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Frontiers in Energy Research ; 9:9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1365538

ABSTRACT

China's Belt and Road (B&R) initiative provides new ideas and opportunities for international cooperation. Renewable energy plays a crucial role not only in the national sustainable development framework of China and the Philippines but also in bilateral cooperation between them. However, some obstacles still need to be addressed because renewable energy cooperation between China and the Philippines has not been thoroughly and comprehensively studied to date. Based on an in-depth analysis of current renewable energy cooperation between China and the Philippines, this paper employs PESTEL analysis to fully investigate the cooperative advantages and disadvantages by considering politics (P), economy (E), society (S), technology (T), environment (E), and legislation (L) and proposes several constructive suggestions. The ultimate purpose was to design feasible schemes to ensure the sufficient utilization of renewable energy and the construction of integrated power grid systems to meet shortages of electricity supply especially in the isolated small islands in the Philippines through cooperation with China. In particular, it offers valuable advice concerning the U.S.-China trade war and COVID- 19 pandemic, outlining how cooperation in the exploitation of potential renewable energy is vital.

2.
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology ; 31(2):206-212, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1314861

ABSTRACT

Background: In early December 2019, during the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first detected in Wuhan, COVID-19 was suspected, detected, and confirmed in an increasing number of patients every day. The clinical laboratory staff have always played an important role in the laboratory diagnosis of patients. Currently, there are many research studies on the mental health of the first-line doctors or nurses managing the COVID-19 outbreak, both domestically and overseas, but data of the mental health and associated factors among the clinical laboratory staff who handle the blood or biological samples of confirmed cases and are consequently exposed to COVID-19 are limited. Methods: This cross-sectional survey-based study was performed via an online survey in a single designated hospital from April 20 to April 23, 2020 in Yiwu,China. The online survey included questions on sociodemographic and clinical variables. Totally, 45 clinical laboratory staff and 20 nonmedical health workers participated. Mental health variables were assessed via 4 Chinese versions of validated measurement tools : Zungs Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: Significant differences were observed in the SDS and SAS scores, between the clinical laboratory staff and the nonmedical health workers (P < .001, P < .003, respectively). The scores for exposure risk and neuroticism of participants were the main factors influencing both the SDS scores of the clinical laboratory staff (P = .002, P = .005, respectively), and also their SAS scores (P = .003 P = .006, respectively). Conclusions: The results showed that a significant proportion of clinical laboratory staff experienced anxiety and depression symptoms. Their scores for mental health problems, exposure risk, and neuroticism were associated with severe symptoms of depression and anxiety. Therefore, the high-risk group of the clinical laboratory staff and those individuals with higher neuroticism scores may need special attention.

3.
Chinese Science Bulletin-Chinese ; 66(4-5):475-485, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1172859

ABSTRACT

The early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic happened to be the flu season. Since some symptoms of influenza and COVID-19 are similar, symptomatic patients flocked to fever clinics and emergency departments. Meanwhile, asymptomatic COVID-19 patients attending other departments in general hospitals made things worse. Lack of knowledge of the pathogen, absence of awareness and short of personal protective equipment all posed threat to healthcare workers as well as other patients. As SARS-CoV-2 can be spread via droplets, direct contacts and potentially aerosols, the indoor air environment of hospitals, especially fever clinics, must have strict measures to prevent hospital-acquired infection. Thirty-two sensors were deployed in the Tsinghua University Affiliated Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital (mentioned as Changgung Hospital hereinafter) from January 30, 2020, in order to monitor high-resolution real-time indoor environmental parameters at its fever clinic, isolation wards and other departments. One sensor monitors and records CO2 concentration, PM2.5 mass concentration, relative humidity, temperature and illuminance every 5 minutes. Six sensors were located at the fever clinic, where all patients with fever and/or other COVID-19 related symptoms firstly attended after arriving at the hospital. The clinic has two parts, one for diagnosis and the other for quarantine. Three sensors were placed in doctor's office, nursing station and waiting area in the diagnosis part, respectively. Natural ventilation was chosen to dilute the environment, as the flowrate of outdoor airflow was abundant in Beijing's winter. Atmospheric CO2 concentration surrounding Changgung Hospital was stable, and the rise of indoor CO2 concentration was caused by human exhalation. During this pandemic, CO2 concentration can be regarded as an indicator of room ventilation condition and hospital congestion, if all the people in hospital were regarded as potential infector of SARS-CoV-2. According to the usage pattern of the fever clinic, the maximum number of patients in each functional area was set as 4 for doctor's office, 4 for nursing station and 11 for waiting area. According to the ventilation regulation of infectious disease hospital, the air change rate at fever clinics should be at least 6 h(-1). In addition, the outdoor CO2 concentration was assumed to be 400 ppm. Based on these conditions, the upper limits of indoor CO2 concentration were 902, 864 and 867 ppm for doctor's office, nursing station and waiting area at the Changgung Hospital's fever clinic, respectively. Indoor CO2 concentration exceeding these thresholds stands for poor ventilation or overcrowds. Fortunately, this didn't happen during the monitoring period and indoor CO2 concentration didn't exceed 609-711 ppm. In another word, natural ventilation was sufficient and effective in this specific case at the Changgung Hospital's fever clinic. Moreover, together with environment disinfection and personal protective measures, good ventilation condition led to no COVID-19 hospitalacquired infection. To conclude, this article introduced a real-time environmental monitoring campaign at the Changgung Hospital's fever clinic. Similar methodology can help assess ventilation conditions and risk of hospital-acquired infection at the fever clinic during and after COVID-19 pandemic. Once indoor CO2 concentration exceeds the set thresholds, areas with high infection risk can be identified rapidly and timely, so that prevention measures can be taken in time.

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