.6%). All six patients with metabolic acidosis died at the end of the follow-up. CONCLUSION: Variations of pH occurred in the majority (79.7%) of patients admitted with COVID-19. The patients experienced all the type of acid-base disorders, notably metabolic and respiratory alkalosis were the most common alterations in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Imbalance/epidemiology , Acid-Base Imbalance/virology , COVID-19/complications , Acid-Base Imbalance/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
8.
Platelets ; 31(8): 1085-1089, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733448

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency with many clinical facets, and new knowledge about its pathogenetic mechanisms is deemed necessary; among these, there are certainly coagulation disorders. In the history of medicine, autopsies and tissue sampling have played a fundamental role in order to understand the pathogenesis of emerging diseases, including infectious ones; compared to the past, histopathology can be now expanded by innovative techniques and modern technologies. For the first time in worldwide literature, we provide a detailed postmortem and biopsy report on the marked increase, up to 1 order of magnitude, of naked megakaryocyte nuclei in the bone marrow and lungs from serious COVID-19 patients. Most likely related to high interleukin-6 serum levels stimulating megakaryocytopoiesis, this phenomenon concurs to explain well the pulmonary abnormal immunothrombosis in these critically ill patients, all without molecular or electron microscopy signs of megakaryocyte infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Bone Marrow/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Bone Marrow/immunology , Bone Marrow/virology , COVID-19 , Cell Nucleus/immunology , Cell Nucleus/pathology , Cell Nucleus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Male , Megakaryocytes/immunology , Megakaryocytes/pathology , Megakaryocytes/virology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombopoiesis/immunology , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology
10.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108487, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436345

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing public health emergency and new knowledge about its immunopathogenic mechanisms is deemed necessary in the attempt to reduce the death burden, globally. For the first time in worldwide literature, we provide scientific evidence that in COVID-19 vasculitis a life-threatening escalation from type 2 T-helper immune response (humoral immunity) to type 3 hypersensitivity (immune complex disease) takes place. The subsequent deposition of immune complexes inside the vascular walls is supposed to induce a severe inflammatory state and a cytokine release syndrome, whose interleukin-6 is the key myokine, from the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Immune Complex Diseases/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Vasculitis/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigen-Antibody Complex/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Vessels/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , Blood Vessels/virology , COVID-19 , Complement C3/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immune Complex Diseases/complications , Immune Complex Diseases/virology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin M/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Th2 Cells/pathology , Th2 Cells/virology , Vasculitis/complications , Vasculitis/virology
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