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1.
Sovremennaya Revmatologiya ; 16(5):82-87, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2090968

ABSTRACT

The review is devoted to the relationship between the pathogenetic mechanisms of coronavirus infection (COVID-19) and immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The current knowledge on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is summarized, including the mechanisms of coagulopathy, hyperproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiphospholipid antibodies that are common with IRD. The presence and clinical significance of detection of various autoantibodies in COVID-19, which probably play a pathogenetic role in immune dysregulation, were analyzed. Based on the data of recent studies, risk factors and features of the severe course of infection in patients with IRD are considered. © 2022, Ima-Press Publishing House. All rights reserved.

2.
World J Virol ; 11(5): 275-282, 2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056082

ABSTRACT

With a 5.3% of the global population involved, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health challenge requiring an urgent response. After a possible acute phase, the natural history of HBV infection can progress in chronicity. Patients with overt or occult HBV infection can undergo HBV reactivation (HBVr) in course of immunosuppressive treatments that, apart from oncological and hem-atological diseases, are also used in rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, neurological and dermatological settings, as well as to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The risk of HBV reactivation is related to the immune status of the patient and the baseline HBV infection condition. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the risk of HBVr in those not oncological settings in order to suggest strategies for preventing and treating this occurrence. The main studies about HBVr for patients with occult hepatitis B infection and chronic HBV infection affected by non-oncologic diseases eligible for immunosuppressive treatment have been analyzed. The occurrence of this challenging event can be reduced screening the population eligible for immunosuppressant to assess the best strategies according to any virological status. Further prospective studies are needed to increase data on the risk of HBVr related to newer immunomodulant agents employed in non-oncological setting.

3.
Qatar Med J ; 2022(3): 24, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) are at a higher risk of poor outcomes from a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We evaluated whether patients with an ARDs infected with SARS-CoV-2 were at a higher risk of a poorer outcome than those without an ARDs. METHODS: Patients with an ARDs infected with SARS-CoV-2 were matched to control patients without a known ARDs. Matching was performed according to age ( ± 6 years) and sex at a case-to-control ratio of 1:3. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the databases and were compared between the two groups. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was the primary outcome and was defined as the requirement for oxygen therapy support, the need for invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, or the use of glucocorticoids. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients with an ARDs were matched to 398 patients who formed the control group. The mean ages (SD) of the ARDs and non-ARDs groups were 44.4 years (11.4) and 43.4 years (12.2). Women accounted for 58.8% of the ARDs group and 56.3% of the control group (p = 0.59). Demographics and comorbidities were balanced between the groups. ARDs included connective tissue disease in 43 (30.3%) patients, inflammatory arthritis in 92 (65.2%), and other ARDs in 8 (5.7%). ARDs medications included biological/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (b/ts-DMARDs) in 28 (15.6%) patients, conventional synthetic DMARDs in 95 (67.4%), and immunosuppressive antimetabolites in 13 (9.2%). The ARDs group had more respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection than the control group (24.8% and 20.6% vs. 10% and 5.3%, respectively; p <  0.001 for both). Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was more common in the ARDs group than in the control group (14.9% vs. 5.8%; p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center matched cohort study, patients with an ARDs experienced more respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and had more severe infection than those from the control group. Therefore, patients with an ARDs require close observation during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

4.
Curr Rheumatol Rev ; 18(2): 108-116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910832

ABSTRACT

The Kuwait Association of Rheumatology members met thrice in April 2020 to quickly address and support local practitioners treating rheumatic disease in Kuwait and the Gulf region during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease (RMD) may need treatment modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic, we voted online for the general guidance needed by local practitioners. In this review, we have addressed patients' vulnerability with rheumatic disease and issues associated with their optimum management. Our recommendations were based on the formulation of national/international guidelines and expert consensus among KAR members in the context of the Kuwaiti healthcare system for patients with RMD. The most recent reports from the World Health Organization, the Center for Disease Control, the National Institutes of Health-National Medical Library, and the COVID-19 educational website of the United Kingdom National Health Service have been incorporated. We discuss the management of RMD in various clinical scenarios: screening protocols in an infusion clinic, medication protocols for stable patients, and care for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID infection and whether they are stable, in a disease flare or newly diagnosed. Further, we outline the conditions for the hospital admission. This guidance is for the specialist and non-specialist readership and should be considered interim as the virus is relatively new, and we rely on the experience and necessity more than evidence collection. The guidance presented should be supplemented with recent scientific evidence wherever applicable.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Physicians , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , State Medicine
5.
Rheumatol Ther ; 9(4): 993-1016, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859190

ABSTRACT

The rapid transmission of the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), led to widespread infection throughout the world. Concerns and challenges regarding COVID-19 illness have emerged for patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as spondyloarthritis (SpA), who receive treatment with biologic or targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), because this population is vulnerable to infections and has a high prevalence of risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Available data on COVID-19 indicate that patients with SpA who are treated with DMARDs have SARS-CoV-2 infection rates comparable with those in the general population, with similar increased risk associated with older age and comorbidities. Novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are approved or authorized for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration, and others are in development to prevent infection and serious illness. This review provides an overview of SpA, the mechanism of action for the SARS-CoV-2 infection, the clinical course of COVID-19, and the vaccines approved for, or in development against, SARS-CoV-2. Detailed information on the use of established vaccines in patients with SpA receiving DMARDs is provided, along with recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination. Available evidence has shown COVID-19 vaccination in patients with SpA, among other rheumatic diseases, to be safe and effective with most DMARD use; however, there is evidence of potential interference with some therapies used in SpA. Healthcare providers should educate patients to provide the knowledge and confidence to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, since the potential benefit outweighs the low risk of vaccine-related adverse events.

7.
Allergologie ; 44(1):54-80, 2021.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1572877

ABSTRACT

With the advent of biologicals, more and more therapeutics are available that specifically address specific switch points in the pathomechanism of immunologically dominated diseases. Thus, the focus of diagnostics and therapy (precision medicine) is more on the individual disease characteristics of the individual patient. Regarding the different phenotypes of atopic diseases, severe asthma was the first entity for which biologicals were approved, followed by urticaria, and finally atopic dermatitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Experience in the treatment of severe bronchial asthma has shown that the intensity of the response to biological therapy depends on the quality of clinical and immunological phenotyping of the patients. This also applies to different diseases of the atopic form, as patients can suffer from several atopic diseases at the same time, each with different characteristics. Biologics are already emerging that may represent a suitable therapy for allergic bronchial asthma, which often occurs together with severe neurodennatitis. and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In practice, however, the question of possible combinations of biologicals for the therapy of complex clinical pictures of individual patients is increasingly arising. In doing so, the side effect profile must be taken into account, including hypersensitivity reactions, whose diagnostic and logistical management must aim at a safe and efficient therapy of the underlying disease. Increased attention must also be paid to biological therapy in pregnancy and planned (predictable) vaccinations as well as existing infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Before starting a biological therapy, the immune status should be checked with regard to chronic vi- ral and bacterial infections and, if necessary. the vaccination status should be refreshed or missing vaccinations should be made up for before starting therapy. Currently, reliable data on the effect of biologicals on the immunological situation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 are not available. Therefore, research and development of suitable diagnostic methods for detection of immunologically caused side effects as well as detection of potential therapy responders and non-responders is of great importance.

8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554881

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global threat to humanity. Its pathogenesis and different phases of disease progression are being elucidated under the pandemic. Active viral replication activates various immune cells and produces large amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which leads to the cytokine storm, a major cause of patient death. Therefore, viral inhibition is expected to be the most effective early in the course of the disease, while immunosuppressive treatment may be useful in the later stages to prevent disease progression. Based on the pathophysiology of rheumatic diseases, various immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs are used for the diseases. Due to their mechanism of action, the antirheumatic drugs, including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine A and tacrolimus), glucocorticoids, cytokines inhibitors, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (e.g., infliximab), anti-interleukin (IL)-6 (e.g., tocilizumab, sarilumab, and siltuximab), anti-IL-1 (e.g., anakinra and canakinumab) and Janus kinase inhibitors (e.g., baricitinib and tofacitinib), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade agents (e.g., abatacept), and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors (e.g., apremilast), have been tried as a treatment for COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action and clinical impact of these agents in the management of COVID-19.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526843

ABSTRACT

There is limited data on the effect of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pediatric rheumatology. We examined the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and a negative history of COVID-19 and the correlation of the presence of these antibodies with disease activity measured by juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). In total, 62 patients diagnosed with JIA, under treatment with various antirheumatic drugs, and 32 healthy children (control group) were included. Serum samples were analyzed for inflammatory markers and antibodies and their state evaluated with the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). JIA patients do not have a higher seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than healthy subjects. We found anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in JIA patients who did not have a history of COVID-19. The study showed no unequivocal correlation between the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and JIA activity; therefore, this relationship requires further observation. We also identified a possible link between patients' humoral immune response and disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment, which will be confirmed in follow-up studies.

10.
Rheumatol Ther ; 8(4): 1887-1895, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study the prevalence of a history of COVID-19 infection among patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and the potential influence of long-term hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) intake. METHODS: We performed an observational monocentric cohort study at the Adolphe de Rothschild Foundation Hospital ophthalmology division (Paris, France). Electronic medical records (EMR) data were searched for keywords associated with SLE, RA, SjS, or PsA. Patients were contacted by phone and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a positive COVID-19 test result during the study period. We determined the adjusted association between various antirheumatic drugs intake, COVID-19 risk factors, and occurrence of COVID-19 using a logistic regression model. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04345159). RESULTS: Patients were recruited between Apr 17, 2020, and Apr 30, 2020 and were recontacted between Oct 6, 2020, and Nov 2, 2020. A total of 569 patients were included, of whom 459 patients were eligible for data analysis. One hundred and eighty-one patients were treated with long-term HCQ and 18 patients had tested positive for COVID-19. No antirheumatic drug intake, including HCQ intake, was significantly associated with an increased or decreased risk of developing COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: No antirheumatic drug intake was associated with an increased or decreased risk of developing COVID-19 infection in our cohort of patients suffering from immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

11.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(6): 1097-1103, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184661

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with rheumatic diseases and identify the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a retrospective study in a tertiary care center conducted through the period between March 2020 and November 2020 and included all adult patients with rheumatic diseases who tested positive on the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. We assessed the patients' demographic data, history of rheumatic disease, COVID-19 symptoms and experimental treatment, if any, their disease course, and outcome. In all, 47 patients were included, and most were females. The commonest rheumatic diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (53.2%), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (21.3%), and psoriatic arthritis (10.6%). Methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine were the most commonly used disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in 36.1% and 25.5%, respectively. Out of 47 patients, 48.9% required hospitalization with a median hospital stay of 7 days. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia, defined as clinical signs of pneumonia plus one of the following: respiratory rate > 30 bpm, severe respiratory distress, or oxygen saturation < 90% in room air was observed in 19.1% of the patients, and one patient died. We found that elderly patients with a mean age of 65.3 years were more likely to develop severe COVID-19 pneumonia and that was statistically significant. Our study showed that elderly patients with a mean age of 65 years and having rheumatic diseases had an increased risk of hospital admission and development of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 13: 1759720X20962692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090738

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In this pandemic, it is essential for rheumatologists and patients to know the relationship between COVID-19 and inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). We wanted to assess the role of targeted synthetic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (ts/bDMARDs) and other variables in the development of moderate-severe COVID-19 disease in IRD. METHODS: An observational longitudinal study was conducted during the epidemic peak in Madrid (1 March to 15 April 2020). All patients attended at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Madrid with a medical diagnosis of IRD were included. Main outcome: hospital admission related to COVID-19. Independent variable: ts/bDMARDs. Covariates: sociodemographic, comorbidities, type of IRD diagnosis, glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs). Incidence rate (IR) of hospital admission related to COVID-19 was expressed per 1000 patient-months. Cox multiple regression analysis was run to examine the influence of ts/bDMARDs and other covariates on IR of hospital admission related to COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 3951 IRD patients were included (5896 patient-months). Methotrexate was the csDMARD most used. Eight hundred and two patients were on ts/bDMARDs, mainly anti-TNF agents, and Rtx. Hospital admissions related to COVID-19 occurred in 54 patients (1.36%) with an IR of 9.15 (95% confidence interval: 7-11.9). In the multivariate analysis, older, male, comorbidities, and specific systemic autoimmune conditions (Sjögren, polychondritis, Raynaud, and mixed connective tissue disease) had more risk of hospital admissions. Exposition to ts/bDMARDs did not achieve statistical significance. Use of glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, and csDMARDs dropped from the final model. CONCLUSION: This study provides additional evidence in IRD patients regarding susceptibility to moderate-severe infection related to COVID-19.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 611318, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082463

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases and infections are often closely intertwined. Patients with autoimmune diseases are more susceptible to infections due to either active autoimmune disease or the medications used to treat them. Based on infections as environmental triggers of autoimmunity, an autoimmune response would also be expected in COVID-19. Although some studies have shown the occurance of autoantibodies and the possible development of autoimmune diseases after SARS-CoV-2 infection, current data suggest that the levels of autoantibodies following SARS-CoV-2 infection is comparable to that of some other known infections and that the autoantibodies might only be transient. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD) appears slightly higher compared to the general population and the course of COVID-19 disease does not seem to be very different, however, specific therapies such as glucocorticoids and anti-TNF might modulate the risk of hospitalization/death. Cytokine release syndrome is a severe complication in COVID-19. Many drugs used for the treatment of SARD are directly or indirectly targeting cytokines involved in the cytokine release syndrome, therefore it has been suggested that they could also be effective in COVID-19, but more evidence on the use of these medications for the treatment of COVID-19 is currently being collected.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 583260, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024517

ABSTRACT

The effect of immunosuppressant treatments on the incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains largely unknown. We studied the association between the pre-exposure to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that decrease immunological responses and the incidence of COVID-19 to explore the possible effects of these treatments in early manifestations of the disease. For this purpose, we performed a cross-sectional study including 2,494 patients with immunomediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) recruited at the outpatient Rheumatology, Dermatology and Gastroenterology services of Hospital del Mar. The primary outcome was the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 performed by a physician at the hospital or at the primary care center, from the March 1-29, 2020. Multivariable Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate COVID-19 relative risk (RR) adjusted by comorbidities. We revealed that biological (RR = 0.46, CI 95% = 0.31-0.67) and synthetic (RR = 0.62, CI 95% = 0.43-0.91) DMARDs used in IMIDs diminished the incidence of COVID-19. Striking sex differences were revealed with anti-TNFα compounds (RR = 0.50, CI 95% = 0.33-0.75) with higher effects in women (RR = 0.33, CI 95% = 0.17-0.647). Treatment with low glucocorticoid doses also revealed sex differences decreasing the incidence of COVID-19 predominantly in women (RR = 0.72, CI 95% = 0.42-1.22). Our results report a decreased incidence of COVID-19 in patients receiving specific DMARDs with different immunodepressor mechanisms with striking sex differences. These results underline the interest of repurposing specific DMARDs for the possibility of minimizing the severity of disease progression in the early stages of COVID-19.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954362

ABSTRACT

Chronic plaque psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-3% of the general population. Approximately one-third of patients are candidates for systemic immunosuppressive treatments, such as synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, because of disease extensions, localization in sensitive or visible areas and/or resistance to topical treatments. These therapies have been associated with increased risk of infection, including upper respiratory tract viral infection. Psoriasis is frequently associated with cardio-metabolic comorbidities, such as obesity and diabetes, that are risk factors for poor prognosis in the case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia. A narrative review of the literature based on an electronic search of the PubMed® database was undertaken with the objective of investigating whether there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection in psoriasis patients on systemic treatment. Original articles, such as case reports, published up to 1 November 2020 were included. There is no evidence that patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis receiving systemic treatments, including biologics, have higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or increased hospitalization and death related to COVID-19 compared to the general population. Several case reports described full recovery from COVID-19 with favorable outcomes in psoriasis patients who were being treated with synthetics or biologicals. Nonetheless, caution should be maintained in this setting, and more data are needed to draw definitive conclusions.

16.
J Rheumatol ; 48(4): 603-607, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess concerns and healthcare-related behaviors of patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Adults from the United States with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) from the ArthritisPower Patient-Powered Research Network and CreakyJoints patient community completed surveys. Concerns and behaviors were compared among patients with different autoimmune conditions, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use, and geographic measures of urban status, income, education, and COVID-19 activity. RESULTS: Among 1517 participants (925 RA, 299 PsA, 185 AS, 108 SLE), mean age was 55.1 years, 88.3% were female, and 89.5% were White. COVID-19 concerns were similar across the country and were higher in biologic users (P < 0.001). Avoidance of doctor's office visits (56.6%) or laboratory testing (42.3%) and use of telehealth (29.5%) were more common in urban areas. Among participants receiving a DMARD without COVID-19 or other respiratory illness, 14.9% stopped a DMARD, with 78.7% of DMARD interruptions not recommended by a physician. DMARD stopping was more common in participants with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and in participants who avoided an office visit (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.04) or reported lack of telehealth availability OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.25-4.08). CONCLUSION: In the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with RA, PsA, AS, and SLE frequently avoided office visits and laboratory testing. DMARD interruptions commonly occurred without the advice of a physician and were associated with SES, office visits, and telehealth availability, highlighting the need for adequate healthcare access and attention to vulnerable populations during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , United States
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173644, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome, a characteristic hyperinflammatory response, vascular damage, microangiopathy, angiogenesis and widespread thrombosis. Four stages of COVID-19 have been identified: the first stage is characterised by upper respiratory tract infection; the second by the onset of dyspnoea and pneumonia; the third by a worsening clinical scenario dominated by a cytokine storm and the consequent hyperinflammatory state; and the fourth by death or recovery. Currently, no treatment can act specifically against the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the pathological features and different clinical phases of COVID-19, particularly in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, the classes of drugs used are antiviral agents, inflammation inhibitors/antirheumatic drugs, low molecular weight heparins, plasma, and hyperimmune immunoglobulins. During this emergency period of the COVID-19 outbreak, clinical researchers are using and testing a variety of possible treatments. Based on these premises, this review aims to discuss the most updated pharmacological treatments to effectively act against the SARS-CoV-2 infection and support researchers and clinicians in relation to any current and future developments in curing COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
18.
Aust Prescr ; 43(5): 146-147, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840208
19.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 27(S Pt 1): e14-e25, 2020 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638400

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease is the most recent pandemic, since it has affected more than four and a half million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths. It is a very complex systemic disease in terms of pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. Pharmacological treatment may include antiviral and antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, corticosteroids as well as low-molecular-weight heparins to prevent the evolution of the disease from reaching the severe inflammatory phase that can lead to respiratory complications, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and finally death. Therefore, pending the development of the much sought-after vaccine, there needs to be a multidisciplinary approach to tackling this disease, and it is essential to use different medical treatments at the correct pathogenic moment. The aim of this article is to evaluate the rationale and reason behind the use of antirheumatic drugs, by expert point of view, in the various phases of the disease. Another important aspect in the management of the disease is to identify patients at high risk, both to change their lifestyle and to correct the state of their health through non-pharmacological measures for improving their immuno-balance. Our literature review reveals the important role and the therapeutic potential of antirheumatic agents in preventing the progression of the disease and aiding recovery from the disease. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support the use of these agents, indicating that further randomized controlled studies are required.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(6): 991-995, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88672

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, numerous coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were reported in Wuhan, China, which has since spread throughout the world. However, its impact on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is unknown. Herein, we report a case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a 61-year-old female RA patient who was receiving conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The patient presented with a 4-day history of myalgia and febrile sensation. COVID-19 was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Chest X-ray showed increased opacity on the right lower lung area, and C-reactive protein level was slightly elevated. The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine. Her symptoms and laboratory results gradually improved. Three weeks later, real-time PCR for COVID-19 showed negative conversion, and the patient was discharged without any complications.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/virology , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
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