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1.
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology ; : 103805, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031441

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) was formulated as a metered dose inhaler (CBD-MDI) and evaluated in vitro for its efficacy as an inhaled dosage form against inflammation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, silica particles, nicotine, and coal tar. A CBD-MDI formulation was prepared with 50 mg of CBD in 10 mL for a CBD dose of 250 μg/puff. The formulation ingredients included CBD, absolute ethanol as a cosolvent, and HFA-134a as the propellant. High aerosol performance of CBD-MDI was obtained with mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.25 ± 0.01 μm, geometric standard deviation of 1.75 ± 0.00, emitted dose of 244.7 ± 2.1 μg, and fine particle dose of 122.0 ± 1.6 μg). The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effectiveness of CBD-MDI were performed in alveolar macrophage (NR8383) and co-culture of alveolar macrophage (NR8383) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. CBD delivered from an MDI was safe on respiratory cells and did not trigger an immune response in alveolar macrophages. CBD-MDI effectively reduced the generation of cytokines in immune cells treated with viral antigen S-RBD, bacterial antigen LPS, silica particles, and coal tar. The efficacy of CBD-MDI was comparable to budesonide. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that the use of CBD-MDI was more effective in treatment rather than prevention when inflammation was induced by either a viral or bacterial stimulant.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10993, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024214

ABSTRACT

Cannabis consumption has become the center of much debate globally. The positive public perception of the medicinal benefits of cannabis and the rise of recreational usage of cannabis necessitate dramatic changes in cannabis reform policy. As a consequence, there is an increase in cannabis legalization around the globe, although it is still facing many rejections. It is crucial to understand the factors affecting public acceptance of cannabis use to support the contextualization and success of cannabis legalization. This review aims to address consumer cultural, social and psychological factors regarding the legal use of cannabis. Based on this review, cultures influence the endorsement or rejection of cannabis use depending on political views, religious sentiments and affiliated subcultures (adult, youth and adolescent subcultures). Regarding the social factors, socioeconomic status, measured by income, education level and occupation, is a key determinant of cannabis use. The beliefs opposing cannabis legalization are due to the negative stigma surrounding cannabis use. Nevertheless, growing awareness about the pharmaceutical and therapeutic effects of cannabis has led to an increase in positive attitudes towards cannabis legalization. Thus, dissemination of cannabis use benefits reaffirmed by scientific evidence could be a strategic way to alleviate the public’s negative feedback on cannabis legalization.

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(8):1959, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023147

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is of interest as a much-needed target for the treatment or prevention of several neurogenerative diseases. However, CB2 agonists, particularly phytocannabinoids, have been ascribed antimicrobial properties and are associated with the induction of microbiome compositional fluxes. When developing novel CB2 therapeutics, CB2 engagement and antimicrobial functions should both be considered. This review summarizes those cannabinoids and cannabis-informed molecules and preparations (CIMPs) that show promise as microbicidal agents, with a particular focus on the most recent developments. CIMP–microbe interactions and anti-microbial mechanisms are discussed, while the major knowledge gaps and barriers to translation are presented. Further research into CIMPs may proffer novel direct or adjunctive strategies to augment the currently available antimicrobial armory. The clinical promise of CIMPs as antimicrobials, however, remains unrealized. Nevertheless, the microbicidal effects ascribed to several CB2 receptor-agonists should be considered when designing therapeutic approaches for neurocognitive and other disorders, particularly in cases where such regimens are to be long-term. To this end, the potential development of CB2 agonists lacking antimicrobial properties is also discussed.

4.
Antibiotics ; 11(8):1099, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023079

ABSTRACT

Plant-based natural compounds (PBCs) are comparatively explored in this study to identify the most effective and safe antibacterial agent/s against six World Health Organization concern pathogens. Based on a contained systematic review, 11 of the most potent PBCs as antibacterial agents are included in this study. The antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of the included PBCs are compared with each other as well as common antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and gentamicin). The whole plants of two different strains of Cannabis sativa are extracted to compare the results with sourced ultrapure components. Out of 15 PBCs, tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cinnamaldehyde, and carvacrol show promising antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy. The most common antibacterial mechanisms are explored, and all of our selected PBCs utilize the same pathway for their antibacterial effects. They mostly target the bacterial cell membrane in the initial step rather than the other mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species production and targeting [Fe-S] centres in the respiratory enzymes are not found to be significant, which could be part of the explanation as to why they are not toxic to eukaryotic cells. Toxicity and antioxidant tests show that they are not only nontoxic but also have antioxidant properties in Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model.

5.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 110097, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982676

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury®) is an FDA-approved prodrug for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the major metabolic enzyme catalyzing RDV activation. COVID-19 treatment for hospitalized patients typically also involves a number of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Further, individuals who are carriers of a CES1 variant (polymorphism in exon 4 codon 143 [G143E]) may experience impairment in their ability to metabolize therapeutic agents which are CES1 substrates. The present study assessed the potential influence of nine therapeutic agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and dexamethasone) commonly used in treating COVID-19 and 5 known CES1 inhibitors on the metabolism of RDV. Additionally, we further analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of cannabidiol (CBD), as well as the impact of the G143E polymorphism on RDV metabolism. An in vitro S9 fraction incubation method and in vitro to in vivo pharmacokinetic scaling were utilized. None of the nine therapeutic agents evaluated produced significant inhibition of RDV hydrolysis; CBD was found to inhibit RDV hydrolysis by a mixed type of competitive and noncompetitive partial inhibition mechanism. In vitro to in vivo modeling suggested a possible reduction of RDV clearance and increase of AUC when coadministration with CBD. The same scaling method also suggested a potentially lower clearance and higher AUC in the presence of the G143E variant. In conclusion, a potential CES1-mediated DDI between RDV and the nine assessed medications appears unlikely. However, a potential CES1-mediated DDI between RDV and CBD may be possible with sufficient exposure to the cannabinoid. Patients carrying the CES1 G143E variant may exhibit a slower biotransformation and clearance of RDV. Further clinical studies would be required to evaluate and characterize the clinical significance of a CBD-RDV interaction.

6.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956552

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 has caused >211 million infections and >5.5 million deaths within 24 months globally (WHO). Internationally, a debate emerged about potential benefits of cannabidiol (CBD) as treatment of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19). Objective: To assess the effects of CBD in the treatment of COVID-19-related inflammatory symptoms from the literature. Methods: We searched Cochrane COVID-19 study register, CENTRAL (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), for studies testing CBD as inflammation intervention. All types of studies and populations were considered. All pre-clinical, clinical, and pharmacological outcomes were of interest. Results: Of 18 articles found, 9 were included: 5 in vivo animal studies, 3 in vitro human tissue studies and, 1 randomized clinical trial. Outcomes in four in vivo animal studies and three human tissue studies were immune response markers, which decreased. One in vivo study showed enhancement of monocytes. One human study did not show group differences in COVID-19 evolution. There was no information on adverse effects or drug interaction. Conclusion: There is not enough evidence to support or refute CBD as a repurpose drug to treat inflammation and other symptoms of COVID-19. Clinical trials are needed to test its efficacy and adverse effects.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 875546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933655

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm refers to the dysregulated production of inflammatory mediators leading to hyperinflammation. They are often detrimental, and worsen the severity of COVID-19 and other infectious or inflammatory diseases. Cannabinoids are known to have anti-inflammatory effects but their possible therapeutic value on cytokine storms has not been fully elucidated. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effects of high-THC and high-CBD extracts on cytokine production in immune cells. Significant differences between the extracts were observed. Subsequent experiments focusing on a specific high CBD extract (CBD-X) showed significant reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines in human-derived PBMCs, neutrophils and T cells. In vivo mouse studies, using a systemically inflamed mouse model, showed reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1ß and a concurrent increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to CBD-X extract treatment. Lung inflammation, as in severe COVID-19 disease, is characterized by increased T-cell homing to the lungs. Our investigation revealed that CBD-X extract impaired T-cell migration induced by the chemoattractant SDF1. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling proteins Lck and Zap70 were significantly reduced, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on the early events downstream to TCR activation. In a lung inflamed mouse model, we observed a reduction in leukocytes including neutrophil migration to the lungs and decreased levels of IL-1ß, MCP-1, IL-6 and TNFα, in response to the administration of the high-CBD extract. The results presented in this work offer that certain high-CBD extract has a high potential in the management of pathological conditions, in which the secretion of cytokines is dysregulated, as it is in severe COVID-19 disease or other infectious or inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
8.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890862

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: To describe the presence, type, and management of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at prescription cannabidiol (CBD) therapy initiation. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of patients prescribed CBD from a medical center's neurology clinic for seizure management from January 2019 through April 2020. Patients were excluded if they were enrolled in a CBD clinical trial or the insurance approval or medication fulfillment process was not completed by the center's specialty pharmacy. The primary outcomes were the numbers, types, and management of DDIs identified at the time of CBD prescribing. RESULTS: Of the 136 patients included, 109 (80%) had a DDI identified at baseline. Of the 260 DDIs, 71% (n = 184) were pharmacodynamic and 29% (n = 76) were pharmacokinetic in nature. Management of the 260 DDIs detected included counseling only (89% [n = 232 interactions]), discontinuation of the interacting agent [9% (n = 22 interactions]), and dosage change for the interacting agent [2% (n = 6 interactions]). Clobazam was the most commonly identified interacting medication (n = 63, 24%), while valproic acid accounted for 10% (n = 26) of the DDIs. The population was predominantly white (n = 115, 85%), 18 years of age or younger (n = 92, 68%), and had an indication for prescription CBD treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 117, 86%). CONCLUSION: This study provides new information on the role that integrated specialty pharmacists can play in identifying and managing initial DDIs in patients starting prescription CBD.

9.
Drug Topics ; 165(12):12-13, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1865861
10.
Separations ; 9(4):85, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810114

ABSTRACT

With an increasing appreciation for the unique pharmacological properties associated with distinct, individual cannabinoids of Cannabis sativa, there is demand for accurate and reliable quantification for a growing number of them. Although recent methods are based on highly selective chromatography-mass spectrometry technology, most are limited to a few cannabinoids, while relying on unnecessarily sophisticated and expensive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Here we report an optimised, simple extraction method followed by a reliable and simple high performance liquid chromatography method for separation. The detection is performed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer that is available in most natural products research laboratories. Due to the simplicity of instrumentation, and the robustness resulting from a high resolution in the chromatography of isobaric cannabinoids, the method is well suited for routine phytocannabinoid analysis for a range of applications. The method was validated in terms of detection and quantification limits, repeatability, and recoveries for a total of 17 cannabinoids: detection limits were in the range 11–520 pg when using a 1 µL sample injection volume, and the recovery percentages ranged from 85% to 108%. The validated method was subsequently applied to determine cannabinoid composition in the inflorescences of several medicinal Cannabis sativa varieties.

11.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792800

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoids, mainly cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are the most studied group of compounds obtained from Cannabis sativa because of their several pharmaceutical properties. Current evidence suggests a crucial role of cannabinoids as potent anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanisms remain largely unclear. Cytokine storm, a dysregulated severe inflammatory response by our immune system, is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic inflammatory disorders, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which results in the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that CBD and THC reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting key inflammatory signaling pathways. The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signaling has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, which results in the release of pyroptotic cytokines, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-18. Likewise, the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) causes increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We studied the effects of CBD and THC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human THP-1 macrophages and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Our results revealed that CBD and, for the first time, THC significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation following LPS + ATP stimulation, leading to a reduction in the levels of IL-1ß in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs. CBD attenuated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and both cannabinoids inhibited the generation of oxidative stress post-LPS. Our multiplex ELISA data revealed that CBD and THC significantly diminished the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after LPS treatment in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs. In addition, the phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly downregulated by CBD and THC in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs, which was in turn attributed to the reduced phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) by CBD and THC after LPS stimulation in these cells. Overall, CBD and THC were found to be effective in alleviating the LPS-induced cytokine storm in human macrophages and primary HBECs, at least via modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome and STAT3 signaling pathways. The encouraging results from this study warrant further investigation of these cannabinoids in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Cannabinoids , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Dronabinol/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TYK2 Kinase/metabolism , TYK2 Kinase/pharmacology
12.
J Cannabis Res ; 4(1): 21, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among pathways involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), impaired endothelial cell (EC) function and angiogenesis have been discussed less frequently than others such as cytokine storm. These two do play parts in the development of various clinical manifestations of COVID-19 including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the hyper-coagulation state. METHODS: This narrative review attempts to gather recent data on the possible potential of cannabidiol in the treatment of COVID-19 with an eye on angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. Keywords including cannabidiol AND angiogenesis OR endothelial cell as well as coronavirus disease 2019 OR COVID-19 AND angiogenesis OR endothelial dysfunction were searched among the databases of PubMed and Scopus. RESULTS: Cannabidiol (CBD), as a therapeutic phytocannabinoid, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for two types of seizures. Due to the potent anti-inflammatory properties of CBD, this compound has been suggested as a candidate treatment for COVID-19 in the literature. Although its potential effect on ECs dysfunction and pathologic angiogenesis in COVID-19 has been overlooked, other than cytokines like interleukin 1ß (IL-ß), IL-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) that are common in inflammation and angiogenesis, CBD could affect other important factors related to ECs function and angiogenesis. Data shows that CBD could decrease pathologic angiogenesis via decreasing ECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation. These activities are achieved through the suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Moreover, in an animal model, ARDS and sepsis responded well to CBD treatment. CONCLUSION: Altogether and considering the current use of CBD in the clinic, the conduction of further studies on CBD administration for patients with COVID-19 seems to be useful.

13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 870787, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785352

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) can prevent the inflammatory response of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in Caco-2-cells. This action is coupled with the inhibition of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-alpha, responsible for the inflammatory process during SARS-CoV-2 infection. CBD can act on the different proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2 and as an antiviral agent to prevent the viral infection. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the possible action of CBD as an antagonist of cytokine release syndromes. In the SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) seems to be the key cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The WNT/ß-catenin pathway and PPARγ interact in an opposite manner in many diseases, including SARS-CoV-2 infection. CBD exerts its activity through the interaction with PPARγ in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, we can hypothesize that CBD may counteract the inflammatory process of SARS-CoV-2 by its interactions with both ACE2 and the interplay between the WNT/ß-catenin pathway and PPARγ. Vaccines are the only way to prevent COVID-19, but it appears important to find therapeutic complements to treat patients already affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The possible role of CBD should be investigated by clinical trials to show its effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Humans , PPAR gamma , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , beta Catenin
14.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(6 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779695

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need for a low toxicity option for men with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following primary curative therapy. Cannabinoids (CBD) have antitumor activity in preclinical studies, but products may vary in activity without clear standardization. As epidiolex is a standardized FDA approved oral CBD solution for treatment of certain types of seizures, we studied epidiolex in patients with BCR of prostate cancer to determine safety and dosing of this therapy to support future studies. Methods: We present an open-label, single center, phase I dose escalation study followed by a dose expansion. Patients with BCR prostate cancer after primary definitive local therapy (prostatectomy +/- salvage radiotherapy or primary definitive radiotherapy) were eligible. Majority of our patients' prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time was ≤ 12 months. All patients were screened for urine tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prior to enrollment. With use of a Bayesian optimal interval design, patients received escalating doses of epidiolex starting at 600mg daily and up to 800mg daily. All patients were treated for 90 days followed by a 10 day taper. The Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability. Patients were monitored for both acute (30 days) and chronic (90 days) treatment-related toxicities. Secondary endpoints included change in PSA levels and testosterone levels from baseline throughout the treatment period. Results: A total of 21 patients were enrolled but four withdrew from the study (one patient was hospitalized with COVID-19 and three patients requested to stop due to grade 2 adverse events (AEs). There were seven patients included in the dose escalation phase. Four patients received 600mg daily;two of the four in this phase did not finish the first 30 days (one with COVID-19 and one withdrew). The other three patients received 800 mg daily. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at any dose level so an additional 14 patients were enrolled at the 800mg dose. Treatment-related chronic AEs occurring in >10% of patients were grade 1 or 2 diarrhea (47.6%), grade 1 or 2 nausea (23.8%) and grade 1 or 2 fatigue (19%). The mean PSA at baseline was 2.9 ng/ml. One patient developed oligo-metastasis disease, two patients progressed after the study period, and one patient died from a non-treatment or disease-related cause. Conclusions: Epidiolex at a dose of 800mg daily appears to be safe and tolerable in patients with BCR of prostate cancer, supporting a safe dose for future studies to determine if there is clinical activity to delay development of hormone refractory metastatic disease.

15.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids ; 179: 102426, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763934

ABSTRACT

Many current treatment options for lung inflammation and thrombosis come with unwanted side effects. The natural omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) are generally anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic. O3FA are always administered orally and occasionally by intravenous (IV) infusion. The main goal of this study is to determine if O3FA administered by inhalation of a nebulized formulation mitigates LPS-induced acute lung inflammation in male Wistar rats. Inflammation was triggered by intraperitoneal injection of LPS once a day for 14 days. One hour post-injection, rats received nebulized treatments consisting of egg lecithin emulsified O3, Budesonide and Montelukast, and blends of O3 and Melatonin or Montelukast or Cannabidiol; O3 was in the form of free fatty acids for all groups except one group with ethyl esters. Lung histology and cytokines were determined in n = 3 rats per group at day 8 and day 15. All groups had alveolar histiocytosis severity scores half or less than that of the disease control (Cd) treated with LPS and saline only inhalation. IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-ß, and IL-10 were attenuated in all O3FA groups. IL-1ß was attenuated in most but not all O3 groups. O3 administered as ethyl ester was overall most effective in mitigating LPS effects. No evidence of lipid pneumonia or other chronic distress was observed. These preclinical data suggest that O3FA formulations should be further investigated as treatments in lung inflammation and thrombosis related lung disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute respiratory distress such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Wistar
16.
Med Cannabis Cannabinoids ; 5(1): 32-35, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759574
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731786

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. Currently, it is an ongoing global health threat stressing the need for therapeutic compounds. Linking the virus life cycle and its interaction with cell receptors and internal cellular machinery is key to developing therapies based on the control of infectivity and inflammation. In this framework, we evaluate the combination of cannabidiol (CBD), as an anti-inflammatory molecule, and terpenes, by their anti-microbiological properties, in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Our group settled six formulations combining CBD and terpenes purified from Cannabis sativa L, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus mastichina. The formulations were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS and evaluated for virucide and antiviral potential by in vitro studies in alveolar basal epithelial, colon, kidney, and keratinocyte human cell lines. Conclusions and Impact: We demonstrate the virucide effectiveness of CBD and terpene-based formulations. F2TC reduces the infectivity by 17%, 24%, and 99% for CaCo-2, HaCat, and A549, respectively, and F1TC by 43%, 37%, and 29% for Hek293T, HaCaT, and Caco-2, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach that tackles the combination of CBD with a specific group of terpenes against SARS-CoV-2 in different cell lines. The differential effectiveness of formulations according to the cell line can be relevant to understanding the pattern of virus infectivity and the host inflammation response, and lead to new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Water ; 14(4):588, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715843

ABSTRACT

The consumption of illicit drugs represents a global social and economic problem. Using suitable analytical methods, monitoring, and detection of different illegal drugs residues and their metabolites in wastewater samples can help combat this problem. Our article defines a method to develop, validate, and practically applicate a rapid and robust analytical process for the evaluation of six naturally occurring cannabinoids (CBG, CBD, CBDV, CBN, THC, THCV), two cannabinoids in acidic form (CBDA, THCA-A), and the major cannabis-related human metabolite (THC-COOH). After SPE offline enrichment, we used a UPLC–ESI-MS/MS system, which permitted the determination of several by-products. Studied matrices were samples of different origins: (i) effluent water from a wastewater treatment plant in the Porto urban area;(ii) environmental water from Febros River, the last left-bank tributary of the Douro River. The multi-residue approach was substantiated and successfully employed to analyze the water samples collected in the above locations. The rapid and precise quantification of nine different cannabinoids in different water samples occurred within nine minutes at the ng L−1 level. The appearance of dozens of ng L−1 of some cannabis secondary metabolites, such as CBD, CBDA, CBN, THCA-A, indicates this plant species’ widespread usage among the general population in the considered area.

19.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The year 2020 began with the world being flounced with a wave of novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) disease, named COVID-19. Based on promising pre-clinical and clinical data, remdesivir (RDV) was the first drug to receive FDA approval and so far, it is the most common therapy for treatment of SARS-CoV-2/MERS-CoV. However, following intravenous administration, RDV metabolizes majorly by human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and marginally by the CYP3A4 enzyme in merely less than an hour. Its resultant active metabolite is a hydrophilic nucleoside with very limited accumulation within lung tissues. Therefore, there is a need to investigate strategies to overcome such premature metabolism issues and improve the antiviral efficacy of RDV at the target site. Objective: Considering the major CES1-mediated metabolism of RDV on systemic administration, we intend to explore the remarkable CES1 plus CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of cannabidiol (CBD) against in vitro microsomal metabolism of RDV to indicate its therapeutic potential as an adjuvant to RDV in the treatment and management of COVID-19. Methods: We investigated the in vitro human liver microsomal metabolism of RDV in the presence of two potential CES1 inhibitors-CBD and nelfinavir, and two standard CYP3A4 inhibitors-ritonavir (RITO) and cyclosporin A. The microsomal metabolism assay was further validated by using a well-characterized CYP3A4-selective substrate, midazolam (MDZ), in the presence of CBD and RITO. Results: Our findings depicted that RDV was rapidly and completely metabolized by human liver microsomes within 60 min. Coincubation with CBD substantially reduced microsomal metabolism of RDV and prolonged its in vitro half-life from 8.93 to 31.07 min. CBD showed significantly higher inhibition of RDV compared with known CES1 and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Inhibition of MDZ metabolism by CBD and RITO further validated the assay. Conclusions: The current study strongly suggests that CBD significantly inhibits human liver microsomal metabolism of RDV and extends its in vitro half-life. Thus, concomitant administration of CBD with RDV intravenous injection could be a promising strategy to prevent premature metabolism in COVID-19 patients.

20.
Phytother Res ; 35(12): 6893-6903, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568309

ABSTRACT

Given the abundancy of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors density, beyond the lung, the intestine is considered as an alternative site of infection and replication for severe acute respiratory syndrome by coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Cannabidiol (CBD) has recently been proposed in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory symptoms because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity exerted in the lung. In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro PPAR-γ-dependent efficacy of CBD (10-9 -10-7  M) in preventing epithelial damage and hyperinflammatory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) in a Caco-2 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CBD was able to reduce all the analyzed proinflammatory markers triggered by SP incubation, such as tool-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), ACE-2, family members of Ras homologues A-GTPase (RhoA-GTPase), inflammasome complex (NLRP3), and Caspase-1. CBD caused a parallel inhibition of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-18 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. By immunofluorescence analysis, we observed increased expression of tight-junction proteins and restoration of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) following CBD treatment, as well as the rescue of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran permeability induced by SP. Our data indicate, in conclusion, that CBD is a powerful inhibitor of SP protein enterotoxicity in vitro.


Subject(s)
Cannabidiol , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Caco-2 Cells , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Caspase 1 , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , PPAR gamma , Toll-Like Receptor 4
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