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1.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology ; 02, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2197790

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), commonly known as COVID-19, created rack and ruin and erupted as a global epidemic. Nearly 482.3 million cases and approximately 6.1 million deaths have been reported. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated it an international medical emergency on January 30, 2020;shortly in March 2020, it was declared a pandemic. To address this situation, governments and scientists around the globe were urged to combat and prevent its spread, mainly when no treatment was available. Presently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most widely utilized technique for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2. But this method is cumbersome, tedious, and might not be quickly accessible in isolated areas with a circumscribed budget. Therefore, there is a quest for novel diagnostic techniques which can diagnose the disease in a lesser time in an economical way. This paper outlines the potential of biosensors in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. This review highlights the current state of presently available detection techniques, expected potential limits, and the benefits of biosensor-implicated tests against SARS-Cov-2 diagnosis. CRISPR-Cas9 implanted paper strip, field-effect transistor (FET) implanted sensor, nucleic-acid centric, aptamers-implanted biosensor, antigen-Au/Ag nanoparticles-based electrochemical biosensor, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, potential electrochemical biosensor, optical biosensor, as well as artificial intelligence (AI) are some of the novel biosensing devices that are being utilized in the prognosis of coronaviruses. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers;For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.net.

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3.
3rd IEEE Global Conference for Advancement in Technology, GCAT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191790

ABSTRACT

Viva voce is an assessment method carried out by academic staff to assess the knowledge capacity of candidates. The assessment is usually held physically. With the Covid-19 pandemic, the whole process has been shifted onto an online context. There are several difficulties that come across when conducting online, such as marking of answers, guaranteeing the honesty of the candidate, and the manageability of the whole viva session. This research paper discusses the solution to the problem of conducting and managing online viva voce assessments. The proposed solution consists of mechanisms such as, a sandboxed environment to isolate the application, an advanced authenticating system to identify the intended candidate, a comprehensive monitoring system to monitor the candidate during the assessment, an answer validating system to provide a percentage mark to the answers provided by the candidate against a set marking scheme and finally a process to coordinate the viva voce session. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Critical Care Explorations ; 4(12):e0822, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190844

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of literature regarding administrative approvals required for clinical studies during a pandemic. We aimed to evaluate variation in duration of administrative approvals within the Viral Infection and Respiratory illness Universal Study (VIRUS): A Global COVID-19 Registry.

5.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):4, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190456

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the burden on the healthcare system makes it critical to examine readmission patterns. In this study, we evaluated the readmission rates and risk factors associated with COVID-19 from the large SCCM Discovery VIRUS: COVID-19 Registry. METHOD(S): This was a retrospective, cohort study including hospitalized adult patients from 181 hospitals in 24 countries within the VIRUS: COVID-19 Registry. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were extracted and divided into two groups: Patients with readmission with COVID-19 in 30 days from discharge and those who were not. A univariate analysis is done using chi-square and t-test as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression was used to measure risk factor associations with 30-day readmission. RESULT(S): Among 20,283 patients, 1,195 (5.9%) were readmitted within 30 days from discharge. The median (IQR) age of readmitted patients was 66 (55-78) years and 45.2% were female, 60.2% were white, and 78.9% non-Hispanic. Higher odds of readmission were observed in patients aged >60 vs 18-40 years (OR 2.76;95% CI, 2.23-3.41), moderate COVID-19 disease (WHO Ordinal scale 4-5) vs Severe COVID-19 (WHO Ordinal scale 6-9) (OR 1.23;95% CI, 1.10-1.39), no ICU admission at index hospitalization (OR 1.70;95% CI, 1.32-1.80), and Hospital length of stay <=14 vs >14 days (OR 1.53;95% CI, 1.32-1.80) vs those not readmitted (p= < 0.001). Comorbidities including coronary artery disease (OR 2.14;95% CI 1.84-2.48), hypertension (OR 1.58;95% CI 1.40-1.78), congestive Heart Failure (OR 2.54;95% CI 2.16-2.98), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 2.26;95% CI 1.94-2.63), diabetes (OR 1.32;95% CI 1.17-1.49) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.41;95% CI 1.2.09-2.78) were associated with higher odds of readmission. In multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age group, hospital length of stay <=14 days and, highest WHO COVID-19 ordinal scale and index ICU admission coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, hospital length of stay <=14 days and age >60 years remained independent risk factors for readmission within 30 days. CONCLUSION(S): Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, those readmitted had a higher burden of comorbidities compared to those non-readmitted.

6.
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) ; 27(Supplement 3):e2, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a disproportionate impact on the well-being of adolescents and young adults. Worldwide, eating disorder (ED) experts have observed worsening symptoms in youth with pre-existing EDs and an escalation in the number of new cases compared to prior years. Disruption of routine, work and school closures, as well as social isolation are potential contributing factors. The Canadian province of Ontario (specifically the most highly populated cities) experienced one of the most prolonged lock downs worldwide with approximately 20 weeks of face-to-face school closure and/or restriction to virtual learning. OBJECTIVE(S): We sought to better understand the impact of COVID- 19 on new pediatric ED presentations, patient characteristics and hospital admissions in a tertiary care Children's Hospital. DESIGN/METHODS: We completed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting for new ED assessments at a single centre pediatric ED program within a tertiary care children's hospital between January 1st, 2015 and June 1st 2021. Patients aged 9-18 years old with a new diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) restrictive type or binge/purge type or Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder (OSFED) - Atypical Anorexia Nervosa (AAN) were included. Demographic and clinical variables for pre and post pandemic were analyzed using Chi-Square and T-Tests. Interrupted time series regression was used to examine pre-pandemic and post-pandemic monthly summary data over time. RESULT(S): Overall, 425 youth were newly diagnosed with AN or AAN (N=329 pre-pandemic, N=96 pandemic) during the study period (Jan 1 2015 - December 31 2020). Average age was 14.7 years (SD 1.8, range 8.1 - 17.9). Most youth were diagnosed with DSM-5 AN-restrictive type (65.6%). The number of new diagnoses of AN and AAN during the pandemic more than doubled when compared to pre-pandemic years. In the 5-year period preceding the pandemic, mean number of newly diagnosed cases was 5.1/ month (scoeff=0.043, p=0.33), increasing to 10.6/month (p=<0.001) during the pandemic and demonstrating an upward trend coinciding with onset of lockdown measures (scoeff=5.95, p<0.001). At the time of initial assessment, more youth presented with medical instability and increased illness severity. Hospitalization increased from an average of 2.2/month to 6.3/month (scoeff -0.008 vs. 3.23, p<0.0001). Average heart rate also decreased from 58.6 bpm (SD 16.6) pre-pandemic to 53.3 bpm (SD 16.3), p<0.008. CONCLUSION(S): With this study, we found a significant increase in both new diagnoses and admissions for medical instability for AN and AAN among youth at our institution during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study contributes to the growing body of global evidence tracking the unanticipated surge of eating disorder diagnoses and severity in already under-resourced health systems. It is unclear how long the effects of the pandemic may last. Further research is required to better understand the illness trajectory and treatment outcomes of pandemic-triggered EDs in adolescents.

7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S604-S605, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189853

ABSTRACT

Background. Nursing homes (NHs) are high risk settings for COVID. Staff are the primary source for introducing COVID into a NH. Preventing staff from working when ill is key to resident safety. NH staff face significant socioeconomic pressures that may influence their willingness to report COVID symptoms. Understanding the drivers behind unreported illness can inform ways to prevent working when ill. Methods. We conducted a confidential survey of 120 COVID-positive NH staff in Orange County, CA from Dec '20-Feb '22 to quantify the frequency and drivers of unreported COVID symptoms. We designed a 40-item survey to assess demographics, course of illness, symptom reporting behavior, and monetary, logistic, and emotional (stigma/fear) barriers to reporting using a 5-point Likert scale. Recruitment flyers were shared with all 70 NHs in the county and referrals were accepted from NH leadership. Participants received $50 for completing the 20-30 min phone-based survey. We calculated summary statistics, transformed all data to a 0-100 scale, assessed the reliability of each factor related to reporting at the group level using Cronbach's alpha, and assessed discriminant validity with t-tests comparing responses among subsets expected to differ. Results. Table 1 shows participant characteristics. 49% of surveys were during the 2020-21 winter wave and 51% were during the Delta/Omicron waves, with a relatively even distribution of certified nursing assistants (CNAs), nurses, and nonfrontline staff. Most cases (70%) were detected by routine testing at the NH and most (63%) had >=1 symptom prior to their test. Only 39% disclosed their symptom to a supervisor. It is unknown how many staff would have disclosed symptoms if they were not captured during routine testing. Responses were consistent across 15 discrete factors with Cronbach alpha >0.7. Overall, fear and encouragement from supervisors were the most salient factors for speaking up about COVID symptoms (Table 2). Responses varied between the two waves and between frontline vs nonfrontline workers. Conclusion. Frequent surveillance testing of NH staff during a pandemic is critical due to many factors that drive reluctance to speak up about potential symptoms. Encouragement from supervisors to report symptoms and stay home when ill may improve NH safety.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(Suppl 2), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2189497

ABSTRACT

Background: Environmental contamination is suspected to play a key role in transmission of Candida auris in healthcare facilities. We recently showed that environmental surfaces near C. auris-colonized patients are commonly recontaminated within hours after disinfection. Clinical factors contributing to environmental contamination are not well characterized. Methods: We conducted a multi-regional (Chicago, IL;Irvine, CA) prospective study of environmental contamination associated with C. auris colonization at six long-term care facilities (LTCF) and 1 acute-care hospital (ACH). On day of sampling, 5 participant body sites were cultured once, followed by routine daily room cleaning by facility staff, then targeted disinfection of high-touch surfaces with hydrogen peroxide wipes by research staff. Surfaces were cultured for C. auris using pre-moistened sponge-sticks and neutralizer immediately pre- and post-disinfection, and 4, 8, and 12 hours post-disinfection. We calculated the odds of surface recontamination after disinfection as a function of body site colonization with C. auris using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering among multiple surfaces within timepoints, patients, and facilities. Models included an interaction between facility type and colonization. Results: C. auris was cultured from ≥1 body site in 41 participants (12 ACH and 29 LTCF patients, 205 body sites) on day of sampling. Proportion of body sites colonized did not vary by facility type (Table). Although environmental contamination rates were similar prior to disinfection [ACH 38% (n=60 samples) vs LTCF 29%, (n=145 samples), p=0.209)], the proportion of surfaces recontaminated between 4–12 hours after disinfection was higher in ACH vs LTCF (n=574 samples) (Figure). Number of body sites colonized with C. auris was associated with higher odds of environmental recontamination [ACH: OR 2.16 (95% CI 1.63–2.88), p< 0.001;LTCF: OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.07–1.84), p=0.015;Interaction ACH vs LTCF p< 0.001].Figure.Percent of Environmental Surfaces Recontaminated with C. auris within 12 hours of Cleaning by Facility Type Conclusion: The number of body sites colonized was associated with odds of C. auris environmental contamination. Differences in environmental recontamination by facility type may be related to greater provider-patient interactions in ACH as a driving factor. Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, MS, Medline: Conducted studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic and/or environmental cleaning products;Stryker: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products;Xttrium Laboratories: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products Raveena D. Singh, MA, Medline: Conducted studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic and/or environmental cleaning products;Stryker: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products;Xttrium Laboratories: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products Raheeb Saavedra, AS, Medline: Conducted studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic and/or environmental cleaning products;Stryker: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products;Xttrium Laboratories: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products Nicholas M. Moore, PhD, D(ABMM), Abbott Molecular: Grant/Research Support;Cepheid: Grant/Research Support Susan S. Huang, MD, MPH, Medline: Conducted studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic and/or environmental cleaning products;Molnlyke: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals received contributed antiseptic product;Stryker: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic products;Xttri m Laboratories: Conducted clinical studies in which hospitals and nursing homes received contributed antiseptic product Mary K. Hayden, MD, Sanofi: Member, clinical adjudication panel for an investigational SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

9.
Medical Mycology ; 60(Supplement 1):182, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189370

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Isolation of Candida spp. from a blood sample in patients is known as candidemia. Candida albicans is the most common causative agent of candidemia globally while C.tropicalis is the most common causative agent in India.Candida parapsilosis complex, C.glabrata, and C.krusei are the other three common causative agents of candidemia.Candida auris was described in 2009 and is a public health treatment. It is multidrug-resistant and causes localized hospital outbreaks. Objective(s): To determine the fungal profile of candidemia in a tertiary care hospital. Method(s): Institute ethics approval was taken. All patients admitted to the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India from January 2020 to January 2021, whose blood culture samples yielded yeast were included in the study. The patient's demographic details were recorded. Yeast isolates were identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-T OF MS) as per the manufacture's instruc-tion. The antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) was performed by microbroth dilution method for fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and casp ofungin as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27 and interpreted by CLSI M59 and M60 document.AFST of C.auris was interpreted as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria.Results were expressed in percentages. Result(s): A total of 248 blood culture samples yielded yeast cells during the study period. Approximately 63% of samples were obtained from male patients, while 37% were obtained from female patients. Most of the patients were between 41 to 60 years or under 10 years of age. A total of 52/240 (15.8%) were diabetic, and 30 (15.2%) were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). Candida tropicalis (34.7%) was the most common causative agent. It was followed by C. parapsilosis complex (20.2%). Candida auris (16.5%), C. albicans (13.3%), C. glabrata (6.5%), and other C. spp. (8.9%). Candida krusei is no longer observed as one of the top five agents of candidemia and it is replaced by C. auris. The rise of candidemia due to C.auris is a cause of concern, and its prevalence is observed more than that of C.albicans in our tertiary care hospital.The antifungal resistant pattern of the top four candidemia isolates is depicted in Figure 1.The antifungal resistance was maximum in C.auris isolates, followed by C.parapsilosis complex isolates.A total of 12.2% of C.auris isolates were resistant to amphotericin B, and azoles and 4.9% of C. auris isolates were multidrug-resistant. Conclusion(s): Candida tropicalis was the most common causative agent of candidemia. But the increased prevalence of C. auris over C. albicans is a cause of concern as 4.9% of C. auris isolates were multidrug-resistant.

10.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):457-8, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188952

ABSTRACT

There were no governmental issued guidelines directed specifically towards Long-Term Care residential facilities (LTCF) for older adults in India during COVID-19 pandemic (Rajagopalan 2020) and no data has been collected on care for resident in NGO's and private facilities (WHO, 2021). Further, studies of level of knowledge of providers on health indicators of residents, health literacy and risks factors of contracting the virus is absent. In India, older adults who live in LTCF have higher rates of chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, respiratory, heart problems), live in crowded communal space, less access to medical care for underlying health conditions, and have untrained, multiple caregivers, thereby putting them at increased risk for exposure and contracting the COVID-19 virus, and significant risk of infection, illness and mortality. LTCF includes NGO's, government funded old age homes and private paid retirement homes and is considered a multi-residence housing facility. This exploratory study, using online survey of providers of approximately 125 LTC facilities, examines the providers general health literacy level, prevention practices at their facility interventions, demands and rewards of caring for residents during COVID. Preliminary results less than 20% of providers tracked prevalence of illness, health symptoms, infection rate, hospitalization, mortality rate, or post-recovery. Majority reported difficulty in accessing vaccination, getting residents vaccinated, and accessing resources ( food/ medicine/sanitizers) and problem coordinating care due to staffing shortage. Only a small percent use and track health and psychological assessments of residents. Findings have implications for advocating for standardization care and support National and State LTCF policy.

12.
Computers & Industrial Engineering ; 175, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2177518

ABSTRACT

Firms are using blockchain technology to prevent fraudulent activities through consensus mechanisms and help identify data tampering through its underlying characteristics, such as immutability, encryption transparency, and operational resilience. However, a holistic review of blockchain application in building a cyber-secure supply chain remains elusive, which can impede the advancement of the field when competing arguments are made, and pure replications are initiated. Therefore, the present study carries a systematic literature review to assess the state of literature review on the significance of blockchain in developing a cyber-secure and resilient supply chain. A systematic review of 122 peer-reviewed papers published between 2012 and 2022 has been conducted using a structured methodological approach. Further, the Theory, Context and Methodology (TCM) framework has been applied to suggest avenues for future research. Our analysis reveals six dominant themes related to blockchain and its adoption, blockchain application for resilience, blockchain application for cyber-security, blockchain and its role in intermediation, disintermediation and reintermediation, challenges of blockchain adoption and benefits of blockchain applications in the supply chain. Although the role of blockchain application in the cyber secure and resilient supply chain has been recognised, very little attention has been given to contextual factors affecting its adoption and consequences on key performance parameters. The present study contributes to the literature by synthesising the prime findings of reviewed papers and the managerial impli-cations, thereby giving a holistic view of the existing research and presenting an array of future opportunities for firms to adopt blockchain technology in the supply chain.

13.
Sankhya B (2008) ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175239

ABSTRACT

The use of multi-auxiliary variables helps in increasing the precision of the estimators, especially when the population is rare and hidden clustered. In this article, four ratio-cum-product type estimators have been proposed using two auxiliary variables under adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) design. The expressions of the mean square error (MSE) of the proposed ratio-cum-product type estimators have been derived up to the first order of approximation and presented along with their efficiency conditions with respect to the estimators presented in this article. The efficiency of the proposed estimators over similar existing estimators have been assessed on four different populations two of which are of the daily spread of COVID-19 cases. The proposed estimators performed better than the estimators presented in this article on all four populations indicating their wide applicability and precision.

15.
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care ; 11(4):392-395, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2201847

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum are rare entities as the initial presentation of coronavirus infection in patients without positive pressure ventilation. This case series presents five cases of COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with alveolar air leak syndrome without prior invasive or noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation. Two patients presented with surgical emphysema, two with pneumothorax, and one with pneumomediastinum. This series included 30-50-year-old nonsmokers (three males and two females) with no previous history of any comorbidity and smoking who came to the emergency with symptoms such as cough, breathing difficulty, and respiratory distress. The COVID-19 infection was diagnosed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed diffuse multifocal ground-glass infiltrates, interlobular septal thickening, and infiltration in all patients. Three patients had subcutaneous emphysema, two had pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum, and one had pneumomediastinum. Three patients later on required invasive mechanical ventilation. Alveolar air leak syndrome including spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema is rarely seen as the initial presentation of coronavirus pneumonia but may develop after positive pressure ventilation.

16.
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology ; 8(4):450-457, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204520

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital mucormycosis is a rare life threatening invasive fungal infection that has recently shown a very high mortality rate in India during COVID-19 pandemic. We have designed the present study to find out associations between COVID-19 induced rhino-orbital mucormycosis and concentrations of inflammatory markers, i.e. D-dimer, Ferritin, IL-6, CRP and PCT, in blood serum of Indian population. There were four groups in the study, viz. control group with healthy subjects, treatment group-1 with patients suffering from SARS-COV-2 infection, treatment group-2 with patients suffering from both SARS-COV-2 infection and rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and treatment group-3 with patients suffering from rhino-orbital mucormycosis after SARS-COV-2 infection recovery. Inflammatory markers were quantified with standard protocols, and recorded data were subjected to statistical analyses. We found that patients suffering from SARS-COV-2 infection were more susceptible to rhino-orbital mucormycosis, as they had higher concentrations of inflammatory markers in their blood than the other subjects. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and renal disorders were the associated comorbidities with the patients. We also found higher concentrations of inflammatory markers in males than the females, indicating towards their higher susceptibility in developing rhino-orbital mucormycosis than females. Present study therefore suggests that the frequent occurrence of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in India during second wave of COVID-19 was possibly due to indiscriminate use of corticosteroids by COVID-19 patients. Subjects with previous history of comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disorders and renal diseases are the most susceptible population groups for developing infection. Moreover, males are at higher risk of developing mucormycosis than the females. © 2022 Innovative Publication, All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 17(1):OE01-OE05, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2203494

ABSTRACT

During the second wave of the viral pandemic, hospitals were overcrowded by the escalation of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases. To effectively address the drastic escalation of the COVID-19 pandemic, innovative solutions are warranted. The rising demand for critical-care services burdens hospitals;hence, to alleviate the burden on the healthcare system, asymptomatic patients or those with mild symptoms can be treated at home through continuous monitoring and care. Affected patients are at risk of hypoxia, which urgently requires oxygen therapy. Depending on the extent of oxygen demand, patients can boost their oxygen levels by making use of a nasal cannula, face mask, oxygen cylinder, and/or oxygen concentrator. Several risk factors are associated with the augmented probability of COVID-19 progression to severe status due to increased oxygen requirement, and they include advanced age, obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. A close monitoring of oxygen saturation (SpO2) along with other clinical investigations like complete and differential blood counts, serum electrolytes, random blood sugar, liver function tests, coagulation profile (Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR)), renal function test, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer and ferritin level are mandatory for patients receiving home-based oxygen therapy. An awareness of safety considerations such as perfectly fitting, proper sized mask, availability of ventilation, knowledge of caregiver about danger signs and good functioning of fire alarm system at home are of prime importance before setting up oxygenation devices at home, and this further mandates a comprehensive evaluation of home-based management and treatment of mildly symptomatic patients with COVID-19. Copyright © 2023 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

18.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(20):372-380, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164851

ABSTRACT

WHO had advised certain guidelines globally during covid-19 pandemic for isolation and protection measures can be further increased for the relevant individuals with obvious risk factors for exposure affected persons. The epidemiological exposure history can be considered as the most essential reference for determining the potential source of illness. People who are exposed to case patients throughout their incubation may also be considered close contacts when determining who they are. The isolation and monitoring of close contacts can be consolidated under the presumption of the conveyance, such as masks, single-person transfers, and disinfection of transport vehicles, etc. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

19.
International Journal of Academic Medicine and Pharmacy ; 4(4):577-583, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164782

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine the association between various demographic indicators and biochemical markers in COVID-19 patients in Western-Punjab. Material(s) and Method(s): An observational cross-sectional study was done on one hundred and fifty cases of all ages admitted in Isolation ward, reporting to Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, India with COVID-19(RT-PCR/ or RAT) from January 2022 to March 2022 were included. Clinical features like fever, cough and shortness of breath were recorded. Blood sample was collected in plain tube for biochemical markers like serum albumin, creatinine, ferritin, LDH, CRP and urea, SGOT, SGPT, procalcitonin, D-dimer, ESR, IL-6, ALP, bilirubin were analysed. Association of the clinical features and these biochemical markers were determined. Result(s): Patients were divided into 3 groups according to different ages (<40 years, 40-60 years, >60 years). Out of 150 patients 26 (17.3%) belonged to age group < 40, 60 (40.0%) belonged to age group 40-60 years and 64 (42.7%) belonged to age group >60 years. Mean age was 55.93 + / - 14.91. Out of 150, 39 (26.0%) were females and 111(74.0%) were males. 44 (29.3%) cases had hypertension and 59(39.3%) cases had diabetes mellitus. Urea levels in 118 (78.7%) patients were above normal reference values e and was statistically significant (p<0.015). 73 (48.7%) had SGOT levels above normal range [statistically significant (p<0.025)] while as 63 (42%) had SGOT above normal range [statistically significant (p<0.001)]. 98 (65.3 %) had IL-6 above normal range [statistically significant (p<0.003)]. While as albumin levels in 38 (25.3%) patients were within normal range and 112 (74.7%) patients had albumin below normal range [statistically significant (p<0.014)]. ESR (100%), D-dimer (100%), procalcitonin (100%), LDH (94%) were uniformly raised in almost all patients. Rest of the markers like ferritin (74%), bilirubin (6%), CRP (90%), creatinine (15.3%), ALP (14.7%) was also raised but was not statistically significant. Conclusion(s): Indian patients with COVID-19 disease showed variable pattern of clinical features. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

20.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(12):1267-1274, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164054

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-lasting physical, cognitive, and mental health sequelae including depression and anxiety are common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Aim(s): This study was aimed to assess the immediate and medium-term mental health sequelae - depression and anxiety among coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ICU survivors. Method(s): The COVID-19 ICU Survivors of a tertiary level ICU were recruited into this study from 1 July 2020 to 31 October 2020. Willing participants were circulated with an electronic questionnaire. It consisted of demographics and questionnaires related to COVID-19 disease, comorbidities, and a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale for depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale for anxiety. Responses were collected at the time of discharge. Follow-up was done at 2 weeks and 6 months. Result(s): Among the 133 COVID-19 ICU survivors contacted, 91 survivors submitted the baseline data at the time of discharge. Fourteen and another 11 survivors were lost to follow-up at 2 weeks and at 6 months. The median age was 52.75 and 68.1% (n = 62/91) were male. The median PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores showed a statistically significant decrease at 2 weeks and a non-significant decrease at 6 months compared to baseline scores. The GAD-7 score was the same or worse between baselines to 2 weeks, but it reduced between baseline to 6 months for all variables and their subgroups. Conclusion(s): This study revealed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the immediate post-discharge period. These findings suggest the need for better mental rehabilitation strategies to deal with the well-being of critically ill survivors in future pandemics. Copyright © The Author(s). 2022.

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