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1.
Human Reproduction Open ; 2021(4):9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1612534

ABSTRACT

STUDY QUESTION: What is the knowledge, anxiety levels and attitudes of infertile couples towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on undergoing self-funded treatment cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: In spite of a high level of awareness about COVID-19, anxiety levels were low and many participants wanted to continue fertility treatment during the pandemic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the already overburdened public health infrastructure in many of the resource-limited settings across the world. After an initial decision to suspend fertility treatments, regulatory authorities advocated phased resumptions of treatment. Owing to limited healthcare resources and the detrimental impact of COVID-19 on the economy and job losses, fertility services have been disproportionately affected. It is important to understand the perceptions of infertile couples, who are the key stakeholders in shared decision-making, especially for self-funded treatments, on the continuation of fertility treatment during the current COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among 502 participants (251 infertile couples) at a tertiary level infertility clinic between May 2020 and November 2020. The study recruitment period (6 months) coincided with the increase and peak of COVID-19 infection in India. The study included infertile couples who had attended the clinic either for assessment or fertility treatment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: An interviewer administered the questionnaire survey, which was conducted in two stages for each participant. In the first stage, knowledge about COVID-19 and anxiety levels caused by the ongoing pandemic were assessed using a validated Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) tool. Following this, all the participants were provided with a COVID-19 information pamphlet. Subsequently, in the second stage, participants were administered another questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards fertility treatment and pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The results showed that the knowledge levels and awareness about COVID-19 was high among infertile couples attending the infertility clinic. The majority of the participants were aware of the mode of spread (87.6-93.4% correct answers to different questions), common symptoms (64.1-96.2%) and the importance of preventative measures (95.6-97.4%). Most of the participants (474/502;94.4%) did not show anxiety when being assessed using GAD-7. A vast majority (96.5-99.2%) of the participants were in agreement with the need for following preventative measures for reducing the spread of COVID-19. About one-third of the participants wanted to delay the fertility treatment until the pandemic is over (166/502;33.1%). Approximately 42.2% (212/502) of the participants did not feel the need to suspend fertility treatment during the pandemic. Further analysis revealed that participants' education levels significantly influenced the desire to continue fertility treatment: participants with lower levels of education (below graduate) were less likely to continue fertility treatment (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI, 0.12-0.98). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Questionnaire-based responses could have limited the ability of the interviewer to capture the entire range of thoughts and views of the participants on the COVID pandemic and their fertility treatments. Furthermore, a language barrier was encountered for some couples for which assistance from a translator was sought. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Given the impact of infertility and the associated stigma, public health policy makers, regulatory authorities and fertility societies should consider a way to sustain the treatment options and develop appropriate guidelines to continue treatment, particularly when much of the world is experiencing the second and third waves of the COVID pandemic.

2.
26th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) ; : 28-30, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1557136

ABSTRACT

In this demo, we focus on analyzing COVID-19 related symptoms across the globe reported through tweets by building an interactive spatio-temporal visualization tool, i.e., COVID19(alpha). Using around 462 million tweets collected over a span of six months, COVID19(alpha) provides three different types of visualization tools: 1) Spatial Visualization with a focus on visualizing COVID-19 symptoms across different geographic locations;2) Temporal Visualization with a focus on visualizing the evolution of COVID-19 symptoms over time for a particular geographic location;and 3) Spatio-Temporal Visualization with a focus on combining both spatial and temporal analysis to provide comparative visualizations between two (or more) symptoms across time and space. We believe that health professionals, scientists, and policymakers will be able to leverage this interactive tool to devise better and targeted health intervention policies. Our developed interactive visualization tool is publicly available at https://bijoy-sust.github.io/Covid19/.

4.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 165(1 SUPPL):P325, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1467889

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The pandemic has been specially challenging for developing countries where simulated teaching and training is not a norm. Teaching practical skills was a daunting task with no patients to examine due to lockdowns and the risk of transmission of infection. Students, however, need to be trained in clinical skills required as part of their health care training in different subjects. An ear, nose, and throat department planned to train undergraduate students in clinical skills on a hybrid simulator using inexpensive and readily available materials. Method: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, a 1-month observational study was conducted. The medical education of seventh-semester students was examined. Students taught clinical skills with a teddy bear, glass, and balloon. Feedback and scores were given to students for work in stations during a professional examination. Results: The difficulty index of otoscopy was 23/84 (0.27), and the difficulty index of tuning fork was 2/84 (0.02). The high score index/performance index for the tuning fork test was 79/84 (94%), and the high score index for otoscopy was 37/84 (44%). In total, 28 of 84 students (33.33%) provided feedback on the training, and 18 of 28 (64.3%) students liked the innovative way of training. However, most students who answered in the affirmative stated that this was the best possible way of getting trained considering the pandemic situation. For tuning fork tests, 22 of 28 (78.6%) were confident that they would be able to transfer the skill learned on the hybrid simulator to a real-life scenario, 4 of 28 said they were not sure if they would be able to transfer the skill, and 2 of 28 students said they would not be able to. For otoscopy simulation, 11 of 28 (39.3%) were confident that they would be able to transfer the skill learned on the hybrid simulator to real-life scenarios;8 of 28 (28.6%) were not sure if they would be able to transfer the skill, while 9 of 28 (32.1%) students said they would not be able to. On a scale of 1 to 10, the average rating for the teddy bear simulation was 7.3 ± 1.7, and the average rating for the otoscopy simulation was 5.5 ± 2.4. Conclusion: Difficult times call for innovative measures. Using simple materials to create an accessible, inexpensive simulator for teaching clinical skills did help in training the students.

5.
International Arbitration Law Review ; 24(3):258-280, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1445061

ABSTRACT

The global trade and investment crumbled during the Covid-19 pandemic. Like any other state, India has adopted several strict regulatory measures to contain this global pandemic from spreading in this health emergency. These health-related regulatory measures such as national lockdown, close down of all business and trade activities except essential business activities, temporary closure of international borders, prohibition on exports, incentives to importers could potentially breach two most essential and frequently invoked provisions of any investment treaty, i.e. indirect expropriation and fair and equitable standard. Thus, it is expected that foreign investors will initiate several arbitration proceedings against India under investment treaties. This article analyses whether the police powers doctrine could offer India an effective defence to avoid paying bulky compensation. It further highlights that although the police powers rule is deeply rooted in international law, the arbitral tribunals differ on the doctrine’s content and scope. What if the police powers rule is absent in the applicable treaty? Can India still argue based on police powers? What if the measures adopted for containing Covid-19 are disproportionate to what the objectives aimed to achieve. The author has tried to analyse these pertinent issues and offer some practical solutions in this health turned economic emergency. © 2021 Thomson Reuters and Contributors.

6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407462
7.
Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing ; 14:7213-7224, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1349888

ABSTRACT

This work introduces a novel solution to measure economic activity through remote sensing for a wide range of spatial areas. We hypothesize that disturbances in human behavior caused by major life-changing events leave signatures in satellite imagery that allows devising relevant image-based indicators to estimate their impact and support decision-makers. We present a case study for the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak, which imposed severe mobility restrictions and caused worldwide disruptions, using flying airplane detection around the 30 busiest airports in Europe to quantify and analyze the lockdown's effects and postlockdown recovery. Our solution won the rapid action coronavirus earth observation (RACE) upscaling challenge, sponsored by the European Space Agency and the European Commission, and now is integrated into the RACE dashboard. This platform combines satellite data and artificial intelligence to promote a progressive and safe reopening of essential activities. Code, trained model, and data are available at https://github.com/maups/covid19-custom-script-contest.

8.
Frontiers in Education ; 6, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1346400

ABSTRACT

The disease outbreak COVID-19 pandemic impacted public health and safety and the educational systems worldwide. For fear of the further spread of diseases, most educational institutions, including Bangladesh, have postponed their face-to-face teaching. Therefore, this study explores public university student’s perceptions towards online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data had collected among students of Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh, through an online survey. The study followed a quantitative approach, where the survey technique was used as an instrument of data collection. Results showed that most students faced difficulty participating in virtual classes and could not communicate with their friends correctly during online classes. Thus, they faced challenges in online schooling, and the majority of the students preferred conventional types of learning to virtual classes and did not understand the content of virtual classes easily. The study also explored that most students did not feel comfortable in online classes. Still, considering the present pandemic situation, they decided to participate in online classes to continue schooling. Besides, the study discovered that female students showed a better view than male students regarding online classes, and urban students have more positive appreciation than rural students. Furthermore, laptop or personal computer users showed more positive perceptions towards online education than mobile users. Moreover, Broadband/Wi-Fi users have more positive perceptions than mobile network users. These findings would be an essential guideline for governments, policymakers, technology developers, and university authorities for making better policy choices in the future. © Copyright © 2021 Sarkar, Das, Rahman and Zobaer.

9.
International Journal of Migration Health and Social Care ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1337314

ABSTRACT

Purpose - The spread of COVID-19 from Wuhan to the global countries has a direct association with human mobility. Perhaps, human mobility increases the hazards of COVID-19 due to its communicable characteristic of human-to-human transmission. Thus, the volume of migrants and migration may have a significant role in the outbreaks of COVID-19 in any country. Given that India homes more than 45 crores of migrants, the present study aims to examine the linkages between migration flows and COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach - The present study has used secondary sources such as data sharing portals, census, news and media reports and Web sources. The updated COVID-19 data was retrieved from the www.covid19india.org , whereas migration rates were analysed from the D-series of census 2011. Findings - Nearly 23% of total inter-state migration occurred for the livelihood only. The numbers of cases have raised much earlier and faster in migrant's destination states than in migrant's origin states. Further, as shown in the scatterplots, that positive association between "COVID-19 and in-migration" is found to be more robust than "COVID-19 and gross-migration". On the other hand, the migrant's origin states are also experiencing a rapid increase of COVID-19 cases due to large numbers of returning migrants. These return-migration flows have created major administrative, social and public health challenges. particularly in the origin states, and as a whole in India. Originality/value - This paper has potential to help policy planners to identify the COVID-19 vulnerability of various states in respect to the migration perspectives. Moreover, it also enhances the understanding to establish the linkage between COVID-19 outbreaks and migration.

10.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277109

ABSTRACT

Background: Several months into the COVID-19 pandemic, reassessing intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, specifically with regional impact on diverse populations, should be a priority for hospitals planning for critical care resource allocation. In our study, we reviewed the impact of COVID-19 on a community hospital serving an urban region, comparing the sociodemographic distribution of ICU admissions before and during the pandemic. Methods: We executed a time sensitive analysis to see if COVID-19 ICU admissions reflect regional sociodemographic populations as well as ICU admission trends prior to the current pandemic. Collected sociodemographic variables included sex, race, ethnicity, and age of adult patients (age 18 and older) admitted to the hospital's medical and cardiac ICUs, which were converted to COVID-19 ICUs. The time period selected was 18-months, which was then dichotomized into pre-COVID-19 admissions (December 1, 2018 to March 13, 2020) and COVID-19 ICU admissions (March 14, 2020 to May 31, 2020). Variables were compared using Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon tests when appropriate. Results: During the 18-month period, 1861 patients were admitted to the aforementioned ICUs. The mean age of the 1861 patients was 62.75 + 15.57 years old, with the majority of these patients being male (52.23%), White (64.43%), and non-Hispanic/Latinx (95.75%). There were differences in racial and ethnic distribution comparing pre-COVID-19 admissions to the COVID-19 admissions. Compared to pre-COVID-19 ICU admissions, there was an increase in African American versus White admissions (p=0.01) and an increase in Hispanic/Latinx versus non-Hispanic/Latinx admissions (p<0.01), during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Discussion: During the first three months of admissions to COVID-19 ICUs, there was a rise in admissions among Hispanic/Latinx and African-American patients, while non-Hispanic/Latinx and White patient admissions declined compared to the previous pre-COVID year. These findings support development of strategies to enhance allocation of resources to bolster novel, equitable strategies to mitigate the incidence of COVID19 in minority populations.

11.
Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour ; 25(2):158-159, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1273583
12.
Materials Advances ; : 10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1269395

ABSTRACT

In this work, an all-fiber pyro- and piezo-electric nanogenerator (PPNG) is designed using multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doped poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) electrospun nanofibers as the active layer and an interlocked conducting micro-fiber based electrode for converting both thermal and mechanical energies into useful electrical power. The PPNG generates high electrical throughput (output voltage similar to 35 V, maximum power density similar to 34 mu W cm(-2) and power conversion efficiency (eta(piezo)) similar to 19.3%) with an ultra-fast response time of similar to 10 ms. Owing to the higher piezoelectric charge co-efficient (;d(33);similar to 51.3 pC N-1) and figure of merit (FoM approximate to 5.95 x 10(-11) Pa-1) of PVDF-MWCNT nanofibers in comparison to the neat PVDF nanofibers (;d(33);similar to 22 pC N-1 and FoM approximate to 9.7 x 10(-12) Pa-1) the PPNG operates a range of consumer electronic components such as capacitors and light emitting diodes. Furthermore, the electroactive phase content (similar to 87%) is improved in the active layer due to the interfacial interaction between the surface charges at from the pi-electron cloud of the MWCNT and -CH2- dipoles of the PVDF chain. Additionally, the PVDF-MWCNT nanofibers possess fifteen times higher pyroelectric coefficient (similar to 60 nC m(-2) K-1) compared to that of neat PVDF nanofibers (4 nC m(-2) K-1). As a result, the PPNG is capable of converting very large temperature fluctuations (Delta T similar to 14.30 K) to electrical energy (such as the open-circuit voltage of 250 mV and a short-circuit current of 83 pA). Besides this, it is capable of detecting very low-level thermal fluctuations (as low as Delta T similar to 5.4 K) with responsivity of similar to 1.48 s and possesses very high mechano-sensitivity (similar to 7.5 V kPa(-1)) which makes it feasible for use as a biomedical sensor since the body temperature and bio-mechanical signals (such as breathing temperature, pulse rate, vocal cord vibrations, coughing sound, and so on) have an immense signature of health conditions. As a proof-of-concept, the all-fiber PPNG is employed as a biomedical sensor by integrating with the Internet of Things (IoT) based human health care monitoring system as well as for remote care of infectious diseases (e.g., applicable for pneumonia, COVID-19) by transferring the pulse response, body temperature, coughing and laughing response wirelessly to a smartphone.

13.
Top Antivir Med ; 29(2):328-333, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1261634

ABSTRACT

Comorbid conditions have a major impact on the health, quality of life, and survival in people with HIV, particularly as they age. The 2021 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured excellent science related to specific comorbidities as well as multimorbidity. A number of presentations related to comorbidities in women with HIV reflected a new wave of research aimed at understanding how the epidemiology and pathogenesis of comorbidities may differ by sex. Weight gain related to antiretroviral therapy was also a major theme of the comorbidity abstracts presented at the meeting. Several presentations demonstrated the importance of comorbid conditions in COVID-19 outcomes in people with HIV and described persistent symptoms after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has resolved, a nascent topic that will expand over time. This review focuses on research presented at the conference in these areas, highlighting those with the most clinical impact.

15.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):135-136, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250916

ABSTRACT

Background: We previously showed that β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (rNHC) and its orally bioavailable prodrug, molnupiravir, acts as a broad-spectrum antiviral against coronaviruses in vitro and in vivo through lethal mutagenesis. Molnupiravir is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there are concerns that rNHC could be metabolized to dNHC and cause mutations in host cells. We examined the in vitro antiviral and mammalian cell mutagenic activity of three different nucleoside/base analogs, rNHC, favipiravir, and ribavirin, on SARS-CoV-2. We further examined the in vitro genotoxicity of a panel of antiviral nucleotide/nucleoside analogs, including rNHC, using a modified HPRT gene mutation assay. Methods: A549-hACE2 cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of nucleoside analogs. After 48 hours, the supernatants were collected and viral RNA was extracted. We constructed multiplexed-Primer ID libraries from viral RNA and sequenced them using MiSeq. HPRT knockout assays were performed using CHO-K1 cells treated with a panel of nucleotide/nucleoside analogs for 32 days. After 6-thioguanine selection, resistant cell colonies were counted as a measure of HPRT knockout mutations in host cells, and HPRT mRNA was sequenced from selected colonies. Results: rNHC showed dose-dependent antiviral and mutagenic effects against SAR-CoV-2 in vitro. In the 10 μM group, we found 7-fold and 14-fold increases in the overall substitution rate and the C to U mutation rate, respectively. The HPRT assay showed an rNHC dose-dependent increase in the number of resistant colonies with HPRT gene mutations. Other analogs showed no significant increase in the number of 6-thioG resistant colonies except for a slight increase with favipiravir (Fig 1a). Most colonies had missense substitutions or frame-shift deletions within HPRT mRNA, with most being distinct. Conclusion: rNHC showed a dose-dependent inhibition and mutagenic effect of SAR-CoV-2 in vitro. However, rNHC would be expected to be metabolized into the deoxynucleotide pool (by host RNR), resulting in DNA mutation of dividing mammalian cells. We demonstrated such mutagenic potential in a simple mammalian cell detection scheme. Molnupiravir has considerable potential as an orally bioavailable direct acting antiviral against SARS-CoV2 early in infection, especially in high risk patients. However, clinical use should be carefully considered in light of its potential mutagenic effects on the host.

16.
Disaster Medicine & Public Health Preparedness ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209291

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of the research was to investigate and identify the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in Dhaka, Bangladesh by using ground-based observation data.

17.
Int Conf Intell User Interfaces Proc IUI ; : 28-30, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1206045

ABSTRACT

In this demo, we focus on analyzing COVID-19 related symptoms across the globe reported through tweets by building an interactive spatio-temporal visualization tool, i.e., COVID19α. Using around 462 million tweets collected over a span of six months, COVID19α provides three different types of visualization tools: 1) Spatial Visualization with a focus on visualizing COVID-19 symptoms across different geographic locations;2) Temporal Visualization with a focus on visualizing the evolution of COVID-19 symptoms over time for a particular geographic location;and 3) Spatio-Temporal Visualization with a focus on combining both spatial and temporal analysis to provide comparative visualizations between two (or more) symptoms across time and space. We believe that health professionals, scientists, and policymakers will be able to leverage this interactive tool to devise better and targeted health intervention policies. Our developed interactive visualization tool is publicly available at https://bijoy-sust.github.io/Covid19/. © 2021 Owner/Author.

18.
International Journal of Current Research and Review ; 13(6 special Issue):S-86-S-96, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1196189

ABSTRACT

Current pandemic COVID-19 has severely affected the world, having a mortality rate ranging from 1 to 10% which is different for many countries. The time interval from symptoms to clinical recovery is 6–8 weeks and to death is 2 to 8 weeks. The increase in severity and fatality in COVID 19 is primarily due to the presence of comorbidities like cardiovascular disease, pre-existing lungs disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cancer. As we already know that humans show the difference in drug responses because of their varied genetic make-up. Therefore, Population genomics gives an insight into the genetic characteristic of a population and it is critical in determining susceptibility, severity and natural protection against infectious diseases. Hence, this study was done to evaluate the population genetic makeup which is necessary to identify those who are at risk or protection from disease and develop genomics information, that would be useful in providing insight about COVID-19 disease severity or outcomes. Some of the proposed genetic gateways in COVID 19 pathogenesis are mentioned in this review that includes roles of ACE2 gene, HLA gene, Chromosome 3P21.31, ABO locus, genes responsible for cytokine storm, TLR-pathway, Family Mediterranean fever and G6PD deficiency. This review also emphasises the current treatment available in COVID-19 like hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, RNA polymerase inhibitors, interleukin inhibitors, antivirals, ivermectin, doxycycline and their pharmacogenomics viewpoint. Such Pharmacogenomic studies are very helpful for physicians to choose and give accurate first-line therapy for COVID 19 patients. © IJCRR.

20.
Ieee Transactions on Big Data ; 7(1):56-68, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1186115

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak forced governments worldwide to impose lockdowns and quarantines to prevent virus transmission. As a consequence, there are disruptions in human and economic activities all over the globe. The recovery process is also expected to be rough. Economic activities impact social behaviors, which leave signatures in satellite images that can be automatically detected and classified. Satellite imagery can support the decision-making of analysts and policymakers by providing a different kind of visibility into the unfolding economic changes. In this article, we use a deep learning approach that combines strategic location sampling and an ensemble of lightweight convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to recognize specific elements in satellite images that could be used to compute economic indicators based on it, automatically. This CNN ensemble framework ranked third place in the US Department of Defense xView challenge, the most advanced benchmark for object detection in satellite images. We show the potential of our framework for temporal analysis using the US IARPA Function Map of the World (fMoW) dataset. We also show results on real examples of different sites before and after the COVID-19 outbreak to illustrate different measurable indicators. Our code and annotated high-resolution aerial scenes before and after the outbreak are available on GitHub.(1) 1. https://github.com/maups/covid19-satellite-analysis.

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