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3.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 136-140, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555809

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability that may cause thromobembolic complications. We describe our recent studies investigating the mechanisms of hypercoagulability in patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation during the COVID-19 crisis in New York City in spring 2020. Using rotational thombelastometry we found that almost all patients with severe COVID-19 had signs of hypercoagulability compared with non-COVID-19 controls. Specifically, the maximal clot firmness in the fibrin-based extrinsically activated test was almost twice the upper limit of normal in COVID patients, indicating a fibrin-mediated cause for hypercoagulability. To better understand the mechanism of this hypercoagulability we measured the components of the fibrinolytic pathways. Fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, but not plasminogen levels were elevated in patients with severe COVID-19. Our studies indicate that hypercoagulability in COVID-19 may be because of decreased fibrinolysis resulting from inhibition of plasmin through high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Clinicians creating treatment protocols for anticoagulation in critically ill COVID-19 patients should consider these potential mechanisms of hypercoaguability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Critical Illness , Fibrinogen , Fibrinolysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2021: 5585291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may result in multiorgan failure and death. Early detection of patients at risk may allow triage and more intense monitoring. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, objective admission score, based on laboratory tests, that identifies patients who are likely going to deteriorate. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary academic medical center in New York City during the COVID-19 crisis in spring 2020. The primary combined endpoint included intubation, stage 3 acute kidney injury (AKI), or death. Laboratory tests available on admission in at least 70% of patients (and age) were included for univariate analysis. Tests that were statistically or clinically significant were then included in a multivariate binary logistic regression model using stepwise exclusion. 70% of all patients were used to train the model, and 30% were used as an internal validation cohort. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a model for COVID-19 severity based on biomarkers. RESULTS: Out of 2545 patients, 833 (32.7%) experienced the primary endpoint. 53 laboratory tests were analyzed, and of these, 47 tests (and age) were significantly different between patients with and without the endpoint. The final multivariate model included age, albumin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. The area under the ROC curve was 0.850 (CI [95%]: 0.813, 0.889), with a sensitivity of 0.800 and specificity of 0.761. The probability of experiencing the primary endpoint can be calculated as p=e (-2.4475+0.02492age - 0.6503albumin+0.81926creat+0.00388CRP+0.00143LDH)/1+e (-2.4475+ 0.02492age - 0.6503albumin+0.81926creat+0.00388CRP+0.00143LDH). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that poor outcome in COVID-19 patients can be predicted with good sensitivity and specificity using a few laboratory tests. This is useful for identifying patients at risk during admission.

5.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 39(2): 363-377, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240167

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached New York City, resulting in thousands of deaths over the following months. Because of the exponential spread of disease, the New York City hospital systems became rapidly overwhelmed. The Department of Anesthesiology at New York Presbyterian (NYP)-Columbia continued to offer anesthesia services for obstetrics and emergency surgery, while redirecting the rest of its staff to the expanded airway management role and the creation of the largest novel intensive care unit in the NYP system. Tremendous innovation and optimization were necessary in the face of material, physical, and staffing constraints.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/statistics & numerical data , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Health Resources/organization & administration , Hospitals , Pandemics , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Humans , New York City , Operating Rooms/organization & administration
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(1): e7-e12, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have frequent thrombotic complications and laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability. The relationship of coagulation tests and thrombosis requires investigation to identify best diagnostic and treatment approaches. We assessed for hypercoagulable characteristics in critically ill COVID-19 patients using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and explored relationships of D-dimer and ROTEM measurements with thrombotic complications. METHODS: Critically ill adult COVID-19 patients receiving ROTEM testing between March and April 2020 were analyzed. Patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation before ROTEM were excluded. Rotational thromboelastometry measurements from COVID-19 patients were compared with non-COVID-19 patients matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Intergroup differences in ROTEM measurements were assessed using t tests. Correlations of D-dimer levels to ROTEM measurements were assessed in COVID-19 patients who had available concurrent testing. Intergroup differences of D-dimer and ROTEM measurements were explored in COVID-19 patients with and without thrombosis. RESULTS: Of 30 COVID-19 patients receiving ROTEM, we identified hypercoagulability from elevated fibrinogen compared with non-COVID-19 patients (fibrinogen assay maximum clot firmness [MCF], 47 ± 13 mm vs. 20 ± 7 mm; mean intergroup difference, 27.4 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1-32.7 mm; p < 0.0001). In our COVID-19 cohort, thrombotic complications were identified in 33%. In COVID-19 patients developing thrombotic complications, we identified higher D-dimer levels (17.5 ± 4.3 µg/mL vs. 8.0 ± 6.3 µg/mL; mean difference, 9.5 µg/mL; 95% CI, 13.9-5.1; p < 0.0001) but lower fibrinogen assay MCF (39.7 ± 10.8 mm vs. 50.1 ± 12.0 mm; mean difference, -11.2 mm; 95% CI, -2.1 to -20.2; p = 0.02) compared with patients without thrombosis. We identified negative correlations of D-dimer levels and ROTEM MCF in these patients (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: We identified elevated D-dimer levels and hypercoagulable blood clot characteristics from increased fibrinogen on ROTEM testing in critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, we identified lower, albeit still hypercoagulable, ROTEM measurements of fibrinogen in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic complications compared with those without. Further work is required to externally validate these findings and to investigate the mechanistic drivers for these relationships to identify best diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic, level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Thrombelastography/methods , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/diagnosis
7.
J Crit Care ; 62: 172-175, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988303

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created an enormous health crisis and this spring New York City had a severe outbreak that pushed health and critical care resources to the limit. A lack of adequate space for mechanically ventilated patients induced our hospital to convert operating rooms into critical care areas (OR-ICU). A large number of COVID-19 will develop acute kidney injury that requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). We included 116 patients with COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilation and were cared for in our OR-ICU. At 90 days and at discharge 35 patients died (30.2%). RRT was required by 45 of the 116 patients (38.8%) and 18 of these 45 patients (40%) compared to 17 with no RRT (23.9%, ns) died during hospitalization and after 90 days. Only two of the 27 patients who required RRT and survived required RRT at discharge and 90 days. When defining renal recovery as a discharge serum creatinine within 150% of baseline, 68 of 78 survivors showed renal recovery (87.2%). Survival was similar to previous reports of patients with severe COVID-19 for patients cared for in provisional ICUs compared to standard ICUs. Most patients with severe COVID-19 and AKI are likely to recover full renal function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 30(9): 1060-1062, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817747
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