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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with simultaneous diagnosis of haematological malignancies (HM) and COVID-19 is unknown and there are no specific treatment guidelines. METHODS: We describe the clinical features and outcome of a cohort of 450 patients with simultaneous diagnosis of HM and COVID-19 registered in the EPICOVIDEHA registry between March 2020 to February 2022. RESULTS: Acute leukaemia and lymphoma were the most frequent HM (35.8% and 35.1%, respectively). Overall, 343 (76.2%) patients received treatment for HM, which was delayed for longer than one month since diagnosis in 57 (16.6%). An overall response rate was observed in 140 (40.8%) patients after the first line of treatment. After a median follow-up of 35 days, overall mortality was 177/450 (39.3%); 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients not receiving HM treatment (42.1%) than in those receiving treatment (27.4%, p = 0.004), either before and/or after COVID-19, or compared to patients receiving HM treatment at least after COVID-19 (15.2%, p < 0.001). Age, severe/critical COVID-19, ≥2 comorbidities, and lack of HM treatment were independent risk factors for mortality, whereas a lymphocyte count >500/mcl at COVID-19 onset was protective. CONCLUSIONS: HM treatment should be delivered as soon as possible for patients with simultaneous diagnosis of COVID-19 and HM requiring immediate therapy.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109947

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic has put a serious strain on health services, including cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the changes in cancer treatment worldwide during the first phase of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Proquest, and Scopus databases were searched comprehensively for articles published between 1 January 2020 and 12 December 2021, in order to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted following the PRISMA statement. STUDY SELECTION: Studies and articles that reported data on the number of or variation in cancer treatments between the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods, comprising oncological surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted from two pairs of independent reviewers. The weighted average of the percentage variation was calculated between the two periods to assess the change in the number of cancer treatments performed during the pandemic. Stratified analyses were performed by type of treatment, geographic area, time period, study setting, and type of cancer. RESULTS: Among the 47 articles retained, we found an overall reduction of -18.7% (95% CI, -24.1 to -13.3) in the total number of cancer treatments administered during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the previous periods. Surgical treatment had a larger decrease compared to medical treatment (-33.9% versus -12.6%). For all three types of treatments, we identified a U-shaped temporal trend during the entire period January-October 2020. Significant decreases were also identified for different types of cancer, in particular for skin cancer (-34.7% [95% CI, -46.8 to -22.5]) and for all geographic areas, in particular, Asia (-42.1% [95% CI, -49.6 to -34.7]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The interruption, delay, and modifications to cancer treatment due to the COVID-19 pandemic are expected to alter the quality of care and patient outcomes.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 966632, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109786

ABSTRACT

Background: Although several studies have assessed the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of interventions in treating the COVID-19, many of them have limitations that can have an immense impact on their results. This study aims to assess the potential limitations in systematic reviews (SRs) that evaluate the effect of interventions on the treatment of the COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences (WOS) databases were searched from inception to January 1, 2022. All systematic reviews investigated the effectiveness, efficacy, safety, and outcome of the main intervention (Favipiravir, Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Tocilizumab) for the treatment of COVID-19 patients and reported the potential limitations of the included studies. We assessed the quality of the included studies using the Quality Assessment Tool (QAT) for review articles. We conducted a content analysis and prepared a narrative summary of the limitations. Results: Forty-six studies were included in this review. Ninety one percent of the included studies scored as strong quality and the remaining (9%) as moderate quality. Only 29.7% of the included systematic reviews have a registered protocol. 26% of the included studies mentioned a funding statement. The main limitations of the included studies were categorized in 10 domains: sample size, heterogeneity, follow-up, treatment, including studies, design, definitions, synthesis, quality, and search. Conclusion: Various limitations have been reported in all the included studies. Indeed, the existence of limitations in studies can affect their results, therefore, identifying these limitations can help researchers design better studies. As a result, stronger studies with more reliable results will be reported and disseminated. Further research on COVID-19 SRs is essential to improve research quality and also, efficiency among scientists across the world.

4.
Vojnosanitetski Pregled ; 79(9):849-856, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2109592

ABSTRACT

Background/Aim. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a predominantly respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of this study was to determine whether there were parameters that could predict the development of a severe clinical picture and fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods. The study involved 632 patients treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, University Clinical Center Kragujevac, from June 2020 to February 2021. All patients were divided into two groups according to the need for ox-ygen therapy (Sat 02 < 94 %). Results. Our results showed that high body mass index (BMI) was singled out as a risk factor for the development of a severe clinical picture (BMI, ORadjusted = 1.263;95% CI = 1.117 - 1.427;p < 0.001). Pro -thrombin time (ORadjusted = 1.170;95% CI = 1.004 -1.364;p = 0.045), as well as low albumin values (ORadjusted = 0.878;95% CI = 0.804 -0.958;p = 0.003), had a predictive signifi-cance for the development of a severe clinical picture. Factors that were of predictive importance in patients with fatal outcomes were C-reactive protein (CRP) (ORadjusted = 1.010;95% CI = 1.001 - 1.019;p = 0.031), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (ORadjusted = 1.004;95% CI = 1.001 - 1.006;p = 0.002), and X-ray of the lungs (ORadjusted = 1.394;95% CI = 1.170 - 1.661;p < 0.001). Conclusion. The study showed that routine, clinical laboratory parameters can be important in the early detection of patients with a potentially severe clinical picture and fatal outcomes. In patients with a mild clinical picture, CRP, LDH, ferritin, and serum albumin lev-els may timely indicate disease progression. Monitoring these parameters is of essential importance for the timely clinical assessment of patients with COVID-19 and, thus, the prompt application of adequate therapeutic protocols in the treatment of these patients.

6.
Microporous Mesoporous Mater ; 346: 112315, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105599

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic prompted scientists to look for active pharmaceutical ingredients that could be effective in treating COVID-19. One of them was hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial and immunomodulatory agent exhibiting antiviral activity. The anchoring of this drug on porous carriers enables control of its delivery to a specific place in the body, and thus increases bioavailability. In this work, we developed low-cost zeolitic platforms for hydroxychloroquine. The waste solution generated during zeolite production from fly ashes was used in the synthesis of Na-A and Na-X carriers at laboratory and technical scale. The materials were characterized by high purity and single mineral phase composition. The surface charge of zeolites varied from negative at pH 5.8, and 7.2, to positive at pH 1.2. All samples indicated good sorption ability towards hydroxychloroquine. The mechanism of drug adsorption was based on electrostatic interactions and followed the Freundlich model. Zeolitic carriers modified the hydroxychloroquine release profiles at conditions mimicking the pH of body fluids. The mode of drug liberation was affected by particle size distributions, morphological forms, and chemical compositions of zeolites. The most hydroxychloroquine controlled release at pH 5.8 for the Na-X material was noted, which indicates that it can enhance the drug therapeutic efficacy.

7.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 143: 108896, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methadone is one of the most utilized treatments for opioid use disorder. However, requirements for observing methadone dosing can impose barriers to patients and increase risk for respiratory illness transmission (e.g., COVID-19). Video observation of methadone dosing at home could allow opioid treatment programs (OTPs) to offer more take-home doses while ensuring patient safety through remote observation of ingestion. METHODS: Between April and August 2020, a clinical pilot program of video observation of methadone take-home dosing via smartphone was conducted within a multisite OTP agency. Participating patients completed a COVID-19 symptom screener and submitted video recordings of themselves ingesting all methadone take-home doses. Patients who followed these procedures for a two-week trial period could continue participating in the full pilot program and potentially receive more take-home doses. This retrospective observational study characterizes patient engagement and compares clinical outcomes with matched controls. RESULTS: Of 44 patients who initiated the two-week trial, 33 (75 %) were successful and continued participating in the full pilot program. Twenty full pilot participants (61 %) received increased take-home doses. Full pilot participants had more days with observed dosing over a 60-day period than matched controls (mean = 53.2 vs. 16.6 days, respectively). Clinical outcomes were similar between pilot participants and matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Video observation of methadone take-home dosing implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic was feasible. This model has the potential to enhance safety by increasing rates of observed methadone dosing and reducing infection risks and barriers associated with relying solely on face-to-face observation of methadone dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Methadone , Pandemics , Feasibility Studies , Pilot Projects , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(10): 1108-1117, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUP: the widespread COVID-19 infection worldwide has resulted in the inability of healthcare facilities to receive all infected patients; therefore, most are treated at home. In addition, factors such as high mortality, types and severity of symptoms, and the prevalence of unreliable information have prompted patients to resort to self-treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevention, treatment, degree of symptoms, and sources of information among patients with COVID-19 in Arab countries METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven Arab countries: Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Tunisia, and the United Arab of Emirates. People who have recovered from COVID-19 completed the study questionnaire. Score of symptoms during and after COVID-19 infection has been calculated by giving the participants a list of 13 symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 3519 participants completed the survey. Mostly females (68.3%), and aged between 18 and 40 years old (59.4%). Prophylaxis treatments, including vaccines and antibiotics, have been used in around 40% of the participants. The total average score of symptoms during the infection period was found 7.31 ± 3.66 out of 13. However, the symptoms score upon recovery was low (0.48 ± 1.11 score). The significant associations with increased incidence of symptoms during infection were reported with older people, married, divorced or widowed, people with chronic diseases, and obese. Moreover, significant associations with decreased symptoms were reported with those who worked in the health sector, non- or ex-smokers, and vaccinated people. CONCLUSION: The use of medication and other treatments to prevent infection with COVID-19 was common among the participants in the seven countries. Taking the vaccine was the only effect on the number of symptoms experienced by patients. Although nearly two years have passed since the onset of the disease, there is still a need to raise treatment awareness among patients at home.

10.
ESMO Open ; 7(6): 100610, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid cancer is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome with COVID-19. As guidelines for patient management in that setting depend on retrospective efforts, we here present the first analyses of a nationwide database of patients with cancer hospitalized with COVID-19 in Belgium, with a focus on changes in anticancer treatment plans at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Nineteen Belgian hospitals identified all patients with a history of solid cancer hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 2020 and February 2021. Demographic, cancer-specific and COVID-specific data were pseudonymously entered into a central Belgian Society of Medical Oncology (BSMO)-COVID database. The association between survival and primary cancer type was analyzed through multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Group comparisons for categorical variables were carried out through a Chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 928 patients were registered in the database; most of them were aged ≥70 years (61.0%) and with poor performance scores [57.2% Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) ≥2]. Thirty-day COVID-related mortality was 19.8%. In multivariate analysis, a trend was seen for higher mortality in patients with lung cancer (27.6% versus 20.8%, P = 0.062) and lower mortality for patients with breast cancer (13.0% versus 23.3%, P = 0.052) compared with other tumour types. Non-curative treatment was associated with higher 30-day COVID-related mortality rates compared with curative or no active treatment (25.8% versus 14.3% versus 21.9%, respectively, P < 0.001). In 33% of patients under active treatment, the therapeutic plan was changed due to COVID-19 diagnosis, most frequently involving delays/interruptions in systemic treatments (18.6%). Thirty-day COVID-related mortality was not significantly different between patients with and without treatment modifications (21.4% versus 20.5%). CONCLUSION: Interruption in anticancer treatments at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection was not associated with a reduction in COVID-related mortality in our cohort of patients with solid cancer, highlighting that treatment continuation should be strived for, especially in the curative setting.

11.
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am ; 34(4): 481-490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104621

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected individuals with kidney disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Sars-coV-2 infection has been linked to the development of acute kidney injury and worsening of underlying kidney function. Multiple challenges were encountered during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in valuable lessons learned for future pandemics, public health emergencies, and disasters related to the care of individuals with kidney disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed the extensive need for more nurses to be knowledgeable about the care of kidney disease and able to provide specialized nephrology care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Gene Rep ; 20: 100756, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104964

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) belongs to the family of coronaviruses, and it is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. It causes a contagious disease, which affects the respiratory system and can lead to severe complications in some cases. This virus was detected in China, then rapidly spread to almost all countries. Because of their complexity and the malignancy of the symptoms, they remain a center of interest for researchers. Herein, we provide a review in terms of transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options in clinical trials of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), because readers need to update themselves regularly, and there is still much more to know about it.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2140549, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107202

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in lung cancer patients receiving anticancer treatment. We enrolled lung cancer patients receiving anticancer treatment and non-cancer patients; all participants were fully vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine. Blood samples were collected before the first and second vaccinations and 4 ± 1 weeks after the second vaccination. Anti-severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein S1 subunit receptor-binding domain antibody titers were measured using the Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assays. Fifty-five lung cancer patients and 38 non-cancer patients were included in the immunogenicity analysis. Lung cancer patients showed significant increase in the geometric mean antibody concentration, which was significantly lower than that in the non-cancer patients after the first (30 vs. 121 AU/mL, p < .001 on Architect; 4.0 vs 1.2 U/mL, p < .001 on Elecsys) and second vaccinations (1632 vs. 3472 AU/mL, p = .005 on Architect; 213 vs 573 A/mL, p = .002 on Elecsys). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for seroprotection was significantly lower (p < .05) in lung cancer patients than that in non-cancer patients. Analysis of the anticancer treatment types showed that the aOR for seroprotection was significantly lower (p < .05) in lung cancer patients receiving cytotoxic agents. They showed no increase in adverse reactions. BNT162b2 vaccination in lung cancer patients undergoing anticancer treatment significantly increased (p < .05) antibody titers and showed acceptable safety. Immunogenicity in these patients could be inadequate compared with that in non-cancer patients.

14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103948

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to compare (1) treatments and time intervals between treatments of breast cancer patients diagnosed during and before the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) the number of treatments started during and before the pandemic. METHODS: Women were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. For aim one, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to compare the treatment of women diagnosed within four periods of 2020: pre-COVID (weeks 1-8), transition (weeks 9-12), lockdown (weeks 13-17), and care restart (weeks 18-26), with data from 2018/2019 as reference. Wilcoxon rank-sums test was used to compare treatment intervals, using a two-sided p-value < 0.05. For aim two, number of treatments started per week in 2020 was compared with 2018/2019. RESULTS: We selected 34,097 women for aim one. Compared to 2018/2019, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy was less likely for stage I (OR 0.24, 95%CI 0.11-0.53), stage II (OR 0.63, 95%CI 0.47-0.86), and hormone receptor+/HER2- tumors (OR 0.55, 95%CI 0.41-0.75) diagnosed during transition. Time between diagnosis and first treatment decreased for patients diagnosed during lockdown with a stage I (p < 0.01), II (p < 0.01) or III tumor (p = 0.01). We selected 30,002 women for aim two. The number of neo-adjuvant endocrine therapies and surgeries starting in week 14, 2020, increased by 339% and 18%, respectively. The number of adjuvant chemotherapies decreased by 42% in week 15 and increased by 44% in week 22. CONCLUSION: The pandemic and subsequently altered treatment recommendations affected multiple aspects of the breast cancer treatment strategy and the number of treatments started per week.

15.
J Basic Microbiol ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103654

ABSTRACT

During the catastrophic wave of Coronavirus disease 2019, health agencies started to report an infrequent but lethal mucormycosis or black fungal infection. Primarily, it causes sinusitis by affecting nasal, oral, lung, brain, ocular, and other body tissues. It becomes more fatal, especially in diabetic, cancer, and immune-compromised patients. Before 2020, the prevalence of mucormycosis was very rare but it has rapidly emerged globally from late 2020 to mid-2021. Recently, the mucormycosis got worse and epidemic with more than 30,000 cases reported across India. The etiology of infection can be diagnosed by molecular, serological, microscopic, and clinical methods. However, early diagnosis of this ailment is still a challenging task due to no standalone diagnostic tool available along with clinical manifestations of the ailment resembling other fungal diseases. The treatment of mucormycosis is also challenging and frequently requires long-term treatment. Amphotericin B was found to be an effective antifungal for preventing mucormycosis but it failed if infection disseminated to necrotizing tissues or adjacent organs. Removal of infected tissue/organ by surgery is an alternative treatment to control mucormycosis. In addition, reversal of underlying predisposing conditions based on therapy is also in practice for its prevention. This review highlights different aspects of mucormycosis such as pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and their challenges and so on. We also emphasized the epidemiological shift during the recent outbreak and its influence on the different regions of India.

16.
Building and Environment ; : 109804, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104466

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness in the spread of disease via airborne transmission. As a result, there has been increasing interest in technologies that claim to reduce concentrations of airborne pathogens in indoor environments. The efficacy of many of these emerging technologies is not fully understood, and the testing that has been done is often conducted at a small scale and not representative of applied settings. There is currently no standard test method for evaluating air treatment technologies, making it difficult to compare results across studies or technology types. Here, a consistent testing approach in an operational-scale test chamber with a mock recirculating heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system was used to evaluate the efficacy of bipolar ionization and photocatalytic devices against the non-enveloped bacteriophage MS2 in the air and on surfaces. Statistically significant differences between replicate sets of technology tests and control tests (without technologies active) are apparent after one hour, ranging to a maximum of 0.88 log10 reduction for the bipolar ionization tests and 1.8 log10 reduction for the photocatalytic device tests. It should be noted that ozone concentrations were elevated above background concentrations in the test chamber during the photocatalytic device testing. No significant differences were observed between control and technology tests in terms of the amount of MS2 deposited or inactivated on surfaces during testing. A standardized, large-scale testing approach, with replicate testing and time-matched control conditions, is necessary for contextualizing laboratory efficacy results, translating them to real-world conditions, and for facilitating technology comparisons.

17.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 84(1-B):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2101893

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and repetitive, restricted behaviors, with a current estimated prevalence of 1:54. Individuals with ASD typically benefit from a range of medical, psychological, and other services due to impairments caused by ASD as well as high rates of comorbid conditions. Despite this increased need, individuals with ASD and their families often report significant difficulty accessing services, an issue which is compounded for some groups including minoritized racial groups and people living in rural areas. The current study sought to identify challenges faced by clients with ASD and their families when attempting to access behavioral health services via telehealth within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specific research questions were: (1) What are the most common challenges faced by clients with ASD and their families when attempting to access telehealth services? (2) What are the most problematic barriers (i.e., barriers most associated with being unable to access telehealth) faced by clients with ASD and their families when attempting access telehealth services? and (3) Which demographic groups (e.g., race, age, comorbidities) are least likely to be able to access telehealth?Data were extracted from client records of a multi-site provider of developmental disability (DD) services in Ohio following Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. Results of our analyses suggest that the most common challenges faced by clients with ASD and their families were issues related to client behavior, including client inattention, client noncompliance, and need for in-person support. In regard to ability versus inability to access telehealth services, need for in-person support was found to be related to decreased likelihood of receiving telehealth services, and client inattention was found to be related to increased likelihood of receiving telehealth services. Demographic groups most likely to experience difficulty accessing telehealth services were African American/Black clients and clients with a language disorder.Results of the current study re-iterate challenges identified in previous studies on healthcare access for clients with ASD and their families, including issues related to behavior and communication difficulties. They also highlight the effects of race on access to services, with minoritized racial groups consistently being found to experience increased challenges in accessing healthcare. While future research should further study these effects on additional samples and outside of the context of COVID-19, the current results provide information on where interventions designed to increase access to behavioral health services may be most efficiently targeted. Possible solutions to address identified issues are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

18.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 19-31, 2022 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100343

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2, there have been efforts to develop vaccines to control the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1/AZD1222 and Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/rAd5-S vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on March 15, 2021. The search terms used were: "vaccine" OR "vaccination" AND "covid19" OR "coronavirus" OR "sarscov2" AND "bnt162b2" OR "chadox1-S" OR "azd1222" OR "sputnik" OR "Gam-COVID-Vac" OR "mrna" OR "mRNA-1273" . We measured the risk of bias of the studies and the quality of the evidence using GRADE profiles. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results of clinical trials is presented. RESULTS: Of the 74 identified studies, 4 were finally included in this review. The efficacies of the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1/AZD1222 and Gam-COVID-VacrAd26-S/rAd5-S vaccines against symptomatic COVID-19 were 95,0% (CI95% 90,3-97,6), 94,1% (CI95% 89,3-96,8), 66,7% (CI95% 57,4-74,0), and 91,1% (CI95% 83,8-95,1), respectively. There was moderate certainty of the evidence due to serious indirectness, when we measured the risk of bias of the studies and the quality of the evidence using GRADE profile. The safety profiles were acceptable, and data on serious adverse events (summary RR=0,93; CI95% 0,77-1,12; p=0,16) and deaths from all causes (summary RR=0,70; CI95% 0,33-1,50; p=0,90) showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: The results of this review support the level of evidence for the efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines analysed.


Introducción. Desde que surgió el virus SARS-CoV-2, se han realizado esfuerzos para desarrollar vacunas para controlar la pandemia por COVID-19. Objetivo. Evaluar los datos de la eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1/AZD1222 y Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/rAd5-S contra el SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane y la Plataforma de Registro Internacional de Ensayos Clínicos de la OMS el 15 de marzo de 2021. Los términos usados fueron: "vaccine" OR "vaccination" AND "covid19" OR "coronavirus" OR "sarscov2" AND "bnt162b2" OR "chadox1-S" OR "azd1222" OR "sputnik" OR "Gam-COVID-Vac" OR "mrna" OR "mRNA-1273". Se midió el riesgo de sesgo de los estudios y la calidad de la información por medio de los perfiles GRADE. Se presenta un análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de los resultados de los estudios clínicos. Resultados. Se identificaron 74 estudios y se incluyeron 4 en la revisión. La eficacia de las vacunas BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1/AZD1222 y Gam-COVID-VacrAd26-S/rAd5-S contra la COVID-19 sintomática fue del 95,0 % (IC95% 90,3-97,6), 94,1 % (IC95% 89,3-96,8), 66,7 % (IC95% 57,4-74,0) y 91,1 % (IC95% 83,8-95,1), respectivamente, y hubo una certeza moderada de la información debido a la falta de evidencia directa. Los perfiles de seguridad fueron aceptables, y los eventos adversos graves (RR resumido=0,93; IC95% 0,77-1,12; p=0,16) y muerte por todas las causas (RR resumido=0,70; IC95% 0,33-1,50; p=0,90) no mostraron diferencias significativas. Conclusión. Los resultados de esta revisión respaldan el nivel de evidencia de la eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas COVID-19 que fueron analizadas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
J Public Health Afr ; 13(3): 1931, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099990

ABSTRACT

In Africa, the treatment of COVID-19 depends on each country. Several protocols are observed with real results that we described in this study. The objective of this review was to describe the treatment of COVID-19 and the case fatality rate in African countries, by reviewing the literature on treatment and case fatality in African countries whose data was available through the internet during the writing period until February 7, 2021. The majority of African countries had a treatment based on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine + azithromycin, used in varying doses depending on the country. The lethality in Africa remains low compared to European and American countries. The same treatment being used in some northern countries does not fully explain the low case fatality.

20.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099864

ABSTRACT

Otitis media is one of the most common diseases in children, with 80% of children experiencing it by the age of three years. Therefore, the resulting social burden is enormous. In addition, many countries still suffer from complications due to otitis media. Meanwhile, COVID-19 has affected many diseases, with otitis media being one of the most strongly affected. This review aims to find out how COVID-19 has affected otitis media and its significance. A series of measures brought about by COVID-19, including emphasis on personal hygiene and social distancing, had many unexpected positive effects on otitis media. These can be broadly classified into four categories: first, the incidence of otitis media was drastically reduced. Second, antibiotic prescriptions for otitis media decreased. Third, the incidence of complications of otitis media was reduced. Fourth, the number of patients visiting the emergency room due to otitis media decreased. The quarantine measures put in place due to COVID-19 suppressed the onset and exacerbation of otitis media. This has great implications for the treatment and prevention of otitis media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otitis Media , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Otitis Media/prevention & control , Otitis Media/complications , Incidence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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