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1.
Sage Open ; 11(4):15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1559083

ABSTRACT

A growing concern for online course learning is to what extent learners are concentrated and self-regulated when they are isolated from their classmates and instructors. To address this issue, this study collected both quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of 580 Chinese university learners from varied majors, who were taking online English courses in Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) mode during COVID-19. This study identified specific psychological and contextual factors that impact learners' e-learning acceptance and online self-regulation, based upon Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Learners' actual use of three sub-processes of self-regulated strategies, namely, goal setting, task strategies, and self-evaluation was also examined. Partial least squares (PLS)-structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to test hypotheses and proposed research model. The quantitative results indicate that media richness, as a contextual factor, and social presence and flow, as two typical psychological factors, are determining antecedents that impact Chinese learners' e-learning acceptance. Meanwhile, quantitative findings show that learners' behavioral intention to use e-learning is a main contributor of their use of all three sub-processes of self-regulated learning strategies. Furthermore, thematic analysis was conducted to study the qualitative data, revealing that learners held rather divided and mixed perceptions regarding online learning experience. These findings have important implications for effective online English course design and implementation.

3.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB among school-aged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: In total, 837 parents of children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) with ID from 15 special education schools of Shandong Province in China were recruited through convenience sampling in the study. Parents reported PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID through the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey-Chinese version (CLASS-C) online questionnaires. RESULTS: From parents' reports, Chinese children and adolescents with ID during the COVID-19 pandemic participated in approximately 10 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and engaged in approximately 530 min of SB every day. Meanwhile, only 17.4% of children and adolescents with ID were able to achieve the recommendation of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 76.1% of children and adolescents with ID spent more than 2 h on SB per day. Additionally, the problems of decrease PA and excessive SB were more prominent in older adolescents with ID compared with younger children with ID. CONCLUSION: In China, the low level of PA and high level of SB is particularly evident in children and adolescents with ID during the outbreak of COVID-19. The great majority of children and adolescents with ID did not meet the recommended amount of PA while undergoing excessive SB under the long-term home quarantine environment. Therefore, immediate attention and great effort should be made to deal with this severe situation among this vulnerable population in the mainland of China.

4.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487658

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines on reduced fractionation for patients treated with curative-intent radiotherapy were published, aimed at reducing the number of hospital attendances and potential exposure of vulnerable patients to minimise the risk of COVID-19 infection. We describe the changes that took place in the management of patients with stage I-III lung cancer from April to October 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung Radiotherapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic (COVID-RT Lung) is a prospective multicentre UK cohort study. The inclusion criteria were: patients with stage I-III lung cancer referred for and/or treated with radical radiotherapy between 2nd April and 2nd October 2020. Patients who had had a change in their management and those who continued with standard management were included. Data on demographics, COVID-19 diagnosis, diagnostic work-up, radiotherapy and systemic treatment were collected and reported as counts and percentages. Patient characteristics associated with a change in treatment were analysed using multivariable binary logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 1553 patients were included (median age 72 years, 49% female); 93 (12%) had a change to their diagnostic investigation and 528 (34%) had a change to their treatment from their centre's standard of care as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Age ≥70 years, male gender and stage III disease were associated with a change in treatment on multivariable analysis. Patients who had their treatment changed had a median of 15 fractions of radiotherapy compared with a median of 20 fractions in those who did not have their treatment changed. Low rates of COVID-19 infection were seen during or after radiotherapy, with only 21 patients (1.4%) developing the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in changes to patient treatment in line with national recommendations. The main change was an increase in hypofractionation. Further work is ongoing to analyse the impact of these changes on patient outcomes.

5.
7th International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering, ICISCE 2020 ; : 1157-1163, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470314

ABSTRACT

As the outbreak of novel coronavirus in 2020 is a public crisis event sweeping across the globe, electronic posters as a kind of information transmission medium featuring outstanding visual effect and easy transmission are playing a significant role in timely issuing information, properly guiding the public opinion and alleviating the mental anxiety of the masses under the epidemic situation. In this paper, in order to optimize the transmission efficiency of electronic posters, special effort is made to screen main factors influencing the masses' will of browsing electronic posters online under the epidemic situation from three aspects (Platform, Posters and Audiences) based on the literature research. Then, through the questionnaire survey and DEMATEL method, analysis is made on various factors and the relevance between factors. According to the research results, Information Visualization is the most important demand factor, the basic function of platform the core impact factor and the audiences' anxiety the core impacted factor. Through comparing the result respectively concluded from the DEMATEL and the binary logistic regression analytical method, the research's conclusions can be supplemented and extended. At last, based on the specific analysis and comparison result, suggestions on optimizing online anti-epidemic popular science posters are proposed to enhance the masses' will of browsing and improve the transmission efficiency. © 2020 IEEE.

6.
24th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2021 ; 12906 LNCS:86-96, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1469648

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) reconstruction from X-ray projections acquired within a limited angle range is challenging, especially when the angle range is extremely small. Both analytical and iterative models need more projections for effective modeling. Deep learning methods have gained prevalence due to their excellent reconstruction performances, but such success is mainly limited within the same dataset and does not generalize across datasets with different distributions. Hereby we propose ExtraPolationNetwork for limited-angle CT reconstruction via the introduction of a sinogram extrapolation module, which is theoretically justified. The module complements extra sinogram information and boots model generalizability. Extensive experimental results show that our reconstruction model achieves state-of-the-art performance on NIH-AAPM dataset, similar to existing approaches. More importantly, we show that using such a sinogram extrapolation module significantly improves the generalization capability of the model on unseen datasets (e.g., COVID-19 and LIDC datasets) when compared to existing approaches. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications ; 6(1):25-32, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1458497

ABSTRACT

Aims: During the COVID-19 epidemic, chest computed tomography (CT) has been highly recommended for screening of patients with suspected COVID-19 because of an unclear contact history, overlapping clinical features, and an overwhelmed health system. However, there has not been a full comparison of CT for diagnosis of heart failure or COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: Patients with heart failure (n = 23) or COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 23) and one patient with both diseases were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical information and chest CT images were obtained and analyzed. Results: There was no difference in ground-glass opacity, consolidation, crazy paving pattern, the lobes affected, and septal thickening between heart failure and COVID-19 pneumonia. However, a less rounded morphology (4% vs. 70%, P = 0.00092), more peribronchovascular thickening (70% vs. 35%, P = 0.018) and fissural thickening (43% vs. 4%, P = 0.002), and less peripheral distribution (30% vs. 87%, P = 0.00085) were found in the heart failure group than in the COVID-19 group. Importantly, there were also more patients with upper pulmonary vein enlargement (61% vs. 4%, P = 0.00087), subpleural effusion (50% vs. 0%, P = 0.00058), and cardiac enlargement (61% vs. 4%, P = 0.00075) in the heart failure group than in the COVID-19 group. Besides, more fibrous lesions were found in the COVID-19 group, although there was no statistical difference (22% vs. 4%, P = 0.080). Conclusions: Although there is some overlap of CT features between heart failure and COVID-19, CT is still a useful tool for differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia.

8.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control ; 10(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1448396

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hand hygiene is the primary measure in preventing transmission of pathogens to patients and healthcare workers. With more than 150 million reported COVID-19 cases worldwide of which many require hospital care, it is vital that essential hand hygiene products are sufficiently efficacious against SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: Microbicidal actives (e.g. ethanol) have been shown to be efficacious against other coronaviruses. The objective of this study is to demonstrate viricidal activity of a range of formulated skin care products against SARS-CoV-2 specifically. Methods: Testing was conducted using ASTM E1052-20 and EN14476:2013 + A2:2019 test methods. The test product was challenged with an aliquot of viral inoculum as well as an interference substance (for EN14476) then held for an exposure (contact) time. Immediately after the contact time, the reaction mixture was neutralized. The neutralized sample was assayed for infectious virus via a cell culture-based viral infectivity assay (TCID50 assay). The results were compared to a mock-treated Virus Recovery Control to determine the virucidal activity ( Log10 reduction) by the test product. Results: Table I shows activity against SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to 4 products according to EN14476 and 1 product according to E1052. Conclusion: Alcohol-based sanitizers are effective against SARSCoV- 2. This effectiveness is not strongly affected either by product format or by alcohol composition if a sufficient concentration is applied. SCJ Professional BZK based hand sanitizer and Hydrogen Peroxide/ Phenoxyethanol based antimicrobial foam soap are also both effective against SARS-CoV-2. As a result, we would recommend the use of product formulations meeting those specifications in health care, community, and home environments as part of hand hygiene practices to control the transmission of COVID-19.

9.
IEEE Access ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1447780

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus epidemic (COVID-19) is a public health challenge due to its rapid global spread. Its unprecedented speed and pervasiveness have led many governments to implement a series of countermeasures, such as lock-downs, stopping/restricting travels, and mandating social distancing. To control and prevent the spread of COVID-19, it is essential to understand the latent dynamics of the disease’s evolution and the effectiveness of the intervention policies. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) capture both randomnesses in spatio-temporal dynamics and uncertainty in observations. In this paper, we apply an overall HMM that, based on multiple nations’COVID-19 data including the USA, several European countries, and countries that have strict control policies, explores different types of observations, and we use it to infer the severity state on small geographical states or regions in the USA and Italy as test cases. Further, we aggregate the severity level of each region over a fixed time period to visualize the time evolution and propagation across regions. Such an analysis and visualization provide suggestions for interventions and responses in a calibrated manner. Results from HMM modeling are consistent with what is observed in Italy and the USA and these models can serve as visualization and proactive decision support tools to policymakers. Author

10.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 40(10): 2808-2819, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447893

ABSTRACT

Scarcity of annotated images hampers the building of automated solution for reliable COVID-19 diagnosis and evaluation from CT. To alleviate the burden of data annotation, we herein present a label-free approach for segmenting COVID-19 lesions in CT via voxel-level anomaly modeling that mines out the relevant knowledge from normal CT lung scans. Our modeling is inspired by the observation that the parts of tracheae and vessels, which lay in the high-intensity range where lesions belong to, exhibit strong patterns. To facilitate the learning of such patterns at a voxel level, we synthesize 'lesions' using a set of simple operations and insert the synthesized 'lesions' into normal CT lung scans to form training pairs, from which we learn a normalcy-recognizing network (NormNet) that recognizes normal tissues and separate them from possible COVID-19 lesions. Our experiments on three different public datasets validate the effectiveness of NormNet, which conspicuously outperforms a variety of unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
13.
ACS Applied Polymer Materials ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1337093

ABSTRACT

During the recent COVID-19 pandemic, wearing face masks has become the simplest and most effective way to block the spread of the disease. However, after people wear masks, thousands of tons of medical waste caused by used disposable masks is being generated every day in the world, causing great pressure on the environment. Herein, polymer composites completely derived from waste are manufactured by simple melt blending of disposable mask fragments (mask polypropylene, short for mPP) and discarded loofah sponge (LS). LS was used as a reinforcing agent for the composites because of its unique micron channel structure. The crystalline structure and the mechanical enhancement effect of the composites were investigated. LS powders played a role in promoting the crystallization of mPP by expediting the crystalline nucleation, leading to an improvement in the amount of crystalline nuclei. After being incorporated within the mPP with high fluidity, the LS fiber changing from hollow to solid provides reinforcement for composite materials. With 12 wt % LS loading, the tensile strength of the composites was increased by 326%. The findings may open a way for high-value utilization of disposable masks. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

15.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 41(6):423-426, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1325820

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect IgG and neutralizing antibodies response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine by comparing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), commercial magnetic particle chemiluminescence assay(CLIA) and neutralization test(NT). Methods: ELISA, CLIA and NT were used to detect 143 healthy people before and after 28 days immunization with 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and calculate the positive conversion rate, quantitative results and analysis the consistency of the three methods. Results: The positive conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine antibody detected by ELISA, CLIA and NT were respectively 97.9%, 98.6% and 85.3%. The geometric mean of the highest dilution of the serum quantitatively detected by ELISA was 586.6;The mean of CLIA S/CO value was 11.26;The geometric mean titer of the NT was 7.6. The correlation coefficient between ELISA, CLIA and NT were respectively 0.69(P<0.01) and 0.65(P<0.01), and the correlation coefficient between ELISA and CLIA was 0.79(P<0.01). Conclusions: The three methods all detected high levels of antibodies response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunization. ELISA and CLIA are more consistent to detect IgG antibody, and have a good correlation with the quantitative detection results of the NT.

17.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):135-136, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250916

ABSTRACT

Background: We previously showed that β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (rNHC) and its orally bioavailable prodrug, molnupiravir, acts as a broad-spectrum antiviral against coronaviruses in vitro and in vivo through lethal mutagenesis. Molnupiravir is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there are concerns that rNHC could be metabolized to dNHC and cause mutations in host cells. We examined the in vitro antiviral and mammalian cell mutagenic activity of three different nucleoside/base analogs, rNHC, favipiravir, and ribavirin, on SARS-CoV-2. We further examined the in vitro genotoxicity of a panel of antiviral nucleotide/nucleoside analogs, including rNHC, using a modified HPRT gene mutation assay. Methods: A549-hACE2 cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of nucleoside analogs. After 48 hours, the supernatants were collected and viral RNA was extracted. We constructed multiplexed-Primer ID libraries from viral RNA and sequenced them using MiSeq. HPRT knockout assays were performed using CHO-K1 cells treated with a panel of nucleotide/nucleoside analogs for 32 days. After 6-thioguanine selection, resistant cell colonies were counted as a measure of HPRT knockout mutations in host cells, and HPRT mRNA was sequenced from selected colonies. Results: rNHC showed dose-dependent antiviral and mutagenic effects against SAR-CoV-2 in vitro. In the 10 μM group, we found 7-fold and 14-fold increases in the overall substitution rate and the C to U mutation rate, respectively. The HPRT assay showed an rNHC dose-dependent increase in the number of resistant colonies with HPRT gene mutations. Other analogs showed no significant increase in the number of 6-thioG resistant colonies except for a slight increase with favipiravir (Fig 1a). Most colonies had missense substitutions or frame-shift deletions within HPRT mRNA, with most being distinct. Conclusion: rNHC showed a dose-dependent inhibition and mutagenic effect of SAR-CoV-2 in vitro. However, rNHC would be expected to be metabolized into the deoxynucleotide pool (by host RNR), resulting in DNA mutation of dividing mammalian cells. We demonstrated such mutagenic potential in a simple mammalian cell detection scheme. Molnupiravir has considerable potential as an orally bioavailable direct acting antiviral against SARS-CoV2 early in infection, especially in high risk patients. However, clinical use should be carefully considered in light of its potential mutagenic effects on the host.

18.
Journal of Risk Research ; 24(3-4):477-491, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1246610

ABSTRACT

This paper examines how perceived risk influences epidemic information seeking behaviour, which in turn helps us understand public information seeking generally. To this end, the effects of perceived risk, information needs and negative emotions on public epidemic information seeking were examined using a structural equation model (SEM) based on data collected via an online survey (N = 407) covering two regions in China, Guangdong and Hubei, and based on the Risk Information Seeking and Processing Model (RISP). The results show that the epidemic risk perceived by citizens impacts information seeking based on the mediating effects of information needs and negative emotions. Furthermore, perceived risk has positive effects on information needs and negative emotions in that higher levels of information needs and stronger negative emotions positively facilitate the seeking of epidemic information. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

19.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14379, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1238431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in admission rates for and quality of care of ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) during the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and post COVID-19 era. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with STEMI in the outbreak era (between January 23, 2020 and March 27, 2020), and the post era (between March 28, 2020, and July 31, 2020) in Suzhou Province, drawn from the China Chest Pain Center Database. RESULTS: 1965 STEMI admissions were enrolled. During the corresponding period of 2019 to the post COVID-19 era, there were a 53% and 38% fall in admissions in outbreak and the post era. There remained a gap in actual number of admissions at 306 and the predicted number that might be at 497. An estimated 26 deaths due to STEMI would have been caused by not seeking health care while no one died from COVID-19. The percentage of STEMI cases transferred by ambulance decreased from 9.3% to 4.2% (P=0.013). Door-to-balloon and the FMC-to-device median (q1, q3) time increased from 17.5 (10.0, 46.0) and 52.0 (12.0, 86.0) minutes to 34.0 (15.0, 48.0) and 63.0 (15.0, 94.0) minutes, respectively (p=0.001, p=0.005), and rate of PCI practice declined from 71.3% to 60.1% (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of public health restrictions in the post COVID-19 era is significant, and may lead to unexpected out-of-hospital deaths and compromised quality of STEMI care. Delay or absence in presentation in STEMI patients should be continuously considered to avoid the secondary disaster of the pandemic. System delay should be modifiable for reversing the worse clinical outcomes from the COVID-19 outbreak, by coordination measures with focus on the balance between timely PCI procedure and minimizing contamination of cardiac catheterization rooms.

20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 977-982, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194725

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the safety of two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in a large-scale emergency use. Methods: Based on the "Vaccination Information Collection System", the incidence data of adverse reactions in the population vaccinated with the inactivated COVID-19 vaccines developed by Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd and Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd, respectively, in emergency use were collected, and the relevant information were analyzed with descriptive epidemiological and statistical methods. Results: By December 1, 2020, the vaccination information of 519 543 individuals had been collected. The overall incidence rate of adverse reactions was 1.06%, the incidence rate of systemic adverse reactions was 0.69% and the incidence rate of local adverse reactions was 0.37%. The main systemic adverse reactions included fatigue, headache, fever, cough and loss of appetite with the incidence rates of 0.21%, 0.14%, 0.06%, 0.05% and 0.05%, respectively; the main local adverse reactions were injection site pain and injection site swelling with the incidence rates of 0.24% and 0.05%, respectively. Conclusion: The two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines by Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd and Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd showed that in the large-scale emergency use, the incidence rate of general reactions was low and no serious adverse reactions were observed after the vaccinations, demonstrating that the vaccines have good safety.

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