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1.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 25: 183-192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with HIV may be more likely to become severely ill from COVID-19. The present meta-analysis aims to determine the impact of HIV/AIDS infection on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant cohort studies to evaluate the association of HIV/AIDS infection with clinical outcomes of COVID-19. International databases, including PubMed (Medline), Web of Sciences, Scopus, and Embase, were searched from the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic until January 2022. We utilized the risk ratio (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to quantify the effect of cohort studies. RESULTS: Twelve cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis, which examined a total number of 17,786,384 patients. Among them, 40,386 were identified to be HIV positive, and 17,745,998 were HIV negative. The pooled analyses showed HIV positive patients who were co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 were 58% more likely to develop a fever (RR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.42, 1.75), 24% more likely to have dyspnea (RR=1.24; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.41), 45% more likely to be admitted to ICU (RR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.67), and 37% more likely to die from to COVID-19 (RR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.45) than HIV negative patients. CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS coinfection with COVID 19 increased the risk of fever, dyspnea, ICU admission, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Dyspnea/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 35: 144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449746

ABSTRACT

Background: The evaluation of reinfection and the genetic structure of all human and virus genomes could help to develop programs and protocols for providing services and ultimately to prevent the disease by producing more effective vaccines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and occurrence of COVID-19 reinfection through a narrative review study. Methods: We searched the Medline (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Ovid, and CINHAL databases. Inclusion criteria included all studies whose main purpose was to provide information about the occurrence or presence of reinfection in patients with COVID-19. An independent samples t test was used to compare the continuous outcomes between the 2 groups. Results: The mean duration of the first episode in the group with mild or moderate COVID-19 was 24.42±1.67 days, and it was 21.80±3.79 days in the group with severe COVID-19. The mean duration of the second episode (reinfection) in patients with mild or moderate form was 15.38 ± 5.57 days, and it was 19.20±2.98 days in patients with severe form. In both episodes, the duration of the disease did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (p=0.484 in the first episode; p=0.675 in the second episode), but the interval to the occurrence of reinfection in patients with the mild or moderate form was significantly longer than those with the severe form (p<0.001). In this instance, the time interval in patients with the mild or moderate form was 36.63±5.71 days while in those with the severe form of the disease it was 29.70±5.65 days. Besides, the genomes of the viruses isolated from the first and second episode were different. Conclusion: According to the results, all patients should be very careful about the severity of the second episode because of the more need for medical interventions for saving the patients. The interval between the first end and the second episode as well as the duration of each episode is highly important for better management of the disease.

3.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is little known about pregnancy-related complications and comorbidity in this group of women. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to find out whether COVID-19 may cause different manifestations and outcomes in the antepartum and postpartum period or not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched databases, including Medline (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Web of sciences, Cochrane library, Ovid, and CINHAL to retrieve all articles reporting the prevalence of maternal and neonatal complications, in addition to clinical manifestations, in pregnant women with COVID-19 that published with English language January to November 2020. RESULTS: Seventy-four studies with total 5560 pregnant women included in this systematic review. The results show that the pooled prevalence of neonatal mortality, lower birth weight, stillbirth, premature birth, and intrauterine fetal distress in women with COVID-19 was 4% (95% Cl: 1 - 9%), 21% (95% Cl: 11 - 31%), 2% (95% Cl: 1 - 6%), 28% (95% Cl: 13 - 43%), and 14% (95% Cl: 4 - 25%); respectively. Moreover, the pooled prevalence of fever, cough, diarrhea, and dyspnea were 56% (95% Cl: 32 - 81%), 29% (95% Cl: 21 - 38%), 9% (95% Cl: 2 - 16%), and 3% (95% Cl: 1 - 6%) in pregnant women with COVID-19. Two studies reported that pregnant women with severe COVID pneumonia have higher levels of d-dimer. Also, COVID pneumonia is more common in pregnant women than non-pregnant. CONCLUSION: According to this meta-analysis, pregnant women with COVID-19 with or without pneumonia, are at a higher risk of preeclampsia, preterm birth, miscarriage and cesarean delivery. Furthermore, the risk of LBW and intrauterine fetal distress seems to be increased in neonates. In addition, our evaluations are investigative of higher risk of COVID-19 in the third trimester in pregnant women comparing to the first and second trimester. It can be due to higher BMI in the third trimester causing to increase the likelihood of disease deterioration, which can trigger a cascade of side effects starting with coagulation, pneumonia, hypoxemia affecting the placenta leading to ICU admission, fetal distress, premature birth and higher rates of C-section.

4.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 34: 120, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976735

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a new severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus. COVID-19 patients are at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome and death from respiratory failure. Methods: In this study the complete genome of the SARS-CoV-2 reference sequence, geologically isolated types, and Coronavirus related to human diseases were compared by the Molecular Phylogenetic Maximum Likelihood method. The secondary and tertiary structures of the main protease of SARS-CoV were defined as the most similar viruses to SARS-CoV-2, aligned with chimera software. Therefore, considering ineffective antiviral medications used for SARS-CoV and the importance of preventing acute respiratory distress syndrome as the main cause of mortality, 2 strategies were adopted to acquire the most effective drug combination. Results: The results of phylogenic analysis showed that SARS-CoV is the most similar virus to SARS-CoV-2. The secondary structure and superimposing of tertiary structure did not show a significant difference between SARS and SARS-CoV-2 3C-like main protease and the root means square deviation between Cα atoms did not support the difference between the 2 protein structures. Thus, these 2 mechanisms were fostered in accordance with the correlation between acute respiratory distress syndrome-related Coronavirus, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on one side and the possible treatments for reducing the respiratory side effects on the other. The analysis of renin-angiotensin system as well as the tested drugs applied to acute respiratory distress syndrome cases, indicated that angiotensin II receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and C21 as nonpeptide agonist might possess a promising modality of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, implementing recombinant human ACE2 as a competitive receptor might be an effective way to trap and chelate the SARS-CoV-2 particles. Conclusion: The data suggest that combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blockers and C21 could be a potential pharmacologic regimen to control and reduce acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, rhACE2 can be recommended as an effective protective antiviral therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 and its complications.

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