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1.
Healthcare ; 10(12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199986

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak disrupted medical access for patients receiving chronic opioid therapy. This study investigated their prescription opioid dosages before and after the 2020 outbreak in Taiwan. Methods: A prospective questionnaire survey was conducted among registered outpatients receiving long-term opioids before July 2019 in Taiwan. The questionnaire included items from the Taiwanese Brief Pain Inventory and quality of life assessment. Follow-up surveys in outpatient departments through October 2020 were conducted to collect opioid prescription data. Results: After a mean of 531 days, the questionnaire responses of 103 of the initial 117 respondents were reviewed. Daily opioid doses decreased for 31 respondents (30.1%), remained roughly equivalent (defined as +/- 2.5%) for 27 (26.2%), and increased for 45 (43.7%) after the first wave of the pandemic. The use of strong opioids and nonopioid medications did not significantly differ among the three groups, but less fentanyl patch use was noted in the decreased-dose group after the outbreak. More than 70% of the patients received daily high-dose opioids (>= 90 morphine milligram equivalents);moreover, 60% reported constipation. No deaths due to opioid overdose occurred during the study period. Conclusions: The COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 did not interrupt access to long-term opioid prescriptions for most registered patients with chronic pain in Taiwan. Less fentanyl patch use was observed in participants whose opioid dose was tapering.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2199505

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between different dimensions of empathy and individual symptoms of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic remains unclear, despite the established link between empathy and depression. The network analysis offers a novel framework for visualizing the association between empathy and depression as a complex system consisting of interacting nodes. In this study, we investigated the nuanced associations between different dimensions of empathy and individual symptoms of depression using a network model during the pandemic. Methods: 1,177 students completed the Chinese version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), measuring dimensions of empathy, and the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), measuring symptoms of depression. First, we investigated the nuanced associations between different dimensions of empathy and individual depressive symptoms. Then, we calculated the bridge expected influence to examine how different dimensions of empathy may activate or deactivate the symptoms of depression cluster. Finally, we conducted a network comparison test to explore whether network characteristics such as empathy-depression edges and bridge nodes differed between genders. Results: First, our findings showed that personal distress was positively linked to symptoms of depression. These symptoms involved psychomotor agitation or retardation (edge weight = 0.18), sad mood (edge weight = 0.12), trouble with concentrating (edge weight = 0.11), and guilt (edge weight = 0.10). Perspective-taking was found to be negatively correlated with trouble with concentrating (edge weight = −0.11). Empathic concern was negatively associated with suicidal thoughts (edge weight = −0.10) and psychomotor agitation or retardation (edge weight = −0.08). Fantasy was not connected with any symptoms of depression. Second, personal distress and empathic concern were the most positive and negative influential nodes that bridged empathy and depression (values of bridge expected influence were 0.51 and −0.19 and values of predictability were 0.24 and 0.24, respectively). The estimates of the bridge expected influence on the nodes were adequately stable (correlation stability coefficient = 0.75). Finally, no sex differences in the studied network characteristics were observed. Conclusions: This study applied network analysis to reveal potential pathways between different dimensions of empathy and individual symptoms of depression. The findings supported the existing theoretical system and contribute to the theoretical mechanism. We have also made efforts to suggest interventions and preventions based on personal distress and empathic concern, the two most important dimensions of empathy for depressive symptoms. These efforts may help Chinese university students to adopt better practical methods to overcome symptoms of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2197588

ABSTRACT

The paper analyzes the assembly process by the example of assembly-modular containers using building information modeling technologies. This paper simulates a 3D model of the Huoshenshan Hospital with a description of the assembly mechanism process based on information modeling of prefabricated buildings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sources on prefabricated houses and explore the concept of creating a digital prototype of a building based on Huoshenshan Hospital, using the Autodesk Revit software. The article describes the methodology of installing modular containers and assembly structures using building information modeling technologies to improve rapid construction technology. The study results showed that building object implementation directly depends on a proper model with a step-by-step mechanism for installation, which can reduce the initial project cost due to the supply of prefabricated structures on the construction site, as well as reduce the project time. The prefabricated house technology demonstrated the high efficiency of using information technology in the assembly of the Huoshenshan Hospital, with which the simulated facility was implemented in 10 days. The need for information modeling data exchange with modern gadgets and systems is investigated, which allows one to get acquainted with the object at the construction site before installation work start. © 2022 ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

4.
BMC Veterinary Research [Electronic Resource] ; 18(1):444, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196274

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 have confirmed that animal coronaviruses represent a potential zoonotic source. Porcine deltacoronavirus is a worldwide evolving enteropathogen of swine, detected first in Hong Kong, China, before its global identification. Following the recent detection of PDCoV in humans, we attempted in this report to re-examine the status of PDCoV phylogenetic classification and evolutionary characteristics. A dataset of 166 complete PDCoV genomes was analyzed using the Maximum Likelihood method in IQ-TREE with the best-fitting model GTR + F + I + G4, revealing two major genogroups (GI and GII), with further seven and two sub-genogroups, (GI a-g) and (GII a-b), respectively. PDCoV strains collected in China exhibited the broadest genetic diversity, distributed in all subgenotypes. Thirty-one potential natural recombination events were identified, 19 of which occurred between China strains, and seven involved at least one China strain as a parental sequence. Importantly, we identified a human Haiti PDCoV strain as recombinant, alarming a possible future spillover that could become a critical threat to human health. The similarity and recombination analysis showed that PDCoV spike ORF is highly variable compared to ORFs encoding other structural proteins. Prediction of linear B cell epitopes of the spike glycoprotein and the 3D structural mapping of amino acid variations of two representative strains of GI and GII showed that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein underwent a significant antigenic drift, suggesting its contribution in the genetic diversity and the wider spread of PDCoV.

5.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194567

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the potential biological mechanisms by which Rhodiola crenulata (RC) treats cytokine storm (CS) using network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experimental verification. Method(s): The ingredients and targets of RC were collected from the Organchem database. CS-related genes were collected using the GeneCards and OMIM databases. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct the RC-CS network diagram. These data were inputted into the STRING database to construct a protein-protein interaction network. we performed gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis using DAVID and R software. Molecular docking of the active ingredient and pathway-related targets was carried out using AutoDock Vina and PyMOL, and then a CS model was established in rats induced by lipopolysaccharide for in vivo experimental verification. Result(s): The network pharmacology results showed that kaempferol was the most important active component of RC in the treatment of CS, and IL6 and STAT3 were identified as key targets. Molecular docking results showed that RC active components kaempferol had a good binding ability to IL6/STAT3. At the same time, compared with the model group, different doses of kaempferol could down-regulate the expression of inflammatory factors (P <.05), and protect against systemic inflammatory response multiple organ damage. Conclusion(s): This study preliminarily revealed that RC can prevent and treat CS by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibiting the systemic inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide, and providing a theoretical basis for the study of its pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of action. Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

6.
Nature ; 19:19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185937

ABSTRACT

Continuous evolution of Omicron has led to a rapid and simultaneous emergence of numerous variants that display growth advantages over BA.5 1. Despite their divergent evolutionary courses, mutations on their receptor-binding domain (RBD) converge on several hotspots. The driving force and destination of such sudden convergent evolution and its impact on humoral immunity remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that these convergent mutations can cause striking evasion of neutralizing antibody (NAb) drugs and convalescent plasma, including those from BA.5 breakthrough infection, while maintaining sufficient ACE2 binding capability. BQ.1.1.10 (BQ.1.1+Y144del), BA.4.6.3, XBB, and CH.1.1 are the most antibody-evasive strains tested. To delineate the origin of the convergent evolution, we determined the escape mutation profiles and neutralization activity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from BA.2 and BA.5 breakthrough-infection convalescents 2,3. Due to humoral immune imprinting, BA.2 and especially BA.5 breakthrough infection reduced the diversity of the NAb binding sites and increased proportions of non-neutralizing antibody clones, which in turn focused humoral immune pressure and promoted convergent evolution in the RBD. Moreover, we showed that the convergent RBD mutations could be accurately inferred by deep mutational scanning (DMS) profiles 4,5, and the evolution trends of BA.2.75/BA.5 subvariants could be well-foreseen through constructed convergent pseudovirus mutants. These results suggest current herd immunity and BA.5 vaccine boosters may not efficiently prevent the infection of Omicron convergent variants.

7.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 8(1):19, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185767
8.
ACS Measurement Science Au ; 2(5):414-421, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2185512

ABSTRACT

Mucous samples collected through nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are considered gold standard specimens for the detection of respiratory pathogens. Matrices of these highly viscous samples often cause significant background noises in immunoassays, especially immunoassays with high sensitivity. We demonstrated such nonspecific background signals in both a chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel highly sensitive immunoassay called Microbubbling SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Assay (MSAA). We developed and demonstrated the effectiveness of two quick sample pretreatment methods, filtration and preadsorption, to decrease nonspecific signals and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using these pretreatment methods, the SNR (at 3.6 × 104 copies/mL of inactivated SARS-CoV-2) was increased by 42.4-fold (95% CI 41.0-43.8) and 67.1-fold (95% CI 57.9-76.3) in the MSAA, and 1.3-fold (95% CI 0.9-1.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI 1.6-2.0) in the chemiluminescence ELISA assay. Sample pretreatment methods developed in this study are broadly adaptable for the development of immunoassays for highly viscous samples. © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

9.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualites ; 15(1):240, 2023.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2182958

ABSTRACT

Declaration de liens d'interets: Les auteurs declarent ne pas avoir de liens d'interets. Copyright © 2022

10.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175061

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought many challenges to youth development. During this specific period, adolescents have suffered from numerous behavioral problems, which will lead to more maladaptive consequences. It is necessary to explore several protective factors to prevent or reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors in adolescence. The current study combined school resources and self-control to evaluate the multiple protective effects on adolescents' problematic behaviors in a two-wave longitudinal study. A sample of 789 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 14.00 years, SD = 2.05, 418 boys) were recruited via the random cluster sampling method to participate in the survey. The results confirmed the assumptions about the multiple protective effects of school resources and self-control on adolescents' problem behaviors. Specifically, school resources could negatively predict IGD and victimization, and self-control mediated these associations. Moreover, one problematic behavior could also mediate the associations between self-control and another problematic behavior. This is the first study to focus on the multiple protective effects of positive factors on adolescents' problem behaviors during the post-pandemic period, which has made several contributions to the literature and practice.

12.
Analytical Chemistry ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150966

ABSTRACT

In the two years of COVID-19 pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 variants have caused waves of infections one after another, and the pandemic is not ending. The key mutations on the S protein enable the variants with enhanced viral infectivity, immune evasion, and/or antibody neutralization resistance, bringing difficulties to epidemic prevention and control. In support of precise epidemic control and precision medicine of the virus, a fast and simple genotyping method for the key mutations of SARS-CoV-2 variants needs to be developed. By utilizing the specific recognition and cleavage property of the nuclease Argonaute from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfAgo), we developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and PfAgo combined method for a rapid and sensitive genotyping of SARS-CoV-2 key mutation L452R. With a delicate design of the strategy, careful screening of the RPA primers and PfAgo gDNA, and optimization of the reaction, the method achieves a high sensitivity of a single copy per reaction, which is validated with the pseudovirus. This is the highest sensitivity that can be achieved theoretically and the highest sensitivity as compared to the available SARS-CoV-2 genotyping assays. Using RPA, the procedure of the method is finished within 1.5 h and only needs a minimum laboratorial support, suggesting that the method can be easily applied locally or on-site. The RPA-PfAgo method established in this study provides a strong support to the precise epidemic control and precision medicine of SARS-CoV-2 variants and can be readily developed for the simultaneous genotyping of multiple SARS-CoV-2 mutations.

13.
Laser & Optoelectronics Progress ; 59(24), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163762

ABSTRACT

Medical professionals have started favoring the use of non-contact intravenous injection robots owing to their importance during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, there are currently few studies considering the robot's needle insertion angle, and most of the needle insertion operations are performed at a steep angle. This increases the rate of puncture failure, and sometimes causes significant pain in patients depending on their individual differences. Therefore, the intravenous injection of the dorsal hand is performed in this study to investigate the determination of the robot's needle insertion angle. with a focus on the optimization of the measurement data to ensure accuracy in the calculation of the needle insertion angle. First, the space point cloud of the needle insertion area on the dorsal hand is obtained by combining a monocular camera with the linear structured light scanning method , and the dorsal hand plane is obtained via fitting dorsal hand point clouds using the least squares method. During the calibration process for the linear structured light system , the measurement error is eliminated by formulating an error function and using the optimization method to iteratively solve it. Subsequently. the needle insertion angle is determined based on the obtained needle insertion area plane. Finally, experiments are conducted for the accuracy verification of the proposed method. Based on the experimental results, the average error in the optimized structured light plane position is approximately 0. 1 mm, and this serves as a foundation for subsequent automatic injection studies.

14.
Analytical Chemistry ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133135

ABSTRACT

Unlike conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using an antifouling film to anchor biomolecules and a reference channel for background subtraction, SPR microscopy for single-cell analysis uses a protein- or polypeptide-modified gold substrate to immobilize cells and a cell-free area as the reference. In this work, we show that such a substrate is prone to nonspecific adsorption (NSA) of species from the cell culture media, resulting in false background signals that cannot be correctly subtracted. To obtain accurate kinetic results, we patterned a dual-channel substrate using a microfluidic device, with one channel having poly-l-lysine deposited in situ onto a preformed polyethylene glycol (PEG) self-assembled monolayer for cell immobilization and the other channel remaining as PEG-covered for reference. The two 2.0 mm-wide channels are separated by a 75 mum barrier, and parts of the channels can be readily positioned into the field of view of an SPR microscope. The use of this dual-channel substrate for background subtraction is contrasted with the conventional approach through the following binding studies: (1) wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) attachment to the N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid sites of glycans on HFF cells, and (2) the S1 protein of the COVID-19 virus conjugation with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the HEK293 cells. Both studies revealed that interferences by NSA and the surface plasmon polariton wave diffracted by cells can be excluded with the dual-channel substrate, and the much smaller refractive index changes caused by the injected solutions can be correctly subtracted. Consequently, sensorgrams with higher signal-to-noise ratios and shapes predicted by the correct binding model can be obtained with accurate kinetic and affinity parameters that are more biologically relevant. The affinity between S1 protein and ACE2 is comparable to that measured with recombinant ACE2, yet the binding kinetics is different, suggesting that the cell membrane does impose a kinetic barrier to their interaction.

15.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; 301, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2131464

ABSTRACT

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common manifestation of COVID-19. Xuanfei Baidu Formula(XFBD) is used in China to treat mild or common damp-toxin obstructive pulmonary syndrome in COVID-19 patients. However, the active ingredients of XFBD have not been extensively studied, and its mech-anism of action in the treatment of ALI is not well understood.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of XFBD in treating ALI in rats, by evaluating its active components.Materials and methods: Firstly, the chemical composition of XFBD was identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The potential targets of XFBD for ALI treatment were predicted using network pharmacological analysis. Finally, the molecular mechanism of XFBD was validated using a RAW264.7 cell inflammation model and a mouse ALI model.Results: A total of 113 compounds were identified in XFBD. Network pharmacology revealed 34 hub targets between the 113 compounds and ALI. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and gene ontology analyses indicated that the NF-Kappa B signaling pathway was the main pathway for XFBD in the treatment of ALI. We found that XFBD reduced proinflammatory factor levels in LPS-induced cellular models. By examining the lung wet/dry weight ratio and pathological sections in vivo, XFBD was found that XFBD could alleviate ALI. Immunohistochemistry results showed that XFBD inhibited ALI-induced increases in p-IKK, p-NF-Kappa B p65, and iNOS proteins. In vitro experiments demonstrated that XFBD inhibited LPS-induced activation of the NF-Kappa B pathway.Conclusion: This study identified the potential practical components of XFBD, combined with network pharma-cology and experimental validation to demonstrate that XFBD can alleviate lung injury caused by ALI by inhibiting the NF-Kappa B signaling pathway.

16.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 14(10):6846-6855, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2111907

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The goal of this article is to evaluate and explain the heterogeneity of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Australia, to offer advice for stopping the current outbreak and preparing for a suitable response to epidemics in the future. Method(s): We conducted a review to analyze the epidemic and explain its variable manifestation across states in Australia. Most COVID-19 cases and deaths were in the states of Victoria and New South Wales due to differences in the governance of the epidemic and public health responses (quarantine and contact tracing) among states. Result(s): Countries could learn from Australia's overall successful response not only through good governance, effective community participation, adequate public health, adequate health system capacity and multisectoral actions but also from the heterogeneity of the epidemic among states. Conclusion(s): A successful response to epidemics in countries with a decentralized administration requires multilevel governance with alignment and harmonization of the response. Copyright © 2022 E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

17.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; 35(8):925-931, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080953

ABSTRACT

The great anti-epidemic spirit is the spirit of the times formed by all Chinese people in the great struggle against COVID-19 under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. The reason for the spatial transformation of the integration of anti-epidemic spirit education is that the great anti-epidemic spirit is the product of specific space environment. Modern space theory provides a new perspective for the integration of anti-epidemic spirit education.and With the end of the epidemic, the era of the epidemic has changed from the anti-epidemic space to the anti-epidemic spirit education space. The principle of spatial dimension of anti-epidemic spirit education lies in the environment creats people, the anti-epidemic spirit and the spatial environment are mutually embedded and mutually constructed, and the formation of the anti-epidemic spirit is the unity of perceptual cognition and rational cognition.education, and the formation of the anti-epidemic spirit is the unity of perceptual cognition and rational cognition. At the practical level, considering the integration of anti epidemic spirit education from the spatial dimension, we should not only integrate the anti epidemic spirit elements into the multi dynamic spatial environment, but also give full play to the role of multi spatial collaborative education and the supervision role of multi subjects in the spatial environment. © 2022, Editorial department of Chinese Medical Ethics. All rights reserved.

18.
Emergency and Critical Care Medicine ; 2(3):109-115, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2077920

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected approximately 2 million individuals worldwide;however, data regarding fatal cases have been limited. Objective To report the clinical features of 162 fatal cases of COVID-19 from 5 hospitals in Wuhan between December 30, 2019 and March 12, 2020. Methods The demographic data, signs and symptoms, clinical course, comorbidities, laboratory findings, computed tomographic (CT) scans, treatments, and complications of the patients with fatal cases were retrieved from electronic medical records. Results The median patient age was 69.5 (interquartile range: 63.0-77.25) years, and 80% of the patients were over 61 years. A total of 112 (69.1%) patients were men. Hypertension (45.1%) was the most common comorbidity, while 59 (36.4%) patients had no comorbidity. At admission, 131 (81.9%) patients had severe or critical COVID-19, whereas 39 (18.1%) patients with hypertension or chronic lung disease had moderate COVID-19. In total, 126 (77.8%) patients received antiviral treatment, while 132(81.5%) patients received glucocorticoid treatment. A total of 116 (71.6%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 137 (85.1%) patients received mechanical ventilation. Most patients received mechanical ventilation before ICU admission. Approximately 93.2% of the patients developed respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome. There were no significant differences in the inhospital survival time among the hospitals (P=0.14). Conclusion Young patients with moderate COVID-19 without comorbidity at admission could also develop fatal outcomes. The in-hospital survival time of the fatal cases was similar among the hospitals of different levels in Wuhan. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

19.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; : 115833, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076372

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common manifestation of COVID-19. Xuanfei Baidu Formula(XFBD) is used in China to treat mild or common damp-toxin obstructive pulmonary syndrome in COVID-19 patients. However, the active ingredients of XFBD have not been extensively studied, and its mechanism of action in the treatment of ALI is not well understood.

20.
Energies ; 15(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2065777

ABSTRACT

In recent years, due to the rise in energy prices and the impact of COVID-19, energy shortages have led to unsafe power supply environments. High emissions industries which account for more than 58% of the carbon emissions of Guangdong Province have played an important role in achieving the carbon peak goal, alleviating social energy shortage and promoting economic growth. Controlling high emissions industries will help to adjust the industrial structure and increase renewable energy investment. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the policies of energy security and the investments of high emission industries. This paper builds the ICEEH-GD (comprehensive assessment model of climate, economy, environment and health of Guangdong Province) model, designs the Energy Security scenario (ES), the Restrict High Carbon Emission Sector scenario (RHS) and the Comprehensive Policy scenario (CP), and studies the impact of limiting high emissions industries and renewable energy policies on the transformation of investment structure, macro-economy and society. The results show that under the Energy Security scenario (ES), carbon emissions will peak in 2029, with a peak of 681 million tons. Under the condition of ensuring energy security, the installed capacity of coal-fired power generation will remain unchanged from 2025 to 2035. Under the Restrict High Carbon Emission Sector scenario (RHS), the GDP will increase by 8 billion yuan compared with the ES scenario by 2035. At the same time, it can promote the whole society to increase 10,500 employment opportunities, and more investment will flow to the low emissions industries. In the Comprehensive Policy scenario (CP), although the GDP loss will reach 33 billion yuan by 2035 compared with the Energy Security scenario (ES), the transportation and service industries will participate in carbon trading by optimizing the distribution of carbon restrictions in the whole society, which will reduce the carbon cost of the whole society by more than 48%, and promote the employment growth of 104,000 people through industrial structure optimization. Therefore, the power sector should increase investment in renewable energy to ensure energy security, limit the new production capacity of high emissions industries such as cement, steel and ceramics, and increase the green transition and efficiency improvement of existing high emissions industries. © 2022 by the authors.

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