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J Neurosurg ; 136(3): 822-830, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430650


OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents the greatest public health emergency of this century. The primary mode of viral transmission is droplet transmission through direct contact with large droplets generated during breathing, talking, coughing, and sneezing. However, the virus can also demonstrate airborne transmission through smaller droplets (< 5 µm in diameter) generated during various medical procedures, collectively termed aerosol-generating procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze droplet contamination of healthcare workers and splatter patterns in the operating theater that resulted from endoscopic transnasal procedures in noninfected patients. METHODS: A prospective nonrandomized microscopic evaluation of contaminants generated during 10 endoscopic transnasal procedures performed from May 14 to June 11, 2020, in the same operating theater was carried out. A dilution of monosodium fluorescein, repeatedly instilled through nasal irrigation, was used as a marker of contaminants generated during surgical procedures. Contaminants were collected on detectors worn by healthcare workers and placed in standard points in the operating theater. Analysis of number, dimensions, and characteristics of contaminants was carried out with fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: A total of 70 samples collected from 10 surgical procedures were analyzed. Liquid droplets and solid-tissue fragments were identified as contaminants on all detectors analyzed. All healthcare workers appeared to have been exposed to a significant number of contaminants. A significant degree of contamination was observed in every site of the operating room. The mean (range) diameter of liquid droplets was 4.1 (1.0-26.6) µm and that of solid fragments was 23.6 (3.5-263.3) µm. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic endonasal surgery is associated with the generation of large amounts of contaminants, some of which measure less than 5 µm. All healthcare workers in the surgical room are exposed to a significant and similar risk of contamination; therefore, adequate personal protective equipment should be employed when performing endoscopic endonasal surgical procedures.

COVID-19 , Operating Rooms , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 27(S Pt 1): e14-e25, 2020 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638400


COVID-19 disease is the most recent pandemic, since it has affected more than four and a half million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths. It is a very complex systemic disease in terms of pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. Pharmacological treatment may include antiviral and antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, corticosteroids as well as low-molecular-weight heparins to prevent the evolution of the disease from reaching the severe inflammatory phase that can lead to respiratory complications, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and finally death. Therefore, pending the development of the much sought-after vaccine, there needs to be a multidisciplinary approach to tackling this disease, and it is essential to use different medical treatments at the correct pathogenic moment. The aim of this article is to evaluate the rationale and reason behind the use of antirheumatic drugs, by expert point of view, in the various phases of the disease. Another important aspect in the management of the disease is to identify patients at high risk, both to change their lifestyle and to correct the state of their health through non-pharmacological measures for improving their immuno-balance. Our literature review reveals the important role and the therapeutic potential of antirheumatic agents in preventing the progression of the disease and aiding recovery from the disease. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support the use of these agents, indicating that further randomized controlled studies are required.

Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology