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1.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 25(2): 124-129, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107297

ABSTRACT

Viewing self-video during videoconferences potentially causes negative self-focused attention that contributes to virtual meeting (VM) or "Zoom" fatigue. The present research examines this proposition, focusing on facial dissatisfaction-feeling unhappy about one's own facial appearance-as a potential psychological mechanism of VM fatigue. A study of survey responses from a panel of 613 adults found that VM fatigue was 14.9 percent higher for women than for men, and 11.1 percent higher for Asian than for White participants. These gender and race/ethnicity differences were found to be mediated by facial dissatisfaction. This study replicates earlier VM fatigue research, extends the theoretical understanding of facial dissatisfaction as a psychological mechanism of VM fatigue, and suggests that practical approaches to mitigating VM fatigue could include implementing technological features that reduce self-focused attention during VMs (e.g., employing avatars).


Subject(s)
Emotions , Fatigue , Adult , Body Image , Face , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6512-6519, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported evidence about the effectiveness of a third dose with BNT162b2 for preventing hospitalization and death by COVID-19. However, there is little evidence regarding other primary vaccine schedules such as BBIBP-CorV and ChAdOx1-S. We estimated the relative vaccine effectiveness (RVE) of the booster dose versus the primary regimens of COVID-19 vaccines based on BBIBP-CorV, ChAdOx1-S, or BNT162b2 for preventing death during the Omicron wave in Peruvian adult people. METHODS: We carried out a nested case-control study with a risk set sampling of controls using data from Peru between December 20, 2021, and February 20, 2022 (during the Omicron wave). Data on vaccination, COVID-19 tests and deaths were collected from national surveillance databases. We performed conditional logistic regression models to estimate the RVE on the adult population. In addition, we executed sub-group analysis per age group (18 to 59 years, and 60 years or more) and per primary regime (based on BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV, or ChAdOx1-S). RESULTS: Of the 11,188,332 people eligible to enter the study 1,974 met the case definition (death from COVID-19) and were matched to 9,183 controls. The overall RVE of a third dose to prevent death was 87.2% (84.2%-89.7%), which varied according to the primary regime (87.3% for BNT162b2, 82.0% for BBIPB-CorV-2, and 79.5% for ChAdOx-S). In older adults, the RVE was 87.1%, without significant variations according to the primary regime (86.1% for BNT162b2, 86.1 for BBIBP-CorV, and 82% for ChAdOx-S). CONCLUSIONS: The booster) dose of vaccine against COVID-19 had a high RVE for preventing death by COVID-19 in the Peruvian population in all primary regimes of vaccines during the Omicron wave. This effect was consistent in people over 60 years of age, the group most vulnerable to die from this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Peru/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
4.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6640-6648, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the general population are still limited and mostly focused on older adults. This study examined sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the total Swedish population aged 18-64 years. METHODS: National Swedish register data within the SCIFI-PEARL project were used to cross-sectionally investigate sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination among Swedish adults aged 18-64 years (n = 5,987,189) by 12 October 2021. Using logistic regression models, analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, region of residence, history of Covid-19, and comorbidities. An intersectional analysis approach including several cross-classified subgroups was used to further address the complexity of sociodemographic disparities in vaccination uptake. FINDINGS: By 12 October 2021, 76·0% of the Swedish population 18-64 years old had received at least two doses of Covid-19 vaccine, an additional 5·5% had received only one dose, and 18·5% were non-vaccinated. Non-vaccinated individuals were, compared to vaccinated, more often younger, male, had a lower income, were not gainfully employed, and/or were born outside Sweden. The social patterning for vaccine dose two was similar, but weaker, than for dose one. After multivariable adjustments, findings remained but were attenuated indicating the need to consider different sociodemographic factors simultaneously. The intersectional analysis showed a large variation in vaccine uptake ranging from 32% to 96% in cross-classified subgroups, reflecting considerable sociodemographic heterogeneity in vaccination coverage. INTERPRETATION: Our study, addressing the entire Swedish population aged 18-64 years, showed broad sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccine uptake but also wide heterogeneities in coverage. The intersectional analysis approach indicates that focusing on specific sociodemographic factors in isolation and group average risks without considering the heterogeneity within such groups will risk missing the full variability of vaccine coverage. FUNDING: SciLifeLab / Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Swedish government ALF agreement, FORMAS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 521-526, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China and has spread all over the world and affected global mental health. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and experience high levels of distress during an infectious disease outbreak. The aim of this study was to determine anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed a total of 283 pregnant women within the period of May 11 to May 28,2020. During their regular antenatal visit, pregnant women were invited to participate in the study. The self-created personal information form was used to assess the main characteristics of the participants. Anxiety and PTSD symptoms of the pregnant women were measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.20±5.55 years. Regarding gestational age, 72 (25.4%), 86 (30.4) and 125 (44.2) were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The mean gestational age was 23.82±11.05 weeks. The mean STAI-S and STAI-T scores were 39.52±10.56 within the cut-off value (39-40) of the instrument and 42.74±8.33, respectively. Furthermore, the mean total IES-R score was 36.60±15.65 within the cut-off value (24) of the instrument. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pregnancy complication (p=0.01) and employment status of husband (p=0.04) were the best predictors of state anxiety. Additionally, the presence of COVID-19-related symptoms (p=0.01) and educational level (p=0.01) were found to predict PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women would be likely to experience high levels of anxiety and PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic's delay phase. The results should sensitize the medical team to increased anxiety and PTDS symptoms of the pregnant women in order to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 491-498, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with certain pre-existing chronic health conditions have been identified as a high-risk group for fatalities of COVID-19. Therefore, it is likely that individuals with chronic diseases may worry during this pandemic to the detriment of their mental health. This study compares the mental health of Bangladeshi adults affected by chronic disease to a healthy, matched control group during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A matched case-control analysis was performed with data collected from 395 respondents with chronic diseases and 395 controls matched for age, gender, and residence. Inclusion criteria for cases were respondents who self-reported having asthma, cardiovascular disease symptoms and/or diabetes. Respondents were recruited using an online survey, which included the DASS-21 measure to assess symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Chi-square test, t-test, Fisher's exact test and a conditional logistic regression were performed to examine associations among variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms and the level of stress were significantly higher among cases (59%; 71.6%; 73.7%, respectively) than among controls (25.6%; 31.1%; 43.3%, respectively). Chi-square and t-test showed significant associations and differences between having chronic diseases and mental health outcomes. A conditional logistic regression showed that respondents with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, or any combination of these diseases had higher odds of exhibiting symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression than healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: These results underscore a subpopulation vulnerable to mental health consequences during this pandemic and indicate the need for additional mental health resources to be available to those with chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Depression , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 287-293, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as pandemic, health workers have shown an incredible commitment to their patients, sometimes in apocalyptic conditions. We explored ways to deal with the coronavirus stressor and psychological outcomes among physicians and nurses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 124 healthcare workers in General Hospital Nasice (Croatia) were invited to participate in a study by performing within the period of March 26 to April 6 2020 questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions that may be risk factors for covid-19 concern, Short form health survey-36, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC; consisting of 8 subscales: Confrontive Coping, Distancing, Self-Controlling, Seeking Social Support, Accepting Responsibility, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving, Positive Reappraisal). RESULTS: 11% healthworkers reports moderate to very-severe depression, 17% moderate to extremely-severe anxiety and 10% for moderate to extremely-severe stress. 67% of medical staff are worried. No statistically significant differences in the scales of depression, anxiety, and stress were found between nurses and physicians, but differences were found on Escape-Avoidance and Positive Reappraisal subscales. Nurses use significantly more avoiding coping style and positive reappraisal than doctors. Seeking social support is more pronounced in those over 40 years old, while those under 40 use more avoidable stress management techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and ensuring the mental health of coronavirus care staff is crucial for global health. The education of medical staff in the field of stress management is a conditio sine qua non of the issue of an adequate relationship with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 280-286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that endanger the health and enforced social distancing for the whole world. Social distancing may generate stress, anxiety, and depression. Understanding the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 during social distancing may help decision-makers to take suitable decisions that help in increasing awareness. Evaluate the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic during the social distancing period and explore the relationship between social media use and psychological stress during COVID-19 outbreak among Najran city population. Research design is descriptive correlational research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A snowball sampling technique, was used to recruit participants live in Najran city during the COVID-19 pandemic (1508 participant). RESULTS: A statistically significant differences (P<0.05) are observed between Saudi and non-Saudi participants in all social aspects assessed except for time spent on social media. In addition, a high mean of depression, stress, and anxiety subscale scores are observed in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants with statistically significant differences (p=0.000). As well as high DASS-21 total scores in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants. Also, there are positive statistically significant correlations (≤0.05) between participants' time spent in social media and their depression, stress, anxiety, and total DASS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that COVID-19 pandemic generates stress, anxiety and depression among Najran population especially, non-Saudi. This poor psychological condition is exaggerated with prolonged social media use. COVID-19 also has negative impact on social wellbeing and use of social media cannot replace direct contact with friends. The current study results may be utilized to formulate interventions that enhance psychosocial health and resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Cir Cir ; 90(5): 670-677, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical-demographic characteristics of patients recovered from COVID-19 in a third level rehabilitation service. METHOD: A cross-sectional and descriptive study of recovered COVID-19 patients in a rehabilitation service was carried out. Demographic, personal pathological history, his work activity and COVID-19 were taken, as well as alterations after the disease. Descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: 186 files were collected. The mean age was 48.04 ± 11.32 years. Male predominance was found (65.6%). 50% of the patients were health workers. The most common previous pathological conditions were sedentary lifestyle (73.7%) and diabetes mellitus (29%). 43.5% presented grade 3 dyspnea according to the modified Medical Research Council scale. There was a high prevalence of neuromuscular involvement, predominantly peripheral neuropathy (48.4%) and dysautonomia (46.2%). CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to determine the clinical-demographic characteristics of patients recovered from COVID-19 in a third-level rehabilitation service, such as age, sex, type of work, previous pathological conditions (diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension), body mass index, dyspnea, hospitalization, and post-illness disorders. Further investigation of COVID-19 is needed in the development of conditions to different systems.


OBJETIVO: Determinar las características clínico-demográficas de pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 en un servicio de rehabilitación de tercer nivel. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo de pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 en un servicio de rehabilitación. Se tomaron antecedentes demográficos, personales patológicos, de su actividad laboral y de COVID-19, así como alteraciones posteriores a la enfermedad. Se realizó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: Se recolectaron 186 expedientes. La edad media fue de 48.04 ± 11.32 años. Se encontró predominio del sexo masculino (65.6%). El 50% de los pacientes eran trabajadores de la salud. Las condiciones patológicas previas más comunes fueron sedentarismo (73.7%) y diabetes mellitus (29%). El 43.5% presentaron disnea de grado 3 acorde a la escala Medical Research Council modificada. Existió alta prevalencia de compromiso neuromuscular, predominando la neuropatía periférica (48.4%) y la disautonomía (46.2%). CONCLUSIONES: Se logró determinar las características clínico-demográficas de pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 en un servicio de rehabilitación de tercer nivel, como la edad, el sexo, el tipo de trabajo, las condiciones patológicas previas (diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial), el índice de masa corporal, la disnea, la hospitalización y las alteraciones posteriores a la enfermedad. Es necesaria mayor investigación de la COVID-19 en el desarrollo de afecciones en diferentes sistemas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Retrospective Studies
13.
Int J Yoga Therap ; 32(2022)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100570

ABSTRACT

To avoid severe courses of COVID-19 infections and reduce death rates, vaccination against the SARS-CoV-1 virus was considered an essential strategy in fighting the pandemic. However, some yoga practitioners reject such vaccinations and assume that their yoga practices protect them. We therefore aimed to analyze how many yoga practitioners were vaccinated, their reasons for being vaccinated, and the influence of the ethical principles of yoga (yamas/niyamas) on these decisions. In a cross-sectional survey in summer 2021, we enrolled 1,545 yoga practitioners (86% women; mean age 51.1 ± 10.9 y). The majority of participants were already vaccinated (66%), and their percentage corresponded to that of the general population. Those who were not willing to get vaccinated scored significantly higher on the yama/niyama factors Contentment/Self-Reflection/Devotion and Surrender and Non-Possessiveness. Depending on the centrality of the yamas/niyamas in their lives, yoga participants differed on their vaccination decisions, but they did not relevantly differ on their pro-social reasons (protection of groups at risk, protection of family) when they were already vaccinated. This assumed protection against severe courses of the COVID-19 infection was higher in the nonvaccinated compared to the vaccinated individuals (Cohen's d = 0.99). This conviction was related to the niyama factor Contentment/Self-Reflection/Devotion and Surrender. Thus, in the yoga schools and other places of yoga practice the relevance of vaccination to also protect others should be discussed, and the consequences of following the yamas and niyamas for the sake of others should be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Yoga , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Germany
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(44): 1401-1406, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100531

ABSTRACT

On August 31, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized bivalent formulations of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines; these vaccines include mRNA encoding the spike protein from the original (ancestral) strain of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and from the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants BA.4 and BA.5 (BA.4/BA.5). These bivalent mRNA vaccines were authorized for use as a single booster dose ≥2 months after completion of primary series or monovalent booster vaccination; Pfizer-BioNTech bivalent booster was authorized for persons aged ≥12 years and Moderna for adults aged ≥18 years.*,† On September 1, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that all persons aged ≥12 years receive an age-appropriate bivalent mRNA booster dose.§ To characterize the safety of bivalent mRNA booster doses, CDC reviewed adverse events and health impacts reported after receipt of bivalent Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna booster doses during August 31-October 23, 2022, to v-safe,¶ a voluntary smartphone-based U.S. safety surveillance system established by CDC to monitor adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS),** a U.S. passive vaccine safety surveillance system managed by CDC and FDA (1). During August 31-October 23, 2022, approximately 14.4 million persons aged ≥12 years received a bivalent Pfizer-BioNTech booster dose, and 8.2 million adults aged ≥18 years received a bivalent Moderna booster dose.†† Among the 211,959 registrants aged ≥12 years who reported receiving a bivalent booster dose to v-safe, injection site and systemic reactions were frequently reported in the week after vaccination (60.8% and 54.8%, respectively); fewer than 1% of v-safe registrants reported receiving medical care. VAERS received 5,542 reports of adverse events after bivalent booster vaccination among persons aged ≥12 years; 95.5% of reports were nonserious and 4.5% were serious events. Health care providers and patients can be reassured that adverse events reported after a bivalent booster dose are consistent with those reported after monovalent doses. Health impacts after COVID-19 vaccination are less frequent and less severe than those associated with COVID-19 illness (2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger
15.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 40(1): 1-21, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100425

ABSTRACT

The multidisciplinary experts in Thailand developed an asthma management recommendation that was relevant to low-middle income countries (LMICS). Populations level consideration about asthma management is emphasized. The healthcare systems, access to and availability of treatments as well as the asthma populations vary from country to country in LMICS. The feasibility in clinical practice for implementation is also a major issue. For these reasons, the practice guidelines that are relevant to local contexts are essential to improve better asthma control. Furthermore, integrative and collaboration between asthma experts and the public health sector to implement and discriminate such guidelines will help to achieve these challenging goals. The topics covered include the current asthma situation in Thailand and the Asia-Pacific region, the definition of asthma, asthma diagnosis, assessment of asthma patients, asthma treatment - both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, management of asthma exacerbation, management of asthma comorbidities, treatment of asthma in special conditions, severe and uncontrolled asthma, Thai alternative medicine and asthma, and asthma and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Humans , Thailand
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e938243, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic affected many people worldwide, including those with chronic diseases. Our objective was to analyze its influence on medical care and the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 2021, 81 patients in Poland with IBD completed an original anonymous questionnaire about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the course of their disease and mental status. The printed questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients treated at the Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of the University Clinical Hospital in Bialystok, and an online questionnaire was sent to patients via social media. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test, with a significance level of P<0.05. RESULTS The study group consisted of 46 women and 35 men with a mean age of 32.42 years. Fifty-nine patients had ulcerative colitis and 22 had Crohn disease. Patients reported significant deterioration in medication availability (50.62%) and restricted access to gastroenterology outpatient clinics (51.90%) (P<0.05). Of patients who contracted COVID-19, 89.47% did not require hospitalization, 32.10% (26/81) were asymptomatic, mild, or moderate, despite immunosuppressive biological treatment (27.16%, 22/81), or steroids (18.52%, 15/81). Over 50% of respondents stated the pandemic negatively affected their mental state and 30% of them associated that with worsening IBD. CONCLUSIONS During the pandemic, respondents were mainly concerned with difficulties in accessing the gastroenterology clinic and limited drug availability. The pandemic negatively affected patients' mental state. In cases of COVID-19 disease, patients with IBD were mostly asymptomatic and did not require hospitalization, despite therapy affecting the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Poland/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chronic Disease
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937739, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND We present the report of the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that occurred 3 days after anticoagulation discontinuation in a patient with a history of pulmonary embolism in the course of COVID-19. CASE REPORT A previously healthy 38-year-old man was hospitalized in April 2021 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, complicated by segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated with a concurrent combination of remdesivir, dexamethasone, therapeutic enoxaparin, ceftriaxone, passive oxygen therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy, which led to pulmonary improvement. The treatment with therapeutic enoxaparin (80 mg/0.8 mL twice a day) was continued for 1 month after discharge, followed by 15 mg of rivaroxaban twice a day for 3 weeks and 20 mg of rivaroxaban once a day for 11 weeks. Within 3 days after rivaroxaban discontinuation, the patient experienced a decrease in visual acuity in his right eye, to the level of 5/25. Nonischemic CRVO with cystoid macular edema was diagnosed and an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed. Common identifiable factors contributing to CRVO were excluded, and the treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin was initiated. Two weeks later, macular edema decreased significantly and visual acuity improved to 20/20. The treatment with enoxaparin was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS Rebound hypercoagulability after discontinuation of rivaroxaban therapy can manifest as CRVO in a young patient with a history of COVID-19 pulmonary embolism. It was successfully treated with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Pulmonary Embolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Male , Humans , Adult , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Intravitreal Injections , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(11): JC131, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100329

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Goodall BL, LeBlanc JJ, Hatchette TF, et al. Investigating the sensitivity of nasal or throat swabs: combination of both swabs increases the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests. Microbiol Spectr. 2022;10:e0021722 35762772.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Pharynx , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(4): 442-455, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100308

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In this paper, we explore the adherence patterns to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 mitigation guidelines among current, former, and never smokers. Methods: We used an online cross-sectional survey of adults 18 years or older in 5 northeastern states of the US (N=1084). Results: Unadjusted analyses revealed that current smokers reported lower adherence to the CDC guidelines than former smokers (27.5 vs 29.4, p<.05). After accounting for sociodemographic covariates, this finding was no longer statistically significant. However, compared to former smokers, never smokers reported wearing their mask less often (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.45-0.94) and current smokers were less likely to report always practicing illness-related hygiene skills (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.39-0.93).Conclusions: Never smokers had poorer adherence to CDC guidelines than former smokers, namely wearing their masks, and current smokers were less likely to always follow the hygiene recommendations. Results should inform future public health efforts in targeting current smokers with lower adherence to CDC guidelines and learning from the ability of former smokers to demonstrate high adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smokers , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Smoking/epidemiology
20.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 99-107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Airway management has undergone a dramatic transformation since the arrival of video laryngoscope (VL). VL has higher intubation success rate on first try and lower complications in comparison to direct laryngoscope (DL). The use of VL is recommended in intubating COVID-19 patients to speed up intubation time and reduce failure rate. A team from Airlangga University developed Wycope Video Laryngoscope (Wycope VL), a VL with Wi-Fi connection to smartphones for an easier VL with low cost. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Wycope VL, C-MAC Video Laryngoscope (C-MAC VL), and DL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design, involving 63 patients who were divided into 3 groups based on the type of laryngoscope, namely Wycope VL, C-MAC VL, and DL. Intubation is carried out by 4th year anaesthesiology resident. Research subjects were patients who will undergo elective surgery at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital under general anaesthesia using orotracheal tube. Inclusion age of 19-64 years, PS ASA 1-2, no anatomical abnormalities of the airway, did not have difficult airway, and was willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: All patients were successfully intubated without complications. C-MAC VL (5.33±1.42 seconds) and Wycope VL (5.95±0.74 seconds) was significantly faster in seeing vocal folds and glottis compared to DL (7.14±0.72 seconds) with P=0.000. DL was significantly faster in average time of intubation (15.52±5.90 seconds) compared to C-MAC VL (16.95±1.11 seconds) and Wycope VL (20.29±2.81 seconds) with P=0.000. CONCLUSION: DL was faster compared to VL in speed of intubation while C-MAC VL and Wycope VL was faster in viewing the vocal folds and glottis compared to DL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
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