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2.
Asian J Androl ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1975058

ABSTRACT

Studies have investigated the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use on the incidence and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);however, the results have been inconsistent. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from inception to March 2022;13 studies covering 84 003 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with or without ADT met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. We calculated the pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to explore the association between ADT use and the infection risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and severity of COVID-19. After synthesizing the evidence, the pooled RR in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group was equal to 1.17, and the SARS-CoV-2 positive risk in PCa patients using ADT was not significantly different from that in those not using ADT (P = 0.544). Moreover, no significant results concerning the beneficial effect of ADT on the rate of intensive care unit admission (RR = 1.04, P = 0.872) or death risk (RR = 1.23, P = 0.53) were found. However, PCa patients with a history of ADT use had a markedly higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (RR = 1.31, P = 0.015) than those with no history of ADT use. These findings indicate that ADT use by PCa patients is associated with a high risk of hospitalization during infection with SARS-CoV-2. A large number of high quality studies are needed to confirm these results.

3.
Yaoxue Xuebao ; 57(6):1574-1583, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928934

ABSTRACT

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of heme to CO, biliverdin, and iron, which together protect cells from oxidative and inflammatory damage and play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. In recent years, HO-1 has also been found to have antiviral biological effects, and the induced expression of HO-1 inhibits the replication of various viruses such as hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue virus, ebolavirus, influenza A virus, Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus 71. The inhibitory effect of HO-1 on these viruses involves three mechanisms, including direct inhibition of virus replication by HO-1 and its downstream products, enhancement of type I interferon responses in host cell, and attenuation of inflammatory damage caused by viral infection. This review focuses on the recent advances in the antiviral effect of HO-1 and its mechanism, which is expected to provide evidence for HO-1 as a potential target for antiviral therapy.

4.
Asian Studies-Azijske Studije ; 10(1):287-314, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1715983

ABSTRACT

This paper examines COVID-19 narratives of China as a form of soft power. The coronavirus pandemic and its handling have presented an image problem for China on the global stage. The country has struggled to control the narratives surrounding the pandemic. This article is interdisciplinary in nature with a focus on contemporary Chinese history, culture, and politics, as well as communication issues and narratives. It analyses non-fictional and fictional narratives as part of China's COVID-19 diplomacy. Beyond documentaries, this paper examines the two docudramas Heroes in Harm's Way (2020) and With You (2020) and how these popular TV shows present the coronavirus crisis in China at the beginning of the pandemic. We argue that they provide positive narratives of the COVID-19 response that highlight people's courage and sacrifice to inspire the Chinese population to stand together as a nation. The docudramas showcase everyday life during the lockdown in Wuhan over 76 days from the end of January 2020 to early April 2020. Nurses, doctors, and patients are represented as heroic characters who fight the pandemic together. Heroes in Harm's Way and With You are testament of a united China broadcast both to domestic audiences and viewers abroad. The docudramas function as damage control to enhance China's image in the world. This helps increase China's soft power as the country presents itself as a capable force for good within its boundaries and beyond.

5.
Journal of Technology and Chinese Language Teaching ; 11(2):113-139, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1047015

ABSTRACT

The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 pushed Chinese language instruction in Eastern European countries from in-person to online or remote instruction within a very short period of time. During this swift change to emergency remote teaching, an interesting research question emerged: how are instructional technology and digital resources used by Chinese language instructors in their in-person versus online oriented instruction. This paper reports the findings of a survey conducted at the end of November 2019 on the use of technology and digital resources by Chinese language instructors from various Confucius Institutes in Eastern European countries. The survey was intended to collect information to prepare for a teacher training program in summer 2020. Results from this survey provide a snapshot of the use of instructional technology in Chinese language teaching and instructors' technical preparedness in Eastern European countries before the pandemic. Given the fact that the pandemic was not foreseen when the survey was conducted, its findings will hopefully provide meaningful references in future comparative studies on the effect of the use of instructional technology for Chinese language learning and instruction before and after the pandemic. It will also be helpful for developing teacher training programs on the use of instructional technology for Chinese language teaching in the future.

6.
Virus Research ; 292:11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1043007

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-COV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally bioavailable compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS-COV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0-31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known DHODH requirements for immunomodulatory cytokine production, PTC299 inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A (also called IL-17), IL-17 F, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tissue culture models. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and previously established favorable pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles render PTC299 a promising therapeutic for COVID-19.

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