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1.
Louisiana Agriculture ; 64:1, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1888299

ABSTRACT

This article briefly describes a series of extension materials created by LSU AgCenter and Louisiana Sea Grant to assist different sectors of the community to respond to public health concerns associated with COVID-19. The materials created included a series of fact sheets on a variety of issues, including food delivery and take-out, fishing safety information and seafood processing plants. In addition, a series of six posters was developed to create awareness of social distancing among store employees and customers. Two fact sheets were created for the seafood industry. "Fishing Safety and Information During a Public Health Emergency" highlights the health of people working on the boats, the proper use of disinfectants, and considerations when fishers sell their catch directly to consumers. The other fact sheet is "Public Health Emergency Response for Seafood Processing Plants During COVID-19," which provides guidance on the risks associated for processing plants during the pandemic, how to identify high-risk areas, and how to control and prevent the transmission of the virus among employees and visitors. The goal is to minimize person-to-person contact in the plant and during processing. To help create awareness on the control and prevention of the transmission of COVID-19, graphics and videos are available on the LSU AgCenter website for sharing through social media.

2.
Revista Espanola de Salud Publica ; 95(e202110134), 2021.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1888082

ABSTRACT

Background: The health of people can be affected by the habitability of their home conditions and the dynamics of family care in home. The aim of this work was to calculate the intrafamily secondary attack rate (TAS) in Castilla y Leon and its relationship with characteristics of the living places and the cohabitants.

3.
The Australian Journal of Emergency Management ; 35(3):10, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887981

ABSTRACT

Games can help us prepare for emergencies and manage crises as they enable players to experience emergency situations in a safe and interactive way.

4.
Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte ; 22(2):221-235, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887978

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación pretende conocer las barreras percibidas, así como posibles variables predictoras, en personas que practican actividad física en centros fitness que se encontraban confinadas en el hogar por la pandemia de COVID19. La muestra estuvo conformada por 8.087 practicantes de actividad física. Se administró un cuestionario en línea por correo electrónico. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las barreras percibidas y un análisis de regresión logística para determinar posibles variables predictoras. Las barreras percibidas más importantes fueron el precio y la suerte de la seguridad. La edad, el sexo, la frecuencia de práctica física vigorosa y la observación de las recomendaciones de la OMS serían las variables predictoras en mayor medida de las barreras percibidas. Los resultados son relevantes para que las organizaciones deportivas planifiquen su oferta de servicios después del confinamiento.Alternate :This research intends to know the perceived barriers, as well as their predictor variables, in people who practice Physical Activity in fitness centers and were home confined due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample was conformed of 8,087 physical activity practitioners. An online questionnaire was administered by email. A descriptive analysis of the perceived barriers was done, and logistic regression analysis to determine possible predictor variables. The most important perceived barriers were price and a lack of safety. Age, gender, the vigorous physical practice frequency and the observation of the WHO recommendations would be the predictor variables to a larger extend for the perceived barriers. The results are relevant for sport organizations to plan their services offer post lockdown.Alternate :Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo conhecer as barreiras percebidas, bem como possíveis variáveis preditivas, em pessoas que praticam atividade física em academias de ginástica que ficaram confinadas em casa pela pandemia do COVID-19. A amostra foi composta por 8.087 praticantes de atividade física. Um questionário online foi administrado por e-mail. Uma análise descritiva das barreiras percebidas e uma análise de regressáo logística foram realizadas para determinar possíveis variáveis preditoras. As barreiras percebidas mais importantes foram o preçõ e a sorte na seguranęa. Idade, sexo, frequencia de prática física vigorosa e observancia das recomendações da OMS seriam as variáveis preditoras em maior extensáo das barreiras percebidas. Os resultados são relevantes para que as organizações esportivas planejem sua oferta de serviçõs após o confmamento.

5.
China Review ; 22(2):349-351, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887965

ABSTRACT

[...]the book concludes with an observation that the key features of the emergency disciplinary state, that is, top-down leadership, control over the bureaucratic system, and horizontal grassroots social organizations, have continued to operate in China's responses to SARS and COVID-19. Despite the limitation, the idea of the emergency disciplinary state sheds much-needed light on understanding China's distinctive style of public health emergency management during COVID-19. [...]as increased globalization sped up the spread of COVID-19, the Chinese government formulated international travel restrictions to slow the spread elsewhere in the world and implemented control measures to contain transmission from imported cases.

6.
Asian American Policy Review ; 31:76-79,93, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887845

ABSTRACT

Higuchi asserts that Iyekichi Higuchi prepared to leave the Heart Mountain camp for Japanese Americans in May 1945 to return to San Jose, California, look for a home for his wife and two at-home children, and to find a job. He had been forced to sell his 14.25-acre home in San Jose three years earlier when the federal government had forced 120,000 Japanese Americans from the West Coast because of hysteria about the alleged security threat they posed in the days following the 7 December 1941, Japanese attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. What faced those returning Japanese Americans mirrors the hate crimes now facing Americans of Asian descent who are blamed for spreading the COVID-19 virus that originally started in China to the United States. Since the pandemic took over in March, thousands of Asian Americans have been accosted in public spaces, spit on or assaulted and told to go back where they came from, even if that was not Asia at all.

7.
International Journal of Public Health Research ; 11(1):1354-1363, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887820

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic in the middle of March as the disease is highly contagious and spread very quickly throughout the world. Understanding the knowledge and practice among healthcare staffs is also crucial especially among the frontlines staffs as they need to be able to protect themselves, and facilitate in educating their patients and public regarding disease prevention measures. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge, practice and perception on the effectiveness of the preventive measures taken by Ministry of Health (MOH) staffs to prevent transmission of the disease and measures they would take should they develop symptoms of the disease on COVID-19 disease. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey from 30th March 2020 to 6th April 2020 among the Ministry of health staffs. 1719 staffs completed the survey.

8.
Delaware Journal of Corporate Law ; 46(3):469-515, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887687

ABSTRACT

Indians now have the highest poverty rate in the United States.4 Reservation unemployment rates perennially hovered above fifty percent even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.5 With the exception of gaming, few places are as barren of business as Indian reservations.6 Tribes have engaged in numerous reforms to attract businesses to their lands;however, businesses remain reluctant to operate on tribal land.7 Businesses avoid Indian country8 because Indian country is complicated.9 Tribal courts can assert civil jurisdiction over nonIndians,10 but the scope of tribal jurisdiction is uncertain.11 Uncertainty over where to file suit discourages business development in Indian country.12 Moreover, businesses are leery of tribal laws.13 Businesses do not believe tribal courts can treat non-Indians fairly either.14 Although territoriality is the baseline jurisdictional rule across the globe,15 businesses do not believe engaging with an indian on tribal land should subject the business to tribal law.16 Businesses also tend to think tribal governments are unstable and tribal bureaucracies are politically motivated.17 Nevertheless, some businesses say they do not mind tribal jurisdiction if it is based upon express consent.18 Smart contracts are a consensual mechanism that solves businesses' concerns about tribal institutional capacity.19 Smart contracts are self-executing agreements.20 Since smart contracts automatically execute the contract's terms, parties do not need to worry about the effectiveness of external enforcement institutions.21 Contract law is also commonly negotiated by the parties,22 so parties to a smart contract can select the law of their choice. TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Long before European arrival, tribes developed laws and institutions to promote commerce.29 Tribes enforced contracts and allowed individuals to lend at interest.30 Tribes also had security devices-including intermarriage,31 ceremonies,32 and pledges.33 Efficient legal systems enabled goods to flow across the Americas.34 In fact, tribes developed physical infrastructure to facilitate trade, like roads35 and canals.36 The high volume of trade with diverse peoples led to the emergence of indigenous trade languages.37 Europeans immediately recognized tribal economic capacity38 and Indians skillfully engaged in trade with European powers.39 Despite acknowledging tribal sovereignty in its founding documents,40 the newly formed united States sought to acquire indigenous land and resources.41 Thus, the Constitution authorized Congress to regulate trade with the Indian tribes.42 An Act to Regulate Trade and intercourse with the indian Tribes ("The Act"), was one of the very first laws passed by Congress in 1790.43 Under the Act, non-Indians had to obtain a federal license to trade with Indians.44 Although the Act was premised on Indian incompetence,45 Congress knew tribal rules governing tribal trade were more important than federal law.46 However, trade also undermined tribal sovereignty by spreading European diseases47 and creating dependence on European goods.48 Tribal institutions were further debased by the Supreme Court. In 1823, the Supreme Court divested tribes of ownership of their land.49 The Court reached its conclusion by relying on the doctrine of discovery,50 an international law holding Christian Europeans acquire ownership of lands inhabited by non-Christian Europeans upon "discovery. "52 Nonetheless, in 1832, the Court categorically prohibited states from asserting their laws into tribal lands without the consent of the tribes.53 But the tribal victory was hollow because President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the decision.54 By the mid-1800s, most tribes had been removed to reservations.55 Indians had been self-supporting since time immemorial56 and were supposed to be able to continue their way of life on reservations.57 Indians attempted to engage in productive efforts on reservations;58 however, federal authorities denied Indians economic and personal liberty.59 Indeed, federal authorities implemented regulations for the express purpose of obliterating tribal cultures.60 For example, Congress enacted the Major Crimes Act in 188561 to supplant tribal justice systems.62 The Supreme Court acknowledged there was no constitutional authority for the law63 but upheld the law anyway because of Indians' dependent status.64 Extraconstitutional power enabled the United States to violate its treaty pledges and break up reservations.65 The General Allotment Act of 1887 ("the GAA") is the most egregious treaty violation in United States history.66 The GAA broke reservations into 160 acres parcels for each Indian head of household.67 The land was placed in trust for twenty-five years.68 During this time, indians were supposed to become self-supporting farmers and United States citizens.69 Lands remaining after each Indian received his parcel were opened to non-indian settlement in order to catalyze indian assimilation.70 Although the GAA was supposed to convert nomadic plains Indians into farmers, most of the land allotments Indians received were not suitable for agriculture by the United States' own admission.71 The GAA robbed tribes of ninety million acres of land,72 crushed tribal economies, and cast countless Indians into extreme poverty.73 Congress acknowledged the GAA's disastrous effects on tribes and enacted legislation to revitalize tribal institutions with the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 ("the IRA").74 Most significantly, the IRA ended allotment75 and placed reservation lands in trust status to ensure tribes would have a land base.76 Many traditional tribal governance structures were decentralized and informal,77 so the IRA provided tribes with western-style governance structures to help tribes meet contemporary government demands.78 However, the IRA constitutions were often incompatible with tribal cultures.79 Despite being ostensibly designed to foster tribal-governance, tribal institutions were completely subordinated to the Secretary of the Interior's whim.80 The IRA remains the backdrop of contemporary federal indian policy.81 The federal government shifted course during the 1950s and turned to terminating tribes.82 Accordingly, Congress ended its relationship with over 100 tribes, meaning these tribes' sovereignty were no longer recognized.83 Without recognition by the United States, tribes cannot assert governmental powers.84 Tribal sovereignty was further undermined by Congress' extension of state criminal law and civil adjudicatory jurisdiction over reservations in five states and the Alaska territory with Public Law 83-280 (PL 280).85 Other states were allowed to assert jurisdiction over the Indian country inside their borders without seeking tribal consent.86 PL 280 greatly undermined tribal justice systems.87 Furthermore, Congress coerced Indians into leaving reservations for large metropolitan areas through the Indian Relocation Act of 1956.88 Federal Indian law and policy began a new course in 1959 with the Supreme Court's opinion in Williams v. Lee.89 The Supreme Court refused to recognize state court jurisdiction over a non-Indian debt collection suit against an Indian for a debt accrued on the Navajo Nation.90 In a unanimous opinion, Justice Hugo Black explained that allowing state courts to adjudicate reservation disputes against Indians would denigrate tribal sovereignty.91 The United States' political climate matched the spirit of Williams v. Lee, as Presidents Kennedy an Johnson both expressed their opposition to tribal termination policies.92 President Nixon formally rejected tribal termination in favor of tribal self-determination in 1970,93 prompting Congress to embrace tribal selfdetermination in 1975.94 Tribes have benefitted greatly from the self-determination policy.95 Indian gaming is a direct outgrowth of the tribal selfdetermination policy96 and, at least prior to COVID-19, generated over $30 billion a year for tribes.97 Tribes and tribe-owned enterprises have experienced success in several other industries too.98 Nevertheless, Indian country's private sector remains virtually non-existent.99 This is not due to a lack of effort by tribes;100 rather, private investors remain reluctant to place their money in Indian country because they lack confidence in tribal institutions.101 The next section explores reasons why people distrust tribal institutions.

9.
The Australian Journal of Emergency Management ; 36(4):11-12, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887681

ABSTRACT

Resilience NSW has accountability for coordinating evacuation centres during disasters. Evacuation centres provide basic needs for those with nowhere else to go. However, meeting these needs and managing expectations during the catastrophic 2019–20 bushfire season proved challenging.

10.
Vet Res Commun ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888963

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current pandemic disease denominated as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies suggest that the original source of this virus was a spillover from an animal reservoir and its subsequent adaptation to humans. Of all the different animals affected, cats are one of the most susceptible species. Moreover, several cases of natural infection in domestic and stray cats have been reported in the last few months. Although experimental infection assays have demonstrated that cats are successfully infected and can transmit the virus to other cats by aerosol, the conditions used for these experiments have not been specified in terms of ventilation. We have, therefore, evaluated the susceptibility of cats using routes of infection similar to those expected under natural conditions (exposure to a sneeze, cough, or contaminated environment) by aerosol and oral infection. We have also evaluated the transmission capacity among infected and naïve cats using different air exchange levels. Despite being infected using natural routes and shed virus for a long period, the cats did not transmit the virus to contact cats when air renovation features were employed. The infected animals also developed gross and histological lesions in several organs. These outcomes confirm that cats are at risk of infection when exposed to infected people, but do not transmit the virus to other cats with high rates of air renovation.

11.
Ccs Chemistry ; 3(1):1501-1528, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887435

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has caused a global pandemic rapidly sweeping across all countries, bringing social and economic hardship to millions. Most countries have implemented early warning measures to detect, isolate, and treat patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This minireview summarizes some of those steps, in particular, testing methods and drug development in the context of chemical biology, and discusses the molecular basis of COVID-19's virulent transmissibility.

12.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya (Russian Federation) ; 2022(3):32-38, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887388

ABSTRACT

Aim: Analysis of pregnancy complications and outcomes in women with COVID-19. Materials and methods: The retrospective study included 34 pregnant women aged 16–40 years, who underwent treatment for COVID-19 in hospital. The diagnosis of COVID-19 infection was confirmed by positive PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in all pregnant women. Results: Most pregnant women (52.9%) had mild symptoms, 20.7% had moderate symptoms and 17.6% had severe symptoms. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 67.1% of pregnant women. Obesity was predominant in the structure of extragenital disorders. It was in 44.1% of women. With COVID-19, iron deficiency anemia (44.2%), preeclampsia (38.2%), risk of preterm birth (35.3%) were predominant in the structure of pregnancy complications. Preterm birth occurred in 36.8% of cases. Cesarean section was performed in 73.3% of cases. The incidence of complications in newborns was 11.6%. 8.8% of newborns were referred to the neonatal intensive care unit. Conclusion: It was found that most pregnant women had mild cases of COVID-19. Pregnant women with COVID-19 had high incidence of preeclampsia, preterm birth and cesarean section versus pregnant women without COVID-19. Intrauterine vertical transmission of infection was not detected. The incidence of complications in newborns was in compliance with general population indicators.

13.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(6):UC15-UC19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887320

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The airway management of patients with COVID-19 is a high risk task for anaesthesiologists. Several innovations have been born as a result of this problem, including aerosol boxes and clear plastic sheets. Aim: To compare the timing and attempt of direct laryngoscopy with and without aerosol box for intubation in patients undergoing general anaesthesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This was a randomised controlled study was conducted in Parul Sevashram Hospital, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujrat, India from April 2021 to September 2021. A total of 50 patients were randomly divided into two equal groups as group A was intubated with an aerosol box and a macintosh laryngoscope, while group B was intubated with a clear plastic sheet and macintosh laryngoscope. With proper airway precautions and Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) comparative assessment of patients undergoing surgery in general anaesthesia was done. Time to intubate, number of attempts, ease of Endotracheal Tube (ETT) tube insertion, quality of Laryngoscopy view and Cormack Lehane scores were assessed in both the groups. Results: The mean time for intubation was high at 29.72 seconds in group A, while it was 23.16 seconds in group B;the difference was significant. Overall, 20 out of 25 (80%) patients could be intubated in 1st attempt in group B as compared to 15 out of 25 (60%) in group A. Airway visualisation using Percentage of Glottic Opening (POGO) scoring and Cormack Lehane staging were suggestive of better visualisation in group B than group A. Difficulties encountered during intubation like laryngoscopy, glottic visualisation, arm movement restriction, ETT negotiation, and stylet removal were lesser in group A as compared to group B. The incidence of complications like sore throat and airway bleeding were lower in group B as compared to group A. Conclusion: In the COVID-19 era, aerosol box and clear plastic sheets are effective barrier measures for airway management to prevent the anaesthesiologists from the aerosol transmission. But airway management with clear plastic sheet is technically easier than aerosol box.

14.
9th IEEE International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886590

ABSTRACT

Efforts of individual countries fighting the COVID-19 pandemic may significantly vary. In this work, we compare the overall efficiency of COVID-19 anti-pandemic management of selected European countries using data envelopment analysis (DEA) models connected in weekly time series for summer 2021. To evaluate the COVID-19 transmission mitigation of the countries, we consider a proportion of fully vaccinated people, relative numbers of hospitalized patients, and a reproductive number as an indicator of the rate of current regional COVID-19 pandemic transmission. All DEA models, including those with variable returns to scale and free disposability hulls, require no assumptions, unlike regression models. By connecting the models in time series, we try to identify countries with the highest long-term efficiencies that may serve as examples for other countries. Of course, the situation is always more complex than the data envelopment models, even if connected in time series, may describe;thus, the results are rather illustrative and propose the aspect of models connection in time series.

15.
Journal of Urology ; 207(SUPPL 5):e269-e270, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 utilizes two integral membrane proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2 for viral replication. It has been established TMPRS22 specifically is found in high concentrations throughout the prostate found to be linked to prostatic disease progression. This project examined the histopathological, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescent elements of prostatic tissue from men infected by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We evaluated prostate tissue in men with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms who underwent HoLEP procedure after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Biopsied tissue was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence, and viral presence was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Multiple coronavirus-like spiked viral particles ranging from 73.3mm to 109mm were visualized by TEM (Figure). Histochemical and immunofluorescence concurrently showed presence of distinct hyalinization, fibrosis, and presence of spike protein (Figure 2). RT-PCR confirmed the identity of the viral bodies as SARS-CoV-2 (Figure 3). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that SARSCoV- 2 not only enters prostatic tissue but may persist beyond initial infection period. In addition to establishing the persistence of SARSCoV- 2 particles in prostatic tissue, this report suggests the importance of discerning the relationships between COVID-19, lower urinary tract symptom severity, and prostatic hyperplasia. (Figure Presented).

16.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1885958

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the incidence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infections in South African professional rugby union players in different phases of return-to-competition during a pandemic. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Players reported their history of SARS-CoV-2 infection before / during a national competition, using an online questionnaire (physician verified). Three periods of return to training/competition after a nation-wide complete lockdown during a pandemic were studied: 1) non-contact training, 2) contact training, 3) competition. The total period was 184 days (20/07/2020–20/01/2021) including 45 matches. Outcomes were: 1) incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (I: per 1000 player days;95%CI) in each period (calculated using a Poisson distribution), 2) player symptoms, 3) median days to return-to-training following SARS-CoV-2 infection, 4) method of transmission, and 5) percentage matches cancelled due to SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results 185 players had 42 physician verified positive SARS-CoV-2 infections (I = 1.23;95%CI: 0.86–1.61). Incidences during the three periods were: non-contact training = 0, contact training (I = 1.04;0.36–1.71;mostly forwards), and competition (I = 1.54;1.00–2.10). 83 % of the infected players were symptomatic and 52 % of the 42 positive players had systemic symptoms. Median return-to-training was 14 days. 22 (52 %) SARS-CoV-2 infections were rugby-related: 13 off-field (31 %), 9 on-field (21 %). 11 % of matches were cancelled due to SARS-CoV-2 infections. Conclusions As contact in rugby was introduced back into the game following lockdowns there was an increasing incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On-field rugby activities were responsible for 21 % of SARS-CoV-2 infections and 11 % of matches had to be cancelled, indicating the need for risk mitigation strategies.

17.
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1885424

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has posed a tremendous threat to the public and health authorities. Wuhan, as one of the cities experiencing the earliest COVID-19 outbreak, has successfully tackled the epidemic finally. The main reason is the implementing of Fangcang shelter hospitals, which rapidly and massively scale the health system's capacity to treat COVID-19 confirmed cases with mild symptoms. To give insights on what degree Fangcang shelter hospitals have contained COVID-19 in Wuhan, we proposed a piecewise smooth model regarding the patient triage scheme and the bed capacities of Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated hospitals. We used data on the cumulative number of confirmed cases, recovered cases, deaths, and data on the number of hospitalized individuals in Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated hospitals in Wuhan to parameterize the targeted model. Our results showed that diminishing the bed capacity or delaying the opening time of Fangcang shelter hospitals, both would result in worsening the epidemic by increasing the total number of infectives and hospitalized individuals and the effective reproduction number Re(t)$$ {R}_e(t) $$. The findings demonstrated that Fangcang shelter hospitals avoided 17,013 critical infections and 17,823 total infections while it saved 7?days during the process of controlling the effective reproduction number Re(t)<1$$ {R}_e(t)<1 $$. Our study highlighted the critical role of Fangcang shelter hospitals in curbing and eventually stopping COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. These findings may provide a valuable reference for decision-makers in regarding ramping up the health system capacity to isolate groups of people with mild symptoms in areas of widespread infection.

18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 243, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887333

ABSTRACT

Introduction: healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring COVID-19 occupational transmission and subsequently, exposing patients and others. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and examine the characteristics and predictors of HCWs with COVID-19 infection in a Malaysian district. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study of HCWs working at Cheras District Health Office, with COVID-19 infection from 1st January to 31st October 2021. Data was obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Unit which included variables of basic sociodemography, type of disease acquisition; healthcare-acquired (HA) or community-acquired (CA), and management outcome. Data was analysed descriptively and cases with type of disease acquisition were compared using logistic regression. Results: the prevalence of HCWs with COVID-19 was 17.4%. Majority aged 30-39, female gender and Malay ethnicity (51.7%, 60% and 91.7% respectively). Main comorbidities included hypertension (3.3%), diabetes mellitus (3.3%), both hypertension and diabetes mellitus (2.5%) and obesity (4.2%). Smokers, pregnant mothers and non-immunized made up only small proportions (4.2%, 4.2%, and 4% respectively). Paramedics were the most infected proportion (68.4%). About one third of cases managed COVID-19 patients directly (37.5%). Similar proportion had HA infection (29.2%). Smaller proportion (12.8%) needed hospitalization. The early source of infection was HA (January-April). Later, the trend shifted towards CA (May-October). Male gender (OR 3.22, 95% CI = 1.43 - 7.29, p<0.05), smoker (OR 10.84, 95% CI = 1.17 - 100.77, p<0.05), and those who manage COVID-19 cases were more likely to acquire occupational COVID-19 infection (OR 2.28, 95% CI = 1.02 - 5.09, p<0.05). Conclusion: continuous occupational infectious disease control measures is necessary to reduce the disease burden. Future research on HCWs with COVID-19 infection with larger scale is recommended to determine the final model for predictors of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 29, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886963
20.
Indoor Air ; 32(6): e13056, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886677

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has spread worldwide. This study summarized the transmission mechanisms of COVID-19 and their main influencing factors, such as airflow patterns, air temperature, relative humidity, and social distancing. The transmission characteristics in existing cases are providing more and more evidence that SARS CoV-2 can be transmitted through the air. This investigation reviewed probabilistic and deterministic research methods, such as the Wells-Riley equation, the dose-response model, the Monte-Carlo model, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the Eulerian method, CFD with the Lagrangian method, and the experimental approach, that have been used for studying the airborne transmission mechanism. The Wells-Riley equation and dose-response model are typically used for the assessment of the average infection risk. Only in combination with the Eulerian method or the Lagrangian method can these two methods obtain the spatial distribution of airborne particles' concentration and infection risk. In contrast with the Eulerian and Lagrangian methods, the Monte-Carlo model is suitable for studying the infection risk when the behavior of individuals is highly random. Although researchers tend to use numerical methods to study the airborne transmission mechanism of COVID-19, an experimental approach could often provide stronger evidence to prove the possibility of airborne transmission than a simple numerical model. All in all, the reviewed methods are helpful in the study of the airborne transmission mechanism of COVID-19 and epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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