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1.
International Journal of Hospitality Management ; 95:1-11, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20244845

ABSTRACT

Implicit psychological contract (PC) represents the dynamic employee-employer relationship, and unlike explicit human resource (HR) practices, PC is an underexplored topic in the crisis management literature. By capturing the dual perspective of hotel employers and employees through interviews, this study investigates the content of PCs and breaches of PCs during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The study identifies salient dimensions of employer obligations such as safety assurance and of employee obligations such as personal protection. While employees emphasized the transactional contracts to protect their individual interests, the employers tried to balance the transactional and relational contracts. The study proposes a dynamic PC breach model that indicates contract breaches lead to varied responses through a complex interpretation process. In general, the study suggests that ensuring mutual consideration is the best way for hotel employees and employers to pull through a crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 358, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distribution of ACE2 and accessory proteases (ANAD17 and CTSL) in cardiovascular tissue and the host cell receptor binding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are crucial to understanding the virus's cell invasion, which may play a significant role in determining the viral tropism and its clinical manifestations. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the cell type-specific expression of ACE2, ADAM17, and CTSL in myocardial tissue from 10 patients using RNA sequencing. Our study included a meta-analysis of 2 heart single-cell RNA-sequencing studies with a total of 90,024 cells from 250 heart samples of 10 individuals. We used co-expression analysis to locate specific cell types that SARS-CoV-2 may invade. RESULTS: Our results revealed cell-type specific associations between male gender and the expression levels of ACE2, ADAM17, and CTSL, including pericytes and fibroblasts. AGT, CALM3, PCSK5, NRP1, and LMAN were identified as potential accessory proteases that might facilitate viral invasion. Enrichment analysis highlighted the extracellular matrix interaction pathway, adherent plaque pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction inflammatory response, and oxidative stress as potential immune pathways involved in viral infection, providing potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. We also found specific high expression of IFITM3 and AGT in pericytes and differences in the IFN-II signaling pathway and PAR signaling pathway in fibroblasts from different cardiovascular comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated possible high-risk groups for COVID-19 and provided emerging avenues for future investigations of its pathogenesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (Not applicable).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Male , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins
3.
Biochemistry ; 62(13): 2055-2064, 2023 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237409

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to pose a threat to public health. Main protease (Mpro) is one of the most lucrative drug targets for developing specific antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. By targeting Mpro, peptidomimetic nirmatrelvir is able to inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the risk for progression to severe COVID-19. However, multiple mutations in the gene encoding Mpro of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants raise a concern of drug resistance. In the present study, we expressed 16 previously reported SARS-CoV-2 Mpro mutants (G15S, T25I, T45I, S46F, S46P, D48N, M49I, L50F, L89F, K90R, P132H, N142S, V186F, R188K, T190I, and A191V). We evaluated the inhibition potency of nirmatrelvir against these Mpro mutants and solved the crystal structures of representative Mpro mutants of SARS-CoV-2 bound to nirmatrelvir. Enzymatic inhibition assays revealed that these Mpro variants remain susceptible to nirmatrelvir as the wildtype. Detailed analysis and structural comparison provided the inhibition mechanism of Mpro mutants by nirmatrelvir. These results informed the ongoing genomic surveillance of drug resistance of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants to nirmatrelvir and facilitate the development of next-generation anticoronavirus drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
4.
N Engl J Med ; 389(2): 137-147, 2023 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among patients with resected, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, stage IB to IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), adjuvant osimertinib therapy, with or without previous adjuvant chemotherapy, resulted in significantly longer disease-free survival than placebo in the ADAURA trial. We report the results of the planned final analysis of overall survival. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned eligible patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive osimertinib (80 mg once daily) or placebo until disease recurrence was observed, the trial regimen was completed (3 years), or a discontinuation criterion was met. The primary end point was investigator-assessed disease-free survival among patients with stage II to IIIA disease. Secondary end points included disease-free survival among patients with stage IB to IIIA disease, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: Of 682 patients who underwent randomization, 339 received osimertinib and 343 received placebo. Among patients with stage II to IIIA disease, the 5-year overall survival was 85% in the osimertinib group and 73% in the placebo group (overall hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95.03% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.73; P<0.001). In the overall population (patients with stage IB to IIIA disease), the 5-year overall survival was 88% in the osimertinib group and 78% in the placebo group (overall hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95.03% CI, 0.34 to 0.70; P<0.001). One new serious adverse event, pneumonia related to coronavirus disease 2019, was reported after the previously published data-cutoff date (the event was not considered by the investigator to be related to the trial regimen, and the patient fully recovered). Adjuvant osimertinib had a safety profile consistent with that in the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant osimertinib provided a significant overall survival benefit among patients with completely resected, EGFR-mutated, stage IB to IIIA NSCLC. (Funded by AstraZeneca; ADAURA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02511106.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , COVID-19/etiology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Mutation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Survival Analysis
5.
Smart Materials in Medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-20231366

ABSTRACT

Nanodendrite particles (NDs) with densely branched structures and biomimetic architectures have exhibited great promise in tumor therapy owing to their prolonged in vivo circulation time and exceptional photothermal efficiency. Nevertheless, traditional NDs are deficient in terms of specific surface modification and targeting tumors, which restricts their potential for broader clinical applications. Here, we developed coronavirus-like gold NDs through a seed-mediated approach and using silk fibroin (SF) as a capping agent. Our results demonstrate that these NDs have a favorable drug-loading capacity (∼65.25%) and light-triggered release characteristics of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Additionally, NDs functionalized with specific probes exhibited exceptional surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) characteristics, enabling high-sensitivity Raman imaging of unstained single cells. Moreover, these NDs allowed for real-time monitoring of endocytic NDs for over 24 h. Furthermore, ND@DOX conjugated with tumor-targeting peptides exhibited mild hyperthermia, minimal cytotoxicity, and effective targeting towards cancer cells in vitro, as well as responsiveness to the tumor microenvironment (TME) in vivo. These unique properties led to the highest level of synergistic tumor-killing efficiency when stimulated by a near-infrared (NIR) laser at 808 nm. Therefore, our virus-like ND functionalized with SF presents a novel type of nanocarrier that exhibits significant potential for synergistic applications in precision medicine.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 890: 164070, 2023 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320865

ABSTRACT

For three years, a large amount of manufactured pollutants such as plastics, antibiotics and disinfectants has been released into the environment due to COVID-19. The accumulation of these pollutants in the environment has exacerbated the damage to the soil system. However, since the epidemic outbreak, the focus of researchers and public attention has consistently been on human health. It is noteworthy that studies conducted in conjunction with soil pollution and COVID-19 represent only 4 % of all COVID-19 studies. In order to enhance researchers' and the public awareness of the seriousness on the COVID-19 derived soil pollution, we propose the viewpoint that "pandemic COVID-19 ends but soil pollution increases" and recommend a whole-cell biosensor based new method to assess the environmental risk of COVID-19 derived pollutants. This approach is expected to provide a new way for environmental risk assessment of soils affected by contaminants produced from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Soil , Plastics , Risk Assessment
7.
PNAS Nexus ; 2(5): pgad127, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320544

ABSTRACT

Modeling the global dynamics of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) like COVID-19 can provide important guidance in the preparation and mitigation of pandemic threats. While age-structured transmission models are widely used to simulate the evolution of EIDs, most of these studies focus on the analysis of specific countries and fail to characterize the spatial spread of EIDs across the world. Here, we developed a global pandemic simulator that integrates age-structured disease transmission models across 3,157 cities and explored its usage under several scenarios. We found that without mitigations, EIDs like COVID-19 are highly likely to cause profound global impacts. For pandemics seeded in most cities, the impacts are equally severe by the end of the first year. The result highlights the urgent need for strengthening global infectious disease monitoring capacity to provide early warnings of future outbreaks. Additionally, we found that the global mitigation efforts could be easily hampered if developed countries or countries near the seed origin take no control. The result indicates that successful pandemic mitigations require collective efforts across countries. The role of developed countries is vitally important as their passive responses may significantly impact other countries.

8.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 143(5): 416-422, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 'Hearing loss' has been reported as a clinical atypical symptom in some COVID-19 patients. We searched and collated the existing literature for a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of hearing loss during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: An exhaustive search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and other sources from the inception of the database until 31st December 2022. The Search terms were set to: 'COVID-19', 'SARS-CoV-2', '2019-nCoV', 'hearing impairment', 'hearing loss', 'auditory dysfunction'. The literature data meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed. Prevalence was pooled from individual studies using a randomized effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies were included in the final analysis, involving 14281 patients with COVID-19 infection, of which 482 patients had varying degrees of hearing loss. Our final meta-analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of hearing loss in COVID-19-positive patients was 8.2% (95%CI 5.0-12.1). Subgroup analysis of age showed that the prevalence of middle-aged and older patients aged 50-60 and over 60 years was 20.6% and 14.8%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of patients aged 30-40 (4.9%) and 40-50 years (6.0%). CONCLUSION: Hearing loss is one of the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 infection, compared with other diseases, it is less likely to attract the attention of clinical experts or researchers. Raising awareness of this disease can not only enable early diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss, and improve the quality of life of patients, but also enhance our vigilance against virus transmission, which has important clinical and practical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deafness , Hearing Loss , Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/etiology , Hearing
9.
Sustainability ; 15(7):5858, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2303666

ABSTRACT

Live streaming of agricultural products can reduce farmer losses caused by unsalable agricultural products and increase the income of farmers. Live streaming can be especially effective for green product sales as it can increase viewer understanding of and interest in the production and attributes of green products. Using the stimulus, organization, and response theoretical framework, this paper explores the influence of agricultural products anchors' characteristics on consumers' purchasing behavior and the mediating effect of green consumption cognition. The data come from surveys distributed online to Chinese shoppers who had participated in an agricultural livestreaming event. A total of 691 valid responses were received. Anchor characteristics of influence, sales promotion, and interactive entertainment were found to positively impact consumers' purchasing behavior. Green consumption cognition, composed of environmental problem perception and green consumption awareness, has a positive impact on purchasing intent. Furthermore, anchor characteristics of influence and sales promotion can positively influence consumers' purchasing behavior indirectly through green consumption cognition.

10.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonia was detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and as the epidemic spread, such cases emerged worldwide. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) named a new mutant Omicron (B.1.1.529), which disrupts the binding of most antibodies to the S protein and has a greater ability to break through the vaccine, posing a serious risk to population safety. Positive pregnant women give birth to positive newborns despite appropriate isolation measures taken by medical staff, suggesting that we may have vertical transmission of the novel coronavirus. This article analyzes and studies the possible vertical transmission path of the new coronavirus in the perinatal period of pregnant women and the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and puts forward effective preventive measures for positive pregnant women to provide further reference for clinical work. METHODS: We searched multiple databases, including PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, WHO COVID-19 database, and CDC database. Search terms included COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vertical transmission, Omicron, Vaginal, Breast Feeding, Vaccine, Neonatal, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Pregnancy, and Semen. SELECTION CRITERIA: The following criteria were also met: (1) positive maternal novel coronavirus nucleic acid test; (2) reporting of neonatal outcome; (3) language in Chinese or English; (4) study date or location indicated; (5) no suspected or confirmed duplicated reports. RESULTS: There is evidence of vertical transmission, and the risk of possible vertical transmission is 5.7% (75/1314). The article listed four possible vertical transmission routes, namely placental transmission, vaginal upstream transmission, breastfeeding transmission and monocyte, and macrophage transmission route, with placental transmission being the most probable. Meanwhile, SARS-CoV-2 may also enter the placenta to infect the fetus through antibody-dependent enhanced substitution mechanism. We recommend three methods for early surveillance of vertical transmission, namely nucleic acid testing, antibody screening, and antigen testing, and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the article provides recommendations in four areas: labor management, neonatal management, nosocomial infection prevention and control, and vaccination. As well as suggesting effective preventive measures for positive pregnant women and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination, it is recommended that pregnant women should be vaccinated promptly, but considering that the vaccine may cause fever, it is recommended to consider vaccination cautiously in the first trimester of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The article concludes that vertical transmission is possible, with placental transmission being the most likely, and that the risk of possible vertical transmission is 5.7% (75/1314). Good personal protection, patient isolation, ward disinfection, and vaccination are the best means of interrupting SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Hong Kong J Occup Ther ; 36(1): 31-38, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306409

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the physical and psychological effects of five-element music therapy combined with Baduanjin qigong treatment on inpatients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan. Methods: A mixed-methods study was used. In the quantitative study, a randomized controlled trial was performed on 40 study participants divided into a control group (n = 20) and an intervention group (n = 20). The Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were compared. For qualitative analysis, it adopted purposive sampling method, 13 patients of different ages from 18 to 60 years old and different exercise behavior were selected as the participants from the intervention group. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data, and the content analysis method was used for data analysis. An interview outline was developed to assess the psychological condition and personal functional-exercise behavior of patients. Results: In the quantitative study, the anxiety self-scores and depression self-scores of patients in intervention group were significantly lower compared with control group after treatment (p < .05). The sleep quality of intervention group was significantly improved compared with control group (p < .001). Participants in the qualitative study responded to questions posed through semi-structured interviews. The effect of intervention was good, which has been supported and recognized by patients. Conclusion: The treatment of five-element music therapy combined with Baduanjin qigong on patients with mild COVID-19 alleviated anxiety and depression, and improved sleep quality, which was beneficial to the patients' physical and psychological recovery.

12.
Psychology research and behavior management ; 16:727-737, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2268935

ABSTRACT

Background There is growing evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on public mental health. However, less attention has been paid to left-behind experience college students (LBEs). This online study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and anxiety among LBEs during COVID-19 pandemic, and further analyze the mediation role of self-esteem between them. Methods A total of 9990 students were chosen using the stratified cluster sampling method. Three self-reported questionnaires were used to assess the PsyCap, self-esteem, and anxiety, respectively. All the statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 23.0 and R, and to further investigate the mediation effect of self-esteem in the association of PsyCap with anxiety, AMOS 23.0 was used to build a structural equation model. Results PsyCap, self-esteem, and anxiety were significantly correlated among LBEs during the COVID-19 pandemic. PsyCap affects anxiety directly (β = –0.22, SE = 0.051, 95% CI: –0.27, –0.17, P < 0.05). In addition, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between PsyCap and anxiety (mediating effect value = –0.16, 95% CI: –0.20, –0.13, P < 0.05). Conclusion During the pandemic of COVID-19, left-behind experience had a negative influence on the PsyCap and self-esteem of college students. In addition, for LBEs, self-esteem plays an important mediating role between PsyCap and anxiety. Therefore, from the perspective of PsyCap and self-esteem, schools should translate them into practical educational strategies to enhance the mental health and mitigate the anxiety levels of LBEs.

13.
Heliyon ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2268781

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and subsequently swept the globe. In addition to the risk of infection, there is a strong possibility that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a secondary effect of the pandemic. Health care workers (HCWs) participating in the pandemic are highly exposed to and may bear the brunt out of stressful or traumatic events. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the morbidity and risk factors of PTSD symptoms among Chinese HCWs. A total of 457 HCWs were recruited from March 15, 2020, to Mach 22, 2020, including HCWs in Wuhan and Hubei Province (excluding Wuhan), the areas first and most seriously impacted by COVID-19. The morbidity of PTSD symptoms was assessed by the Event Scale–Revised (IES-R). The risk factors for PTSD symptoms were explored by means of logistic regression analysis. Over 40% of the respondents experienced PTSD symptoms more than one month after the COVID-19 outbreak, and this proportion increased to 57.7% in Wuhan HCWs, especially females and HCWs on the frontline. Thus, rapid mental health assessment and effective psychological interventions need to be developed for frontline HCWs to prevent long-term PTSD-related disabilities. Moreover, Negative coping style and neuroticism personality may be regarded as high risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Improving individual coping strategies to enhance resilience should be the focus of further preventive intervention strategies.

14.
Frontiers in immunology ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2287264

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccinations were essential in preventing COVID-19 infections and related mortality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in older adults. We systematically searched the electronic bibliographic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Research Square, and OpenGrey, as well as other sources of gray literature, for studies published between January 1, 2020, and October 1, 2022. We retrieved 22 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with a total of 3,404,696 older adults (aged over 60 years) participating, that were included in the meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was found. In the cumulative meta-analysis, we found that the COVID-19 vaccines were effective in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.23–0.65, p = 0.0004) and in reducing the number of COVID-19-related deaths (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.10–0.25, p < 0.00001) in elderly people. Antibody seroconversion (AS) and geometric mean titer (GMT) levels significantly increased in vaccinated older adults [OR = 24.42, 95% CI = 19.29–30.92;standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.64–1.20, respectively]. However, local and systemic adverse events after COVID-19 vaccine administration were found in older adults (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.83–3.62, p < 0.00001). Although vaccination might induce certain adverse reactions in the elderly population, the available evidence showed that the COVID-19 vaccines are effective and tolerated, as shown by the decrease in COVID-19-related deaths in older adults. It needs to be made abundantly clear to elderly people that the advantages of vaccination far outweigh any potential risks. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination should be considered as the recommended strategy for the control of this disease by preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and related deaths in older adults. More RCTs are needed to increase the certainty of the evidence and to verify our conclusions. Systematic review registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022319698, identifier CRD42022319698.

15.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 49:304-308, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2282992

ABSTRACT

Providing targeted support to people who are mostly impacted financially is critical in managing the socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic;however, governments face the challenge of pinpointing vulnerable workers. Building upon the multi-regional input-output model and a high-resolution employment profile, this research develops a new analytical model to recognize the vulnerable population in a crisis by identifying who they are, where they work and what sector they work for. The model was applied to Indonesia to assess tourism losses and found four regional hotspots where the employment vulnerability of women, youth and low-education workers was more than five times higher than the national average. Findings demonstrated that this model could assist with rapid and efficient targeted support for crisis management in the short term and continued investment for an equitable disaster recovery in the future. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

16.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 2-15, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270129

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear. Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis. Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Animals , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 28(2): 40, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibodies induced by viral infection can not only prevent subsequent virus infection, but can also mediate pathological injury following infection. Therefore, understanding the B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire of either specific neutralizing or pathological antibodies from patients convalescing from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is of benefit for the preparation of therapeutic or preventive antibodies, and may provide insight into the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathological injury. METHODS: In this study, we used a molecular approach of combining 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'-RACE) with PacBio sequencing to analyze the BCR repertoire of all 5 IgH and 2 IgL genes in B-cells harvested from 35 convalescent patients after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. RESULTS: We observed numerous BCR clonotypes within most COVID-19 patients, but not in healthy controls, which validates the association of the disease with a prototypical immune response. In addition, many clonotypes were found to be frequently shared between different patients or different classes of antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These convergent clonotypes provide a resource to identify potential therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies, or identify antibodies associated with pathological effects following infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Antibodies , B-Lymphocytes
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288399

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), beginning in December 2019, has spread worldwide, leading to the death of millions. Owing to the absence of definitive treatment, vaccination against COVID-19 emerged as an effective strategy against the spread of the pandemic. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine has advanced considerably, and vaccine-related research has significantly increased over the past three years. This study aimed to evaluate the content and external characteristics of COVID-19 vaccine-related literature for tracking research trends related to the global COVID-19 vaccine with the means of bibliometrics and visualization maps. A total of 18,285 records in 3499 journals were retrieved in the Web of Science Core Collection database and included in the final analysis. China was the first to focus on COVID-19 vaccine research, while European and American countries started late but developed rapidly. The USA and the UK are the top contributors to COVID-19 vaccine development, with the largest number of publications. The University of Washington and Harvard Medical School were the leading institutions, while Krammer, F. from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai was the author most active and influential to the topic. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest number of citations and the highest TLS, and was the most cited and influential journal in the field of COVID-19 vaccine research. COVID-19 vaccine research topics and hotspots focused on populations' attitudes towards vaccination, immunity-related information analysis of spike proteins, the effectiveness and side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine, and the public management of epidemic transmission. The findings of this study provide the global status, research hotspots and potential trends in the field of COVID-19 vaccine research, which will assist researchers in mastering the knowledge structure, and evaluating and guiding future developmental directions of COVID-19 vaccine.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(11): e33227, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287769

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical efficacy and prognosis of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with osteoarthropathy secondary to septic hip arthritis. A total of 100 patients with osteoarthropathy secondary to septic hip arthritis who underwent surgery in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2021 were selected. Operative data were summarized. Moreover, preoperative and postoperative differences in Harris score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, Visual Analogue Scale score, hip mobility were compared. Due to hospital transfer, the epidemic of COVID-2019 and other reasons, 10 patients were lost to follow-up and finally 90 patients were recorded. According to the results, the mean operation time (OT) was 1.78 ± 0.32 (hour), the mean intraoperative blood loss (BL) was 586.62 ± 31.66 (mL), the mean red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was 3.84 ± 0.75 (U), and 2 cases were positive, and 88 cases were negative for Trendelenburg sign. Postoperatively, the unequal length of the lower limbs and the Visual Analogue Scale score were significantly lower than that of the preoperative, while the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, Harris score, and hip joint range of motion were significantly higher than those of the preoperative (P < .05). At the last follow-up, all the incisions healed with no deep infections, 1 case suffered from transient sciatic nerve palsy, 2 cases had intermuscular venous thrombosis, and 2 cases who occurred hip dislocation recovered after treatment. THA surgery for osteoarthropathy secondary to septic hip arthritis has a good effect, relieving the patient's pain effectively, improving prognosis and joint mobility. For osteoarthropathy secondary to septic hip arthritis, THA may be meaningful in terms of prognosis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Hip Prosthesis , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Hip Joint/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Arthritis, Infectious/complications , Arthritis, Infectious/surgery , Osteoarthritis/surgery
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1113156, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287265

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccinations were essential in preventing COVID-19 infections and related mortality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in older adults. We systematically searched the electronic bibliographic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Research Square, and OpenGrey, as well as other sources of gray literature, for studies published between January 1, 2020, and October 1, 2022. We retrieved 22 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with a total of 3,404,696 older adults (aged over 60 years) participating, that were included in the meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was found. In the cumulative meta-analysis, we found that the COVID-19 vaccines were effective in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.23-0.65, p = 0.0004) and in reducing the number of COVID-19-related deaths (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.10-0.25, p < 0.00001) in elderly people. Antibody seroconversion (AS) and geometric mean titer (GMT) levels significantly increased in vaccinated older adults [OR = 24.42, 95% CI = 19.29-30.92; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.64-1.20, respectively]. However, local and systemic adverse events after COVID-19 vaccine administration were found in older adults (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.83-3.62, p < 0.00001). Although vaccination might induce certain adverse reactions in the elderly population, the available evidence showed that the COVID-19 vaccines are effective and tolerated, as shown by the decrease in COVID-19-related deaths in older adults. It needs to be made abundantly clear to elderly people that the advantages of vaccination far outweigh any potential risks. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination should be considered as the recommended strategy for the control of this disease by preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and related deaths in older adults. More RCTs are needed to increase the certainty of the evidence and to verify our conclusions. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022319698, identifier CRD42022319698.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
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