Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Urban Planning ; 7(3):49-62, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1988674

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has led to unprecedented changes in functional structures in our cities. Since the mid-20th century, central business districts (CBDs) worldwide have hosted economic and employment activities, leaving suburbia to home the residential function. However, the global Covid-19 responses have resulted in changes in some urban functions, and it is yet to see if these changes would transpire as temporary or permanent. Some argue that the broad macrogeographical pattern of urbanisation is unlikely to be changed. Still, that significant intra-metropolitan, neighbourhood-level and daily life changes are to become part of the new reality. Thus, this article considered these changes by focusing on property trends in the Sydney CBD to reflect on future trends, urban structures, and associated functions. An evaluative single case study desk-top analysis was conducted to investigate commercial vacancy rates and rental prices within the CBD of Sydney (Australia) between 2018 and 2021 to reflect on the Covid-19-drive changes and their implications for urban planners. Findings high-lighted that before Covid-19, both residential and commercial markets were growing, with rising rental prices and decreasing vacancy rates. However, commercial vacancies in the CBD have increased, and rental prices have decreased since 2020's lockdown, stressing the dropping demand for commercial spaces. The residential market experienced a different trend with dropping vacancy rates and increasing rental prices. The data analysed provide an initial understanding of how Covid-19 has impacted the Sydney CBD. It poses some insights into potential future trends and changes in the urban landscape. It highlights the implications that the planning profession should consider in the quest to realise sustainable and resilient cities.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 875546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933655

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm refers to the dysregulated production of inflammatory mediators leading to hyperinflammation. They are often detrimental, and worsen the severity of COVID-19 and other infectious or inflammatory diseases. Cannabinoids are known to have anti-inflammatory effects but their possible therapeutic value on cytokine storms has not been fully elucidated. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effects of high-THC and high-CBD extracts on cytokine production in immune cells. Significant differences between the extracts were observed. Subsequent experiments focusing on a specific high CBD extract (CBD-X) showed significant reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines in human-derived PBMCs, neutrophils and T cells. In vivo mouse studies, using a systemically inflamed mouse model, showed reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1ß and a concurrent increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to CBD-X extract treatment. Lung inflammation, as in severe COVID-19 disease, is characterized by increased T-cell homing to the lungs. Our investigation revealed that CBD-X extract impaired T-cell migration induced by the chemoattractant SDF1. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling proteins Lck and Zap70 were significantly reduced, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on the early events downstream to TCR activation. In a lung inflamed mouse model, we observed a reduction in leukocytes including neutrophil migration to the lungs and decreased levels of IL-1ß, MCP-1, IL-6 and TNFα, in response to the administration of the high-CBD extract. The results presented in this work offer that certain high-CBD extract has a high potential in the management of pathological conditions, in which the secretion of cytokines is dysregulated, as it is in severe COVID-19 disease or other infectious or inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
3.
The Southern African Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1855956

ABSTRACT

Background: Strategic planning assists organisations to capitalise on opportunities that arise and to minimise the threats posed by unstable market environments. Apart from the track record of poor performance amongst some small, medium and micro-scale enterprises (SMMEs) in South Africa, COVID-19 pandemic severely affected more than 55 000 South African SMMEs in March 2020 after the lockdown imposed by the government. Aim: This research study sought to investigate strategic planning techniques or tools implemented by SMMEs post-COVID-19 lockdown in Johannesburg Central Business District (CBD). Setting: The study was conducted at small, medium and micro-enterprises in Johannesburg Central Business District. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using an online E-Survey Hero which was distributed to the sample of 169 respondents who were SMME owners and managers in Johannesburg CBD. Results: The results revealed that most SMMEs owners had knowledge on the strategic planning techniques such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, the political, economic, social and technological (PEST) analysis, financial analysis of the competitors and financial analysis of their own business. Conclusion: Small, medium and micro-scale enterprises should take advantage of technology and invest in key skills needed for more effective strategic planning.

4.
Separations ; 9(4):85, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810114

ABSTRACT

With an increasing appreciation for the unique pharmacological properties associated with distinct, individual cannabinoids of Cannabis sativa, there is demand for accurate and reliable quantification for a growing number of them. Although recent methods are based on highly selective chromatography-mass spectrometry technology, most are limited to a few cannabinoids, while relying on unnecessarily sophisticated and expensive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Here we report an optimised, simple extraction method followed by a reliable and simple high performance liquid chromatography method for separation. The detection is performed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer that is available in most natural products research laboratories. Due to the simplicity of instrumentation, and the robustness resulting from a high resolution in the chromatography of isobaric cannabinoids, the method is well suited for routine phytocannabinoid analysis for a range of applications. The method was validated in terms of detection and quantification limits, repeatability, and recoveries for a total of 17 cannabinoids: detection limits were in the range 11–520 pg when using a 1 µL sample injection volume, and the recovery percentages ranged from 85% to 108%. The validated method was subsequently applied to determine cannabinoid composition in the inflorescences of several medicinal Cannabis sativa varieties.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785749

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus made it necessary to search for new options for both causal treatment and mitigation of its symptoms. Scientists and researchers around the world are constantly looking for the best therapeutic options. These difficult circumstances have also spurred the re-examination of the potential of natural substances contained in Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinoids, apart from CB1 and CB2 receptors, may act multifacetedly through a number of other receptors, such as the GPR55, TRPV1, PPARs, 5-HT1A, adenosine and glycine receptors. The complex anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of cannabinoids have been confirmed by interactions with various signaling pathways. Considering the fact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes excessive immune response and triggers an inflammatory cascade, and that cannabinoids have the ability to regulate these processes, it can be assumed that they have potential to be used in the treatment of COVID-19. During the pandemic, there were many publications on the subject of COVID-19, which indicate the potential impact of cannabinoids not only on the course of the disease, but also their role in prevention. It is worth noting that the anti-inflammatory and antiviral potential are shown not only by well-known cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), but also secondary cannabinoids, such as cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and terpenes, emphasizing the role of all of the plant's compounds and the entourage effect. This article presents a narrative review of the current knowledge in this area available in the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science medical databases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332566

ABSTRACT

Pathogen samples and scientific data are bargaining chips in a global argument about who gets what in a pandemic.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731786

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. Currently, it is an ongoing global health threat stressing the need for therapeutic compounds. Linking the virus life cycle and its interaction with cell receptors and internal cellular machinery is key to developing therapies based on the control of infectivity and inflammation. In this framework, we evaluate the combination of cannabidiol (CBD), as an anti-inflammatory molecule, and terpenes, by their anti-microbiological properties, in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Our group settled six formulations combining CBD and terpenes purified from Cannabis sativa L, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus mastichina. The formulations were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS and evaluated for virucide and antiviral potential by in vitro studies in alveolar basal epithelial, colon, kidney, and keratinocyte human cell lines. Conclusions and Impact: We demonstrate the virucide effectiveness of CBD and terpene-based formulations. F2TC reduces the infectivity by 17%, 24%, and 99% for CaCo-2, HaCat, and A549, respectively, and F1TC by 43%, 37%, and 29% for Hek293T, HaCaT, and Caco-2, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach that tackles the combination of CBD with a specific group of terpenes against SARS-CoV-2 in different cell lines. The differential effectiveness of formulations according to the cell line can be relevant to understanding the pattern of virus infectivity and the host inflammation response, and lead to new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Plants, People, Planet ; 4(1):23-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1565218

ABSTRACT

It is currently discussed whether the use of digital sequence information (DSI) on genetic resources would need to be subject to access and benefit‐sharing obligations, like the use of genetic resources. In this paper, we analyse the consequences of genebank management of DSI definitions currently considered, and of scenarios proposed for dealing with the access and benefit‐sharing aspects of DSI.The analysis is based on publicly accessible literature and experiences of and discussions with genebank managers, researchers and experts on genetic resources policies. The key findings are as follows:the definition of DSI is still disputed and definitions currently considered vary from only the base sequence of genomic DNA to all information associated with genetic resources;four groups of scenarios proposed for arranging the access and benefit‐sharing aspects of DSI can be distinguished, with these scenarios differing in their benefit‐sharing modalities, technical feasibility, the complexity they generate and thus the ease of access to information and genetic resources;from a genebank perspective, the scenario generating the lowest complexity and the easiest access to DSI would be preferable.It is concluded that the multilateral and the free access scenarios seem most beneficial for genebanks, as these scenarios limit the complexity for users and allow easy access and use. We are aware of the political difficulties to arrive at these solutions, but hope this paper will contribute to guiding the discussions in a direction that will be beneficial for genebanks, for users of genebank materials and information, and ultimately for addressing the challenges to present and future food security.

9.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 16(4): 718-721, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469760

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 epidemic has resulted in devastating mortality and morbidity consisting of socioeconomic and health effects that have included respiratory/pulmonary, cardiovascular, mental health and neurological consequences such as anxiety, depression, and substance use. Several effective vaccines have been developed and extensive efforts are underway to develop therapeutics to treat COVID-19. Cannabis and/or its product-cannabidiol (CBD) are being advertised for the treatment of COVID-19 associated mental/neurological complications and substance use disorders. However, research reviewed shows that there is insufficient data from clinical studies to support the use of cannabis or CBD for the treatment of COVID-19 associated mental health and neurological complications. Additional basic and clinical research is suggested to develop cannabis or cannabidiol for the treatment of mental health problems associated with coronavirus infection and or substance use disorders. In the meantime, it is important that the addiction physician/psychiatrist must caution while prescribing or recommending cannabis or CBD for treating such clinical indications. Research shows that currently there is no clinical evidence to support the use of cannabis or any of its compounds including CBD for treating any of the neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19. Thus, it is important that the addiction physicians/psychiatrists caution their patients from using cannabis or cannabis products for treating any such complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Cannabis/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17861, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408767

ABSTRACT

Background The British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) recommended that during the COVID-19 pandemic, endoscopy units perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for obstructive biliary pathologies in an emergency. We assessed the local performance of ERCP during the first wave of COVID-19 at our local endoscopy center, in particular the technique to common bile duct (CBD) cannulation. Methodology All ERCP procedures performed from January to June 2020 were retrospectively assessed and compared with procedures performed between January and June 2019 at the Royal Lancaster Infirmary. The indications for ERCP, success rate, and complications were studied separately. Correlation analysis was conducted using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The binary logistic regression model was used to compute the factors associated with successful ERCP. Significance was established when the two-sided P-value < 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 25 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, 2017). Results A total of 281 ERCP were included in this study, with 169 and 112 performed during the first six months of 2019 and 2020, respectively. A statistically significant (0.0087) higher proportion of cases with liver dysfunction presented for ERCP before the COVID-19 outbreak (152, 89.94%). All patients before COVID-19 underwent wire control-assisted ERCP, while 82 (73.21%) received assisted ERCP during the first wave (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.10) in the number of patients who underwent sphincterotomy before and during the first wave of COVID-19, with 97 (57.39%) and 76 (67.85%), respectively. The success rate of ERCP before COVID-19 was relatively high, accounting for 146 (86.39%) patients in contrast to 87 (77.67%) patients during the first wave (P = 0.074). Sphincterotomy (ß = 2.800, P = 0.028) and stent insertion (ß = 0.852, P = 0.046) were statistically significant predictors of ERCP outcomes. There was no statistically significant impact of cholangitis on the success of ERCP (ß = 1.672, P = 0.109). Conclusion The first wave of COVID-19 had a statistically proven negative impact on the expected standards of ERCP performance. Although the complication rate was significantly higher during the first wave case difficulty, the American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) status was not assessed on an individual basis. Both ASA status and case difficulty are now included in our endoscopy selection process. We recommend adding the complexity of cases and ASA to the local and national recording databases. This is a rare study on UK-based hospitals.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 565633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337677

ABSTRACT

Studies investigating the psychosomatic effects of social isolation in animals have shown that one of the physiologic system that gets disrupted by this environment-affective change is the Endocannabinoid System. As the levels of endocannabinoids change in limbic areas and prefrontal cortex during stressful times, so is the subject more prone to fearful and negative thoughts and aggressive behavior. The interplay of social isolation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cannabinoid tone triggers a vicious cycle which further impairs the natural body's homeostatic neuroendocrine levels and provokes a series of risk factors for developing health complications. In this paper, we explore the psychosomatic impact of prolonged quarantine in healthy individuals, and propose management and coping strategies that may improve endocannabinoid tone, such as integration of probiotics, cannabidiol, meditation, and physical exercise interventions with the aim of supporting interpersonal, individual, and professional adherence with COVID-19 emergency public measures whilst minimizing their psycho-physical impact.

12.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238919

ABSTRACT

The CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) contains one of the longest N termini among class A G protein-coupled receptors. Mutagenesis studies suggest that the allosteric binding site of cannabidiol (CBD) involves residues from the N terminal domain. In order to study the allosteric binding of CBD to CB1R we modeled the whole N-terminus of this receptor using the replica exchange molecular dynamics with solute tempering (REST2) approach. Then, the obtained structures of CB1R with the N terminus were used for ligand docking. A natural cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ9-THC, was docked to the orthosteric site and a negative allosteric modulator, CBD, to the allosteric site positioned between extracellular ends of helices TM1 and TM2. The molecular dynamics simulations were then performed for CB1R with ligands: (i) CBD together with THC, and (ii) THC-only. Analyses of the differences in the residue-residue interaction patterns between those two cases allowed us to elucidate the allosteric network responsible for the modulation of the CB1R by CBD. In addition, we identified the changes in the orthosteric binding mode of Δ9-THC, as well as the changes in its binding energy, caused by the CBD allosteric binding. We have also found that the presence of a complete N-terminal domain is essential for a stable binding of CBD in the allosteric site of CB1R as well as for the allosteric-orthosteric coupling mechanism.


Subject(s)
Cannabidiol/metabolism , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Allosteric Regulation/physiology , Allosteric Site , Animals , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/chemistry
13.
Life (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158767

ABSTRACT

The activity of a new, terpene-based formulation, code-named NT-VRL-1, against Human Coronavirus (HCoV) strain 229E was evaluated in human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), with and without the addition of cannabidiol (CBD). The main constituents in the terpene formulation used for the experiment were beta caryophyllene, eucalyptol, and citral. The tested formulation exhibited an antiviral effect when it was pre-incubated with the host cells prior to virus infection. The combination of NT-VRL-1 with CBD potentiated the antiviral effect better than the positive controls pyrazofurin and glycyrrhizin. There was a strong correlation between the quantitative results from a cell-viability assay and the cytopathic effect seen under the microscope after 72 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of activity of a combination of terpenes and CBD against a coronavirus.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030147

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been proven so far, results from the affinity of these compounds predominantly for the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), type two (CB2), and the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)) but, also, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycine receptors, serotonin receptors (5-HT), transient receptor potential channels (TRP), and GPR, opioid receptors. The synergism of action of phytochemicals present in Cannabis sp. raw material is also expressed in their increased bioavailability and penetration through the blood-brain barrier. This review provides an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacology of compounds present in Cannabis extracts in the context of the current knowledge about their synergistic actions and the implications of clinical use in the treatment of selected diseases.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabis/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/chemistry , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Drug Synergism , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/metabolism , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Receptors, Cannabinoid/metabolism , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/metabolism , Terpenes/chemistry , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Tourette Syndrome/drug therapy , Tourette Syndrome/metabolism
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(22): 22425-22444, 2020 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969889

ABSTRACT

With the current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. The inhibition of viral entry and thus spread is a plausible therapeutic avenue. SARS-CoV-2 uses receptor-mediated entry into a human host via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is expressed in lung tissue as well as the oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes and gastrointestinal tract. The modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may be an effective strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially those high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been found to alter gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on ACE2 expression remain unknown. Working under a Health Canada research license, we developed over 800 new C. sativa cultivars and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to down-regulate ACE2 expression in target COVID-19 tissues. Using artificial 3D human models of oral, airway and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high-CBD C. sativa extracts that decrease ACE2 protein levels. Some C. sativa extracts down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is important for future analyses of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful novel high-CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the prevention/treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cannabis/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Models, Anatomic , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(13): 1564-1578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955334

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa is a well-known plant that has been recognized for its benefits since ancient times by several medicinal systems, including those of China, India, Greece, and Egypt. Although C. sativa is one of the most investigated medicinal plants in the world, it faces some of the greatest controversies surrounding its legalization and use as a medication. C. sativa contains several hundred phytoconstituents, including the infamous "cannabinoids". It is necessary to properly understand the medicinal importance of these phytochemicals and spread awareness among the countries where cannabis is still facing legal obstacles. The current review focuses on the most recent literature pertaining to various applications of cannabinoids, with a special focus on the medicinal aspect of these phytochemicals. Peer-reviewed articles focusing on the importance of cannabis and cannabinoids are the target of this review. Articles were selected based on the relevance to the general scope of the work, i.e., application of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can truly be regarded as wonder drugs, considering their immense diversity of usage. Unfortunately, however, many of the mares have never been researched biologically or pharmacologically due to their low yield in the plant. However, the approval of some cannabinoids by the FDA (along with other recognized national medical health systems) has opened the horizon for the use of these natural drugs in medicines such as Epidiolex® (cannabidiol, used for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy) and Sativex®(Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, used for the treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis). Many pharmacological properties of C. sativa are attributed to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component, along with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a psychoactive component. This review addresses the most important applications or current utilization of cannabinoids in a variety of treatments such as chronic pain, cancer, emesis, anorexia, irritable bowel syndrome, communicable diseases, glaucoma, and central nervous system disorders. The biosynthetic pathway of cannabinoids is also discussed. In short, cannabis has a myriad of bioactive compounds that have the potential to increase the list of approved cannabinoids suitable for therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Animals , China , Dronabinol , Female , Greece , Horses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(21): 12869-12872, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863121

ABSTRACT

Considering lack of target-specific antiviral treatment and vaccination for COVID-19, it is absolutely exigent to have an effective therapeutic modality to reduce hospitalization and mortality rate as well as to improve COVID-19-infected patient outcomes. In a follow-up study to our recent findings indicating the potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), here we show for the first time that CBD may ameliorate the symptoms of ARDS through up-regulation of apelin, a peptide with significant role in the central and peripheral regulation of immunity, CNS, metabolic and cardiovascular system. By administering intranasal Poly (I:C), a synthetic viral dsRNA, while we were able to mimic the symptoms of ARDS in a murine model, interestingly, there was a significant decrease in the expression of apelin in both blood and lung tissues. CBD treatment was able to reverse the symptoms of ARDS towards a normal level. Importantly, CBD treatment increased the apelin expression significantly, suggesting a potential crosstalk between apelinergic system and CBD may be the therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as COVID-19 and many other pathologic conditions.


Subject(s)
Apelin/metabolism , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Poly I-C/toxicity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
18.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 5(3): 197-201, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638503

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the absence of effective antivirals and vaccination, the pandemic of COVID-19 remains the most significant challenge to our health care system in decades. There is an urgent need for definitive therapeutic intervention. Clinical reports indicate that the cytokine storm associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality in severe cases of some respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19. In recent years, cannabinoids have been investigated extensively due to their potential effects on the human body. Among all cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of pathological conditions. Therefore, it is logical to explore whether CBD can reduce the cytokine storm and treat ARDS. Materials and Methods: In this study, we show that intranasal application of Poly(I:C), a synthetic analogue of viral double-stranded RNA, simulated symptoms of severe viral infections inducing signs of ARDS and cytokine storm. Discussion: The administration of CBD downregulated the level of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorated the clinical symptoms of Poly I:C-induced ARDS. Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential protective role for CBD during ARDS that may extend CBD as part of the treatment of COVID-19 by reducing the cytokine storm, protecting pulmonary tissues, and re-establishing inflammatory homeostasis.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL