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1.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(4): 342-347, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322317

ABSTRACT

The Resilience is a construct receiving growing attention from the scientific community in geriatrics and gerontology. Older adults show extremely heterogeneous (and often unpredictable) responses to stressors. Such heterogeneity can (at least partly) be explained by differences in resilience (i.e., the capacity of the organism to cope with stressors). The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) Task Force met in Boston (MA,USA) on April 20, 2022 to discuss the biological and clinical significance of resilience in older adults. The identification of persons with low resilience and the prompt intervention in this at-risk population may be critical to develop and implement preventive strategies against adverse events. Unfortunately, to date, it is still challenging to capture resilience, especially due to its dynamic nature encompassing biological, clinical, subjective, and socioeconomic factors. Opportunities to dynamically measure resilience were discussed during the ICFSR Task Force meeting, emphasizing potential biomarkers and areas of intervention. This article reports the results of the meeting and may serve to support future actions in the field.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Geriatrics , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Advisory Committees , Adaptation, Psychological
2.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e066649, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326745

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To reduce the transmission of COVID-19, regulations included the use of cloth masks, sanitising regularly, maintaining social distance and having minimal personal contact. COVID-19 affected many different groups of people including service providers and users of correctional centres. In this protocol, we aim to establish evidence on the challenges and coping strategies adopted by the incarcerated and service providers of the incarcerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this scoping review, we will use the Arksey and O'Malley framework. We will consult PubMed, PsycInfo, SAGE, JSTOR, African Journals and Google Scholar as our databases to search for evidence, and run a continuous search of articles from June 2022 until we conduct an analysis to ensure that our search results are updated. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles, abstracts and full texts for inclusion. All results will be compiled, and duplicates will be removed. Discrepancies and conflicts will be discussed with the third reviewer. All articles that meet the full-text criteria will be included for data extraction. Results will be reported in line with the review objectives and the Donabedian conceptual framework. DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval of the study will not be applicable in this scoping review. Our findings will be disseminated in different ways, such as publishing in peer-reviewed journals and to other key correctional system stakeholders, as well as submitting a policy brief for prison decision makers and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adaptation, Psychological , Prisons , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
3.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 369, 2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal in Canada introduced accompanying patients (APs) into the breast cancer care trajectory. APs are patients who have been treated for breast cancer and have been integrated into the clinical team to expand the services offered to people affected by cancer. This study describes the profiles of the people who received the support and explores whether one-offs vs ongoing encounters with APs influence their experience of care, on self-efficacy in coping with cancer, and on their level of psychological distress. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out among patients to compare patients who had one encounter with an AP (G1) with those who had had several encounters (G2). Five questionnaires were administered on socio-demographic characteristics, care pathway, evaluation of the support experience, self-efficacy in coping with cancer, and level of psychological distress. Logbooks, completed by the APs, determined the number of encounters. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between the number of encounters, patient characteristics, care pathway, number of topics discussed, self-efficacy measures in coping with cancer, and level of psychological distress. RESULTS: Between April 2020 and December 2021, 60% of 535 patients who were offered support from an AP accepted. Of these, one hundred and twenty-four patients participated in the study. The study aimed to recruit a minimum of 70 patients with the expectation of obtaining at least 50 participants, assuming a response rate of 70%. There were no differences between G1 and G2 in terms of sociodemographic data and care pathways. Statistical differences were found between G1 and G2 for impacts on and the return to daily life (p = 0.000), the return to the work and impacts on professional life (p = 0.044), announcement of a diagnosis to family and friends (p = 0.033), and strategies for living with treatment under the best conditions (p = 0.000). Significant differences were found on the topics of cancer (p = 0.000), genetic testing (p = 0.023), therapeutic options (p = 0.000), fatigue following treatment (p = 0.005), pain and discomfort after treatment or surgery (p = 0.000), potential emotions and their management (p = 0.000) and the decision-making processes (p = 0.011). A significant relationship was found between the two groups for patients' ability to cope with cancer (p = 0.038), and their level of psychological distress at different stages of the care pathway (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between one-time and ongoing support for cancer patients. It highlights the potential for APs to help patients develop self-efficacy and cope with the challenges of cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Self Efficacy , Adaptation, Psychological , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Theor Biol ; 559: 111379, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324458

ABSTRACT

Current persistent outbreak of COVID-19 is triggering a series of collective responses to avoid infection. To further clarify the impact mechanism of adaptive protection behavior and vaccination, we developed a new transmission model via a delay differential system, which parameterized the roles of adaptive behaviors and vaccination, and allowed to simulate the dynamic infection process among people. By validating the model with surveillance data during March 2020 and October 2021 in America, India, South Africa, Philippines, Brazil, UK, Spain and Germany, we quantified the protection effect of adaptive behaviors by different forms of activity function. The modeling results indicated that (1) the adaptive activity function can be used as a good indicator for fitting the intervention outcome, which exhibited short-term awareness in these countries, and it could reduce the total human infections by 3.68, 26.16, 15.23, 4.23, 7.26, 1.65, 5.51 and 7.07 times, compared with the reporting; (2) for complete prevention, the average proportions of people with immunity should be larger than 90%, 92%, 86%, 71%, 92%, 84%, 82% and 76% with adaptive protection behaviors, or 91%, 97%, 94%, 77%, 92%, 88%, 85% and 90% without protection behaviors; and (3) the required proportion of humans being vaccinated is a sub-linear decreasing function of vaccine efficiency, with small heterogeneity in different countries. This manuscript was submitted as part of a theme issue on "Modelling COVID-19 and Preparedness for Future Pandemics".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Brazil/epidemiology , Philippines , Adaptation, Psychological
5.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 7(1): 46, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 put older individuals at high risk for morbidity and mortality, isolation, reduced coping, and lower satisfaction with life. Many older adults experienced social isolation, fear, and anxiety. We hypothesized that successful coping with these stressors would maintain or improve satisfaction with life, a crucial psychological outcome during the pandemic. Our study investigated relationships between older people's coping and life satisfaction during the pandemic and their optimism, sense of mastery, closeness with spouse, family, and friends, and vulnerabilities from frailty, comorbid diseases, memory problems, and dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). METHODS: The study was based on a special COVID-19 sample of 1351 community-dwelling older adults who participated in the 2020 Health and Retirement Survey. A comprehensive structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects, with life satisfaction as the main outcome and coping as a mediator between the other variables and coping. RESULTS: Most survey respondents were female and between the ages of 65-74 years. They averaged 1.7 chronic conditions, one in seven was frail, about one-third rated their memory as fair or poor, and about one in seven reported one or more difficulties in IADL. As hypothesized-older people with increased sense of mastery and optimism were better able to cope and had greater life satisfaction. In addition, close relationships with friends and with other family members besides the spouse/partner or children contributed to more successful coping, while the interpersonal closeness of all types contributed directly to greater life satisfaction. Finally, older people with more IADL limitations reported greater difficulty coping and lower life satisfaction, and those older people who were frail or had multiple comorbid diseases reported lower life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism, sense of mastery and closeness with family/friends promotes coping and life satisfaction, whereas frailty and comorbidities make coping more challenging and lead to lower life satisfaction particularly during a pandemic. Our study improves on prior research because of its nationally representative sample and formal specification and testing of a comprehensive theoretical framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Child , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Independent Living , Frailty/epidemiology , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Personal Satisfaction
6.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 32(6): 937-949, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323113

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal, prospective study investigated associations between perceived COVID-19-related stress, coping strategies, and mental health status among adolescents during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic and one year after the lockdown in Switzerland within a large, national sample. A self-report on-line survey was completed by 553 adolescents (age-range 12-18 years in 2021) in the summers of 2020 and 2021, assessing symptoms of various mental health problems, perceived COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies. Overall, participants reported less COVID-19 related stress one year after the lockdown, though mental health status remained stable. 'Challenges at home or with others' were significantly associated with mental health problems in both genders, whereas 'trouble getting medical care or mental health services 'was associated with mental health problems in girls. Perceived stress and pre-existing psychiatric problem were significantly linked to all mental health outcomes at both time points. Parents' poor relationships with partners during the lockdown was associated with increased anxiety symptoms in their children. Using cognitive restructuring to cope with stress was associated with less, while negative coping was associated with more anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms one year post lockdown. Girls appear to have been more affected by the pandemic than boys, with youths with pre-existing psychiatric problems especially vulnerable to its detrimental effects. Healthcare and school professionals should support to identify high-risk adolescents with negative and avoidant coping strategies and train youths to use positive coping strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Switzerland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Adaptation, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Health Status
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1152366, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322020

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health challenges have emerged worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. University students experienced changes in their lifestyles, academic life, family relationships, earning capacity, and support systems. This study explores the common mental health challenges in university students and their coping strategies using social support in the first wave of lockdowns in Dhaka city in 2020. By learning from young people's impacts and coping responses, we can help build an improved strategy for future events of this magnitude. Methods: A qualitative study design was employed to conduct 20 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with students from purposively selected three public and three private universities in Dhaka city and five key informant interviews with different stakeholders. We used inductive reflexive thematic analysis and applied six phases of the thematic analysis. Codes retrieved from two differently prepared codebooks were merged and compared to identify themes for a fair interpretation of the underlying data. Data were manually indexed, summarized, and interpreted to categorize codes into sub-themes leading to themes. Results: Financial constraints, academic pressure, learning resources shortages, losing confidence, relationship breakup, excessive internet dependency, and traumatic experiences challenged the mental health conditions of the students unevenly across universities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expressed mental health well-being impacts ranged from anxiety, stress, and depression to self-harm and suicidal ideation. Family bonding and social networking appeared as robust social support mechanisms to allow students to cope with anxiety, stress, and depression. Partial financial subsidies, soft loans to purchase electronic resources, faculty members' counseling, and sessional health counseling contributed to minimizing the mental health impacts of COVID-19. Conclusion: Mental health is still not a resourced area of health and well-being in Bangladesh. Concentration on developing strong social support and improving increased financial subsidies, including learning resources, can be effective in assisting students in coping with the common mental health burdens during pandemic periods. A national intervention plan should be immediately designed and implemented by engaging different stakeholders including healthcare professionals and establishing effective mental healthcare support centers at universities to avoid immediate and prolonged negative mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adaptation, Psychological
8.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285803, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health is challenged due to serious life events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and can differ by the level of resilience. National studies on mental health and resilience of individuals and communities during the pandemic provide heterogeneous results and more data on mental health outcomes and resilience trajectories are needed to better understand the impact of the pandemic on mental health in Europe. METHODS: COPERS (Coping with COVID-19 with Resilience Study) is an observational multinational longitudinal study conducted in eight European countries (Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia). Recruitment of participants is based on convenience sampling and data are gathered through an online questionnaire. gathering data on depression, anxiety, stress-related symptoms suicidal ideation and resilience. Resilience is measured with the Brief Resilience Scale and with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Depression is measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire, Anxiety with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and stress-related symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale Revised- Suicidal ideation is assessed using item 9 of the PHQ-9. We also consider potential determinants and moderating factors for mental health conditions, including sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender), social environmental factors (e.g., loneliness, social capital) and coping strategies (e.g., Self-efficacy Belief). DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to multi-nationally and longitudinally determine mental health outcomes and resilience trajectories in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study will help to determine mental health conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic across Europe. The findings may benefit pandemic preparedness planning and future evidence-based mental health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Serbia , Depression/epidemiology
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(5): 1313-1324, 2023 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321621

ABSTRACT

France was the first European country to confirm cases of COVID-19, being one of the most affected by the pandemic in the first wave. This case study analyzed the measures adopted by the country in the fight against COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021, correlating it to the characteristics of its health and surveillance system. As a welfare state, it relied on compensatory policies and protection of the economy, as well as increased investments in health. There were weaknesses in the preparation and delay in the implementation of the coping plan. The response was coordinated by the national executive power, adopting strict lockdowns in the first two waves, mitigating restrictive measures in the other waves, after the increase in vaccination coverage and in the face of population resistance. The country faced problems with testing, case and contact surveillance and patient care, especially in the first wave. It was necessary to modify the health insurance rules to expand coverage, access and better articulation of surveillance actions. It indicates lessons learned about the limits of its social security system, but also the potential of a government with a strong response capacity in the financing of public policies and regulation of other sectors to face the crisis.


A França foi o primeiro país europeu a confirmar casos de COVID-19, sendo um dos mais afetados pela pandemia na primeira onda. Este estudo de caso analisou as medidas adotadas pelo país no enfrentamento à COVID-19 em 2020 e 2021, relacionando com as características de seu sistema de saúde e de vigilância. Como um Estado de bem-estar social, apostou em políticas compensatórias e de proteção da economia, bem como aumentou investimentos em saúde. Houve fragilidade na preparação e atraso na implantação do plano de enfrentamento. A resposta foi coordenada pelo poder Executivo nacional, adotando bloqueios rígidos nas duas primeiras ondas, flexibilizando as medidas restritivas nas demais ondas, após o aumento da cobertura vacinal e diante da resistência da população. Enfrentou problemas com testagem, vigilância dos casos e contatos e assistência aos doentes, principalmente na primeira onda. Necessitou modificar as regras do seguro de saúde para ampliar cobertura, acesso e melhorar a articulação das ações de vigilância. Indica aprendizados sobre os limites do seu sistema de seguro social, mas também as potencialidades de um Estado com capacidade de resposta forte no financiamento de políticas públicas e na regulação dos demais setores para enfrentar a crise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Insurance, Health , Adaptation, Psychological
10.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e65, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs. METHODS: From March 2-13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI). RESULTS: About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures. CONCLUSIONS: About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 53(2): 145-154, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated clinical competency, COVID-19-related anxiety, coping strategies, self-efficacy, and perceived stress among graduating nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited from universities located in four major cities in South Korea. General demographic information, clinical competency, self-efficacy, perceived stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and coping strategies were assessed using reliable questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and multiple regression tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean clinical competency, self-efficacy, perceived stress, adaptive coping, and maladaptive coping were 138.16 ± 18.34, 83.85 ±14.02, 21.37 ± 5.79, 53.15 ± 4.64, and 30.98 ± 6.73, respectively. COVID-19-related anxiety was reported by 4.3% of participants. Clinical competency was significantly positively correlated with self-efficacy (r = .44, p < .001) and adaptive coping (r = .20, p = .035) and was significantly negatively correlated with maladaptive coping (r = .20, p = .035). The predictors of clinical competency were self-efficacy (ß = .434, p < .001) and adaptive coping (ß = .173, p < .039), which explained 23% of the variance in clinical competency. CONCLUSION: Self-efficacy and adaptive coping strategies are significant predictors of clinical competence during the pandemic. Planning and implementing various curricular and non-curricular activities to increase senior students' self-efficacy and adaptive coping strategies will help prepare competent nursing graduates for the pandemic when they enter the nursing workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Clinical Competence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312233

ABSTRACT

Background: Teaching is recognized as a highly challenging profession. Experience of chronic stress is a risk factor for poor mental and physical well-being, and burnout. There is limited knowledge regarding optimal interventions to address stress and burnout among teachers. Objective: To undertake a scoping review of the literature in the last five years to determine various psychological interventions to address stress and burnout among teachers. Method: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews was followed. Relevant search terms were used to determine different interventions adopted to reduce teachers' stress and burnout. Articles published between 2018 and 2022 were identified using five bibliographic databases. Relevant articles were extracted, reviewed, collated, and thematically analyzed, and findings s were summarized. Results: Forty studies conducted in Asia, North America, Oceania, Europe, and Africa, met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen kinds of burnout and stress-reduction interventions were identified. The most popularly studied intervention were Mindfulness-Based Interventions alone or in combination with yoga or Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), followed by Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). Mindfulness-Based Interventions led to decreased overall Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) and emotional exhaustion subscale scores. REBT, primarily used with special education teachers, especially in Africa, has also shown positive results. Other interventions reporting positive outcomes include Inquiry-Based Stress Reduction (IBSR), the Stress Management and Resiliency Training Program (SMART), Cyclic Meditation, Group Sandplay, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Autogenic Training, Sport-Based Physical Activity, Emotional Intelligence Ability Models and Christian Prayer and Prayer-Reflection. Conclusions: Stress and burnout can have a negative impact on teachers and, very often, on the students they teach. Implementing suitable school-based interventions is necessary to improve teachers' stress-coping ability, reduce the likelihood of burnout and improve general well-being. Policymakers, governments, school boards and administrators should prioritize the implementation of school-based awareness and intervention programs.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Educational Personnel , Humans , Adaptation, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Emotions , School Teachers/psychology
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0277741, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320260

ABSTRACT

While research has widely explored stress, coping, and quality of life (QOL) individually and the potential links between them, a critical dearth exists in the literature regarding these constructs in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study aims to identify the salient stressors experienced, describe the coping strategies used, and examine the relationships between stressors, coping, and QOL among individuals during the pandemic. Data are from a sample of 1,004 respondents who completed an online survey. Key measures included stressful life events (SLEs), coping strategies, and the physical and psychological health domains of QOL. Staged multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationships between SLEs and the two QOL domains, controlling for sociodemographic and pre-existing health conditions and testing for the effects of coping strategies on these relationships. The most common SLEs experienced during the pandemic were a decrease in financial status, personal injury or illness, and change in living conditions. Problem-focused coping (ß = 0.42, σ = 0.13, p < 0.001 for physical QOL; ß = 0.57, σ = 0.12, p < 0.001 for psychological QOL) and emotion-focused coping (ß = 0.86, σ = 0.13, p < 0.001 for psychological QOL) were significantly related to higher levels of QOL, whereas avoidant coping (ß = -0.93, σ = 0.13, p < 0.001 for physical QOL; ß = -1.33, σ = 0.12, p < 0.001 for psychological QOL) was associated with lower QOL. Avoidant coping partially mediated the relationships between experiencing SLEs and lower physical and psychological QOL. Our study informs clinical interventions to help individuals adopt healthy behaviors to effectively manage stressors, especially large-scale, stressful events like the pandemic. Our findings also call for public health and clinical interventions to address the long-term impacts of the most prevalent stressors experienced during the pandemic among vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Quality of Life/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070279, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319099

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Providing informal care to one's romantic partner who is ill may become a highly distressing and demanding task. Based on the innovative dyadic coping model, several support interventions have been developed to alleviate informal caregivers' burden, including both caregivers' and care receivers' needs. Considering the unique challenges characterising the caregiving phenomenon, such as geographical barriers and time restrictions, digital solutions should be considered. However, there is a lack of research examining the effectiveness of dyadic digital solutions. Thus, this review aims to examine the existing literature on the efficacy of dyadic digital psychological interventions designed for caregivers and their care-receivers couples within the illness context. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Randomised controlled trials targeting caregivers' burden among dyads of informal caregivers and care receivers will be identified via an electronic search of the following databases: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Cinhal, Scopus, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and supplemented by hand searching of previous systematic reviews. The search will be undertaken following the PICO (population, intervention, comparison and outcome) elements. If possible, a meta-analysis will be conducted to examine: (1) the effectiveness of dyadic digital psychological interventions for reducing caregivers' burden (primary outcome) among caregivers who are in a romantic relationship with the care receivers; (2) the effectiveness of dyadic digital psychological interventions on secondary outcomes such as anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life, well-being and self-efficacy among caregivers and care receivers; and (3) moderating effects of clinical and methodological factors on caregivers' burden. Prior to inclusion in the review, retrieved papers will be critically appraised by two independent reviewers. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool will assess the risk of bias for randomised controlled trials. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as no primary data will be collected. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, presentations at academic conferences and lay summaries for various stakeholders. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022299125.


Subject(s)
Caregiver Burden , Quality of Life , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Caregivers/psychology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic
15.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 57: e20220261, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the work organization of health professionals when coping with the COVID-19 pandemic in Manaus. METHOD: This is a qualitative case study which adopted ergology as theoretical framework. Data production used document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 33 health workers from the Health Care Network. The resources of the software Atlas.ti 8.0 were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The precepts of Thematic Networks analysis revealed the following categories: "Reordering services and functions"; "Incorporation and management of instruments application"; "Professional experiences and tactics: changing roles, attitudes and relationships". CONCLUSION: It was found that they express a dynamic view of the organizational process, in which the worker, when discussing past standards and comparing his/her knowledge, experiences and values, modifies the environment, flows and conducts as needed, facing the lack of safety, conditions and solidity of the technical bases of work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Adaptation, Psychological , Qualitative Research
16.
Lancet ; 401(10387): 1490-1491, 2023 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317218
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e061396, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand experiences with stress and coping strategies used among families in the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN/SETTING: This qualitative study took place in the paediatric outpatient clinics of a large academic medical centre in the USA between March and July of 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Parents (over the age of 18 years) of children under the age of 18 years were invited to complete a 30-minute semistructured interview. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were asked about types of stressors experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic and coping strategies used. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. In the grounded theory tradition, transcripts underwent thematic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 26 participants completed interviews, including 88% (n=23) women, 85% (n=22) reported having children under the age of 10 years and 65% (n=17) were 30-50 years of age. Themes that emerged included the compounding effect of COVID-19 stressors, in which participants described multiple, intersecting sources of stress. One parent noted, "I worked two different jobs, since the other job I had counted on working, I lost because of COVID. And so, working from home, also with the kids, was stressful." The second theme reflected the challenges for children with virtual schooling due to decreased educational support. The third theme was the need for parental self-care. The fourth theme was finding the silver lining in which parents noted unforeseen opportunities for resilience by spending time in nature and activities promoting family bonding. CONCLUSIONS: Parents indicated need for self-care, connecting with their child(ren) and spending time in nature. Future work should develop approaches to support families in these areas when facing complex stressors, especially during a pandemic or other times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Parents , Qualitative Research
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317021

ABSTRACT

The National Guard (NG) served as a critical component of the US COVID-19 response while concurrently managing personal COVID-19 responses. Understanding pandemic-related concerns, sleep difficulties, increased substance use, and stress management strategies can promote readiness for subsequent disasters. We surveyed 3221 NG service members (75% Army; 79% enlisted; 52% 30-49 years; 81% male) during COVID-19 (August-November 2020). Almost half were activated in response to COVID-19 (mean = 18.6 weeks) and completed the survey 2-3 months post-activation. Service members indicated great concern about family health (39%), the indefinite nature of the pandemic (35%), and their financial situation (23%). Over one-third reported changes in usual sleep amount, 33% described poor sleep quality, and 21% had trouble falling/staying asleep. Increased substance use was reported by 30%, including increased alcohol (13.5%), tobacco (9%), and caffeine/energy drinks (20.1%) consumption. Chi-square analyses and analyses of variance found those who activated reported more increased tobacco and caffeine/energy drink use versus non-activated, with no sleep difficulties nor alcohol use differences. Helpful stress management strategies included spending time outdoors (53%), exercising (48%), talking to family/friends (38%), and having a daily routine (38%). Specific health-, financial-, and job-related stressors were associated with COVID-19. Incorporating stress management in planning/preventive efforts promotes resilience during disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Caffeine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284766, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315041

ABSTRACT

The empirical study proposes a model for investigating the effect of entrepreneurial leadership on job insecurity and employee psychological wellbeing during COVID-19 based on the combined theoretical grounds of The Conservation of Resources Theory and Social Learning. To explore the job insecurity relationship with psychological wellbeing, and measure the impact of Fear of COVID-19, an empirical study was conducted on a sample of 408 employees in Croatia. The data of the cross-sectional study was collected in November and December 2020. A strong influence of job insecurity on the psychological wellbeing of employees has been identified. Furthermore, fear of COVID-19 was found to have adverse psychological effects on wellbeing. The theorized positive impact of entrepreneurial leadership on job insecurity was not supported by the evidence. The strong point of our contribution lies in the finding that the entrepreneurial leadership style alone does not buffer against job insecurity, thus pointing that the more comprehensive inquiry into other organizational factors, such as coping, learning abilities, developmental opportunities, personal disposition, and pressure bearing. The research is the first step toward enhancing our understanding of the entrepreneurial dimension of transactional psychology. The observations we recorded have implications for research into the study of the mental processes and their impact on organizational proactive behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Leadership , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 168, 2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314379

ABSTRACT

While the association between assets and depression has been established, less is known about the link between financial strain and depression. Given rising financial strain and economic inequity due to the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the role that financial strain plays in shaping population depression in the United States is particularly salient. We conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on financial strain and depression published from inception through January 19, 2023, in Embase, Medline via PubMed, and PsycINFO, PsycArticles, SocINDEX, and EconLit via Ebsco. We searched, reviewed, and synthesized the literature on longitudinal studies on financial strain and depression conducted in the United States. Four thousand and four unique citations were screened for eligibility. Fifty-eight longitudinal, quantitative articles on adults in the United States were included in the review. Eighty-three percent of articles (n = 48) reported a significant, positive association between financial strain and depression. Eight articles reported mixed results, featuring non-significant associations for some sub-groups and significant associations for others, one article was unclear, and one article reported no significant association between financial strain and depression. Five articles featured interventions to reduce depressive symptoms. Effective interventions included coping mechanisms to improve one's financial situation (e.g., mechanisms to assist in finding employment), to modify cognitive behavior (e.g., reframing mindset), and to engage support (e.g., engaging social and community support). Successful interventions were tailored to participants, were group-based (e.g., they included family members or other job seekers), and occurred over multiple sessions. While depression was defined consistently, financial strain was defined variably. Gaps in the literature included studies featuring Asian populations in the United States and interventions to reduce financial strain. There is a consistent, positive association between financial strain and depression in the United States. More research is needed to identify and test interventions that mitigate the ill effects of financial strain on population's mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Adaptation, Psychological
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