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1.
Vaccine ; 41(24): 3589-3603, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315981

ABSTRACT

The importance of vaccination has been proven particularly significant the last three years, as it is revealed to be the most efficient weapon for the prevention of several infections including SARS-COV-2. Parenteral vaccination is the most applicable method of immunization, for the prevention of systematic and respiratory infections, or central nervous system disorders, involving T and B cells to a whole-body immune response. However, the mucosal vaccines, such as nasal vaccines, can additionally activate the immune cells localized on the mucosal tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract. This dual stimulation of the immune system, along with their needle-free administration favors the development of novel nasal vaccines to produce long-lasting immunity. In recent years, the nanoparticulate systems have been extensively involved in the formulation of nasal vaccines as polymeric, polysaccharide and lipid ones, as well as in the form of proteosomes, lipopeptides and virosomes. Advanced delivery nanosystems have been designed and evaluated as carriers or adjuvants for nasal vaccination. To this end, several nanoparticulate vaccines are undergone clinical trials as promising candidates for nasal immunization, while nasal vaccines against influenza type A and B and hepatitis B have been approved by health authorities. This comprehensive literature review aims to summarize the critical aspects of these formulations and highlight their potential for the future establishment of nasal vaccination. Both preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical studies are incorporated, summarized, and critically discussed, as well as the limitations of nasal immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Immunization , Administration, Intranasal , Immunity, Mucosal
2.
EBioMedicine ; 92: 104597, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion is an early option for treating infections with pandemic potential, often preceding vaccine or antiviral drug rollout. Heterogenous findings from randomized clinical trials on transfusion of COVID-19 CP (CCP) have been reported. However, meta-analysis suggests that transfusion of high titer CCP is associated with a mortality benefit for COVID-19 outpatients or inpatients treated within 5 days after symptom onset, indicating the importance of early administration. METHODS: We tested if CCP is an effective prophylactic against SARS-CoV-2 infection by the intranasal administration of 25 µL CCP/nostril (i.e. 0.01-0.06 mg anti-RBD antibodies/kg) in hamsters exposed to infected littermates. FINDINGS: In this model, 40% of CCP treated hamsters were fully protected and 40% had significantly reduced viral loads, the remaining 20% was not protected. The effect seems dose-dependent because high-titer CCP from a vaccinated donor was more effective than low-titer CCP from a donation prior to vaccine rollout. Intranasal administration of human CCP resulted in a reactive (immune) response in hamster lungs, however this was not observed upon administration of hamster CCP. INTERPRETATION: We conclude that CCP is an effective prophylactic when used directly at the site of primary infection. This option should be considered in future prepandemic preparedness plans. FUNDING: Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship (VLAIO) and the Foundation for Scientific Research of the Belgian Red Cross Flanders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19 Serotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110262, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311217

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019, i.e., the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a highly virulent and transmissible pathogen, has profoundly impacted global society. One approach to combat infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes is using mucosal vaccines, which can induce antigen-specific immune responses at both the mucosal and systemic sites. Despite its potential, the clinical implementation of mucosal vaccination is hampered by the lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. Therefore, developing safe and effective mucosal adjuvants is essential for the fight against infectious diseases and the widespread clinical use of mucosal vaccines. In this study, we demonstrated the potent mucosal adjuvant effects of intranasal administration of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a known nitric oxide (NO) donor, in mice. The results showed that intranasal administration of ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with SNP induced the production of OVA-specific immunoglobulin A in the mucosa and increased serum immunoglobulin G1 levels, indicating a T helper-2 (Th2)-type immune response. However, an analog of SNP, sodium ferrocyanide, which does not generate NO, failed to show any adjuvant effects, suggesting the critical role of NO generation in activating an immune response. In addition, SNPs facilitated the delivery of antigens to the lamina propria, where antigen-presenting cells are located, when co-administered with antigens, and also transiently elicited the expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 in nasal tissue. These result suggest that SNP is a dual-functional formulation with antigen delivery capabilities to the lamina propria and the capacity to activate innate immunity. In summary, these results demonstrate the ability of SNP to induce immune responses via an antigen-specific Th2-type response, making it a promising candidate for further development as a mucosal vaccine formulation against infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Mice , Animals , Humans , Administration, Intranasal , Nitroprusside , Antibody Formation , Ligands , Pandemics , Mucous Membrane , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antigens , Immunity, Innate , Chemokines , Immunity, Mucosal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
4.
Lancet ; 401(10379): 800-801, 2023 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308304
5.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3233-3246, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295171

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is controlled but not halted by public health measures and mass vaccination strategies which have exclusively relied on intramuscular vaccines. Intranasal vaccines can prime or recruit to the respiratory epithelium mucosal immune cells capable of preventing infection. Here we report a comprehensive series of studies on this concept using various mouse models, including HLA class II-humanized transgenic strains. We found that a single intranasal (i.n.) dose of serotype-5 adenoviral vectors expressing either the receptor binding domain (Ad5-RBD) or the complete ectodomain (Ad5-S) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was effective in inducing i) serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) anti-spike IgA and IgG, ii) robust SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity in the serum and BAL, iii) rigorous spike-directed T helper 1 cell/cytotoxic T cell immunity, and iv) protection of mice from a challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 beta variant. Intramuscular (i.m.) Ad5-RBD or Ad5-S administration did not induce serum or BAL IgA, and resulted in lower neutralizing titers in the serum. Moreover, prior immunity induced by an intramuscular mRNA vaccine could be potently enhanced and modulated towards a mucosal IgA response by an i.n. Ad5-S booster. Notably, Ad5 DNA was found in the liver or spleen after i.m. but not i.n. administration, indicating a lack of systemic spread of the vaccine vector, which has been associated with a risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Unlike in otherwise genetically identical HLA-DQ6 mice, in HLA-DQ8 mice Ad5-RBD vaccine was inferior to Ad5-S, suggesting that the RBD fragment does not contain a sufficient collection of helper-T cell epitopes to constitute an optimal vaccine antigen. Our data add to previous promising preclinical results on intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and support the potential of this approach to elicit mucosal immunity for preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal , Disease Models, Animal , Immunoglobulin A
6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2081, 2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294153

ABSTRACT

Current available vaccines for COVID-19 are effective in reducing severe diseases and deaths caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection but less optimal in preventing infection. Next-generation vaccines which are able to induce mucosal immunity in the upper respiratory to prevent or reduce infections caused by highly transmissible variants of SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. We have developed an intranasal vaccine candidate based on a live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) with a deleted NS1 gene that encodes cell surface expression of the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, designated DelNS1-RBD4N-DAF. Immune responses and protection against virus challenge following intranasal administration of DelNS1-RBD4N-DAF vaccines were analyzed in mice and compared with intramuscular injection of the BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in hamsters. DelNS1-RBD4N-DAF LAIVs induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies against various SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice and hamsters and stimulated robust T cell responses in mice. Notably, vaccination with DelNS1-RBD4N-DAF LAIVs, but not BNT162b2 mRNA, prevented replication of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Delta and Omicron BA.2, in the respiratory tissues of animals. The DelNS1-RBD4N-DAF LAIV system warrants further evaluation in humans for the control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and, more significantly, for creating dual function vaccines against both influenza and COVID-19 for use in annual vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 38(3): 195-200, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301927

ABSTRACT

Recently, esketamine became availableas an intranasal formulation, proposed for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Three cases of TRD are presented, two with features of a psychiatric emergency. The first case is a 35-year-old man with MDD onset at the age of 27 years, with five previous failed therapies. The second patient is a middle-aged man with a 21-year MDD onset and six previous antidepressant treatments discontinued for poor therapeutic effects and tolerability. He also presented suicidal ideation with intent and a history of a failed suicide attempt by self-cutting his forearms. The third case is a 28-year-old female with a first MDD episode in 2020, treated first with amitriptyline and then with intravenous clomipramine. She had a history of a previous suicide attempt by self-cutting and, by her admission, showed active suicidal ideation with intent. In all three cases, a rapid reduction of depressive symptoms was observed with a subsequent complete resolution of suicidal ideation and intent in the two patients with such risk. Intranasal esketamine treatment was carried out with concomitant oral antidepressant therapy. The third patient reported the only recorded side effect: dissociation 20 min after every esketamine administration. Our preliminary experience proved esketamine's effectiveness on TRD symptoms and successful outcomes in psychiatric emergencies such as suicide risk.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , Ketamine , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Humans , Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents , Administration, Intranasal , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1637, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270479

ABSTRACT

The emergence of increasingly immunoevasive SARS-CoV-2 variants emphasizes the need for prophylactic strategies to complement vaccination in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. Intranasal administration of neutralizing antibodies has shown encouraging protective potential but there remains a need for SARS-CoV-2 blocking agents that are less vulnerable to mutational viral variation and more economical to produce in large scale. Here we describe TriSb92, a highly manufacturable and stable trimeric antibody-mimetic sherpabody targeted against a conserved region of the viral spike glycoprotein. TriSb92 potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, including the latest Omicron variants like BF.7, XBB, and BQ.1.1. In female Balb/c mice intranasal administration of just 5 or 50 micrograms of TriSb92 as early as 8 h before but also 4 h after SARS-CoV-2 challenge can protect from infection. Cryo-EM and biochemical studies reveal triggering of a conformational shift in the spike trimer as the inhibitory mechanism of TriSb92. The potency and robust biochemical properties of TriSb92 together with its resistance against viral sequence evolution suggest that TriSb92 could be useful as a nasal spray for protecting susceptible individuals from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Animals , Mice , Humans , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 56(3): 516-525, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283040

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging and promising therapy for a wide range of respiratory viral infections. This highly specific suppression can be achieved by the introduction of short-interfering RNA (siRNA) into mammalian systems, resulting in the effective reduction of viral load. Unfortunately, this has been hindered by the lack of a good delivery system, especially via the intranasal (IN) route. Here, we have developed an IN siRNA encapsulated lipid nanoparticle (LNP) in vivo delivery system that is highly efficient at targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lung infection in vivo. Importantly, IN siRNA delivery without the aid of LNPs abolishes anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vivo. Our approach using LNPs as the delivery vehicle overcomes the significant barriers seen with IN delivery of siRNA therapeutics and is a significant advancement in our ability to delivery siRNAs. The study presented here demonstrates an attractive alternate delivery strategy for the prophylactic treatment of both future and emerging respiratory viral diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Viruses , Animals , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Viruses/genetics , Lung , Mammals/genetics
10.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 74(1): 15-18, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281620

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of COVID-19 have threatened the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM) vaccines since that are made to target only the spike protein. Development of Intranasal (IN) vaccination has been proven to provide both the mucosal and systemic immune responses for broader and long lasting protection. Many IN vaccine candidates (virus-vectored vaccines, recombinant subunit vaccines and live attenuated vaccines) are in different phases of clinical trials and in near future many companies would be releasing their vaccines into the drug market. Potential advantages of IN vaccination over IM vaccination makes them ideal to be administered in children and developing populations of the world. This paper focuses on the very recent developments in intranasal vaccination with a spotlight on their safety and efficacy concerns. IN vaccination can prove to be game-changer in handling COVID-19 and potential viral contagious diseases in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Child , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Administration, Intranasal
12.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 277, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287903

ABSTRACT

Expanding the arsenal of prophylactic approaches against SARS-CoV-2 is of utmost importance, specifically those strategies that are resistant to antigenic drift in Spike. Here, we conducted a screen of over 16,000 RNAi triggers against the SARS-CoV-2 genome, using a massively parallel assay to identify hyper-potent siRNAs. We selected Ten candidates for in vitro validation and found five siRNAs that exhibited hyper-potent activity (IC50 < 20 pM) and strong blockade of infectivity in live-virus experiments. We further enhanced this activity by combinatorial pairing of the siRNA candidates and identified cocktails that were active against multiple types of variants of concern (VOC). We then examined over 2,000 possible mutations in the siRNA target sites by using saturation mutagenesis and confirmed broad protection of the leading cocktail against future variants. Finally, we demonstrated that intranasal administration of this siRNA cocktail effectively attenuates clinical signs and viral measures of disease in the gold-standard Syrian hamster model. Our results pave the way for the development of an additional layer of antiviral prophylaxis that is orthogonal to vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mesocricetus , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(11): e2220272120, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259802

ABSTRACT

T cells are present in early stages of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and play a major role in disease outcome and long-lasting immunity. Nasal administration of a fully human anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (Foralumab) reduced lung inflammation as well as serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein in moderate cases of COVID-19. Using serum proteomics and RNA-sequencing, we investigated the immune changes in patients treated with nasal Foralumab. In a randomized trial, mild to moderate COVID-19 outpatients received nasal Foralumab (100 µg/d) given for 10 consecutive days and were compared to patients that did not receive Foralumab. We found that naïve-like T cells were increased in Foralumab-treated subjects and NGK7+ effector T cells were reduced. CCL5, IL32, CST7, GZMH, GZMB, GZMA, PRF1, and CCL4 gene expression were downregulated in T cells and CASP1 was downregulated in T cells, monocytes, and B cells in subjects treated with Foralumab. In addition to the downregulation of effector features, an increase in TGFB1 gene expression in cell types with known effector function was observed in Foralumab-treated subjects. We also found increased expression of GTP-binding gene GIMAP7 in subjects treated with Foralumab. Rho/ROCK1, a downstream pathway of GTPases signaling was downregulated in Foralumab-treated individuals. TGFB1, GIMAP7, and NKG7 transcriptomic changes observed in Foralumab-treated COVID-19 subjects were also observed in healthy volunteers, MS subjects, and mice treated with nasal anti-CD3. Our findings demonstrate that nasal Foralumab modulates the inflammatory response in COVID-19 and provides a novel avenue to treat the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , GTP-Binding Proteins , Membrane Proteins , rho-Associated Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics
16.
Pharmacol Rep ; 75(2): 249-265, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254448

ABSTRACT

Clinical management of COVID-19 has been a daunting task. Due to the lack of specific treatment, vaccines have been regarded as the first line of defence. Innate responses and cell-mediated systemic immunity, including serum antibodies, have been the primary focus of practically all studies of the immune response to COVID-19. However, owing to the difficulties encountered by the conventional route, alternative routes for prophylaxis and therapy became the need of the hour. The first site invaded by SARS-CoV-2 is the upper respiratory tract. Nasal vaccines are already in different stages of development. Apart from prophylactic purposes, mucosal immunity can be exploited for therapeutic purposes too. The nasal route for drug delivery offers many advantages over the conventional route. Besides offering a needle-free delivery, they can be self-administered. They present less logistical burden as there is no need for refrigeration. The present article focuses on various aspects of nasal spray for eliminating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nasal Sprays , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal
17.
J Control Release ; 355: 655-674, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241395

ABSTRACT

The development of vaccines has always been an essential task worldwide since vaccines are regarded as powerful weapons in protecting the global population. Although the vast majority of currently authorized human vaccinations are administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, exploring novel routes of immunization has been a prominent area of study in recent years. This is particularly relevant in the face of pandemic diseases, such as COVID-19, where respiratory immunization offers distinct advantages, such as inducing systemic and mucosal responses to prevent viral infections in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts and also leading to higher patient compliance. However, the development of respiratory vaccines confronts challenges due to the physiological barriers of the respiratory tract, with most of these vaccines still in the research and development stage. In this review, we detail the structure of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms of mucosal immunity, as well as the obstacles to respiratory vaccination. We also examine the considerations necessary in constructing a COVID-19 respiratory vaccine, including the dosage form of the vaccines, potential excipients and mucosal adjuvants, and delivery systems and devices for respiratory vaccines. Finally, we present a comprehensive overview of the COVID-19 respiratory vaccines currently under clinical investigation. We hope this review can provide valuable insights and inspiration for the future development of respiratory vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Vaccination , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200318

ABSTRACT

The nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) are generally accepted as an immune induction site, but the activation of naïve T-cells in that compartment has not been well-characterized. I wanted to determine if early events in naïve CD4+ T cell activation and the extent of antigen specific cell division are similar in NALT to that observed in other secondary lymphoid compartments. I performed antigen tracking experiments and analyzed the activation of naïve antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). I directly observed transepithelial transport of fluorescently labeled antigen from the lumen of the airway to the interior of the NALT two hours following immunization. One day following intranasal (i.n.) immunization with antigen and adjuvant, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in the NALT associated as clusters, while antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in control mice immunized with adjuvant only remained dispersed. The antigen-specific CD4+ populations in the NALT and cranial deep cervical lymph nodes of immunized mice expanded significantly by day three following immunization. These findings are consistent with initial activation of naïve CD4+ T cells in the NALT and offer insight into adjuvant mechanism of flagellin in the upper respiratory compartment.


Subject(s)
Flagellin , Lymphoid Tissue , Vaccines, Subunit , Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Flagellin/immunology , Immunization , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
19.
J Cell Physiol ; 238(2): 459-474, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173072

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is linked to major depressive disorder (MDD), with more than 300 million people diagnosed and worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. Accumulating evidence for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL) interaction was shown in various limbic system regions at molecular-, cellular-, and behavioral-specific levels. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate the proliferating role of GAL2 receptor (GALR2) and Y1R agonists interaction upon intranasal infusion in the ventral hippocampus. We studied their hippocampal proliferating actions using the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on neuroblasts or stem cells and the expression of the brain-derived neurothrophic factor (BDNF). Moreover, we studied the formation of Y1R-GALR2 heteroreceptor complexes and analyzed morphological changes in hippocampal neuronal cells. Finally, the functional outcome of the NPY and GAL interaction on the ventral hippocampus was evaluated in the forced swimming test. We demonstrated that the intranasal infusion of GALR2 and the Y1R agonists promotes neuroblasts proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the ventral hippocampus and the induction of the neurotrophic factor BDNF. These effects were mediated by the increased formation of Y1R-GALR2 heteroreceptor complexes, which may mediate the neurites outgrowth observed on neuronal hippocampal cells. Importantly, BDNF action was found necessary for the antidepressant-like effects after GALR2 and the Y1R agonists intranasal administration. Our data may suggest the translational development of new heterobivalent agonist pharmacophores acting on Y1R-GALR2 heterocomplexes in the ventral hippocampus for the novel therapy of MDD or depressive-affecting diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Administration, Intranasal , Antidepressive Agents/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Depressive Disorder, Major/metabolism , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neuropeptide Y/metabolism , Pandemics , Male , Animals , Rats , Receptor, Galanin, Type 2/agonists , Receptors, Neuropeptide Y/agonists
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 979641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141709

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective ability of a chimpanzee replication-deficient adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine (BV-AdCoV-1) expressing a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in golden Syrian hamsters. Intranasal administration of BV-AdCoV-1 elicited strong humoral and cellular immunity in the animals. Furthermore, vaccination prevented weight loss, reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectious virus titers in the lungs as well as lung pathology and provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 live challenge. In addition, there was no vaccine-induced enhanced disease nor immunopathological exacerbation in BV-AdCoV-1-vaccinated animals. Furthermore, the vaccine induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against the ancestral strain and the B.1.617.2, Omicron(BA.1), Omicron(BA.2.75) and Omicron(BA.4/5) variants of concern. These results demonstrate that BV-AdCoV-1 is potentially a promising candidate vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to curtail pandemic spread in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mesocricetus , Administration, Intranasal , Pan troglodytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviridae/genetics
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