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2.
High Alt Med Biol ; 22(4): 406-416, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569559

ABSTRACT

Ortiz-Prado, Esteban, Raul Patricio Fernandez Naranjo, Eduardo Vasconez, Katherine Simbaña-Rivera, Trigomar Correa-Sancho, Alex Lister, Manuel Calvopiña, and Ginés Viscor. Analysis of excess mortality data at different altitudes during the COVID-19 outbreak in Ecuador. High Alt Med Biol. 22:406-416, 2021. Background: It has been speculated that living at high altitude confers some risk reduction in terms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduced transmissibility, and arguable lower COVID-19-related mortality. Objective: We aim to determine the number of excess deaths reported in Ecuador during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to different altitude categories among 221 cantons in Ecuador, ranging from sea level to 4,300 m above. Methods: A descriptive ecological country-wide analysis of the excess mortality in Ecuador was performed since March 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021. Every canton was categorized as lower (for altitudes 2,500 m or less) or higher (for altitudes >2,500 m) in a first broad classification, as well as in two different classifications: The one proposed by Imray et al. in 2011 (low altitude <1,500 m, moderate altitude 1,500-2,500 m, high altitude 2,500-3,500 m, or very high altitude 3,500-5,500 m) and the one proposed by Bärtsch et al. in 2008 (near sea level 0-500 m, low altitude 500-2,000 m, moderate altitude 2,000-3,000 m, high altitude 3,000-5,500 m, and extreme altitude 5,500 m). A Poisson fitting analysis was used to identify trends on officially recorded all-caused deaths and those attributed to COVID-19. Results: In Ecuador, at least 120,573 deaths were recorded during the first year of the pandemic, from which 42,453 were catalogued as excessive when compared with the past 3 years of averages (2017-2019). The mortality rate at the lower altitude was 301/100,000 people, in comparison to 242/100,000 inhabitants in elevated cantons. Considering the four elevation categories, the highest excess deaths came from towns located at low altitude (324/100,000), in contrast to the moderate altitude (171/100,000), high-altitude (249/100,000), and very high-altitude (153/100,000) groups. Conclusions: This is the first report on COVID-19 excess mortality in a high-altitude range from 0 to 4,300 m above sea level. We found that absolute COVID-19-related excess mortality is lower both in time and in proportion in the cantons located at high and very high altitude when compared with those cantons located at low altitude.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Altitude , Ecuador/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2079, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has claimed nearly 900,000 lives worldwide and infected more than 27 million people. Researchers worldwide are studying ways to decrease SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 related deaths. Several studies found altitude having a negative association with both COVID-19 incidence and deaths. Ecuadorian data was used to explore the relationship between altitude and COVID-19. METHODS: This is an ecological study examining province-level data. To explore a relationship between altitude and COVID-19, this study utilized publicly available COVID-19 data and population statistics. ANOVA, correlation statistics, and a multivariate linear model explored the relationship between different Ecuadorian altitudes against incidence, mortality, and case-fatality rates. Population statistics attributed to COVID-19 were included in the linear model to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed in the regions of Amazónica, Sierra, Costa of Ecuador for incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates, suggesting an association between altitude and SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 disease severity (p-value ≤0.05). In univariate analysis, altitude had a negative association to mortality rate with a 1-unit change in altitude resulting in the decrease of 0.006 units in mortality rate (p-value = 0.03). The multiple linear models adjusted for population statistics showed a statistically significant negative association of altitude with mortality rate (p-value = 0.01) with a 1-unit change in altitude resulting in the decrease in mortality rate by 0.015 units. Overall, the model helped in explaining 50% (R2 = 0.4962) of the variance in mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Altitude may have an effect on COVID-19 mortality rates. However, based on our model and R2 value, the relationship between our variables of interest and COVID-19 mortality may be nonlinear. More research is needed to understand why altitude may have a protective effect against COVID-19 mortality and how this may be applicable in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19 , Ecuador/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 662, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deer mice (genus Peromyscus) are the most common rodents in North America. Despite the availability of reference genomes for some species, a comprehensive database of polymorphisms, especially in those maintained as living stocks and distributed to academic investigators, is missing. In the present study we surveyed two populations of P. maniculatus that are maintained at the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (PGSC) for polymorphisms across their 2.5 × 109 bp genome. RESULTS: High density of variation was identified, corresponding to one SNP every 55 bp for the high altitude stock (SM2) or 207 bp for the low altitude stock (BW) using snpEff (v4.3). Indels were detected every 1157 bp for BW or 311 bp for SM2. The average Watterson estimator for the BW and SM2 populations is 248813.70388 and 869071.7671 respectively. Some differences in the distribution of missense, nonsense and silent mutations were identified between the stocks, as well as polymorphisms in genes associated with inflammation (NFATC2), hypoxia (HIF1a) and cholesterol metabolism (INSIG1) and may possess value in modeling pathology. CONCLUSIONS: This genomic resource, in combination with the availability of P. maniculatus from the PGSC, is expected to promote genetic and genomic studies with this animal model.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Peromyscus , Animals , Genomics , Models, Animal , Peromyscus/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389359

ABSTRACT

After the first pandemic wave, a nationwide survey assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Spain and found notable differences among provinces whose causes remained unclear. This ecological study aimed to analyze the association between environmental and demographic factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection by province. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by province was obtained from a nationwide representative survey performed in June 2020, after the first pandemic wave in Spain. Linear regression was used in the analysis. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies of the 50 provinces ranged from 0.2% to 13.6%. The altitude, which ranged from 5 to 1131 m, explained nearly half of differences in seroprevalence (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence in people residing in provinces above the median altitude (215 m) was three-fold higher (6.5% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.001). In the multivariate linear regression, the addition of population density significantly improved the predictive value of the altitude (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001). Every 100 m of altitude increase and 100 inhabitants/km2 of increase in population density, the seroprevalence rose 0.84 and 0.63 percentage points, respectively. Environmental conditions related to higher altitude in winter-spring, such as lower temperatures and absolute humidity, may be relevant to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Places with such adverse conditions may require additional efforts for pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Altitude , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376804

ABSTRACT

Humans on earth inhabit a wide range of environmental conditions and some environments are more challenging for human survival than others. However, many living beings, including humans, have developed adaptive mechanisms to live in such inhospitable, harsh environments. Among different difficult environments, high-altitude living is especially demanding because of diminished partial pressure of oxygen and resulting chronic hypobaric hypoxia. This results in poor blood oxygenation and reduces aerobic oxidative respiration in the mitochondria, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and activation of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Genetic mechanisms in the adaptation to high altitude is well-studied, but there are only limited studies regarding the role of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to understand the epigenetic mechanisms behind high-altitude adaptive and maladaptive phenotypes. Hypobaric hypoxia is a form of cellular hypoxia, which is similar to the one suffered by critically-ill hypoxemia patients. Thus, understanding the adaptive epigenetic signals operating in in high-altitude adjusted indigenous populations may help in therapeutically modulating signaling pathways in hypoxemia patients by copying the most successful epigenotype. In addition, we have summarized the current information about exosomes in hypoxia research and prospects to use them as diagnostic tools to study the epigenome of high-altitude adapted healthy or maladapted individuals.


Subject(s)
Exosomes , Exposome , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Altitude , Epigenesis, Genetic , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Hypoxia/genetics
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339409

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of this study is to analyze how the impact of Diabetes Mellitus [DM] in patients with COVID-19 varies according to altitudinal gradient. METHODS: We obtained 1,280,806 records from adult patients with COVID-19 and DM to analyze the probability of COVID-19, development of COVID-19 pneumonia, hospitalization, intubation, admission to the Intensive Care Unit [ICU] and case-fatality rates [CFR]. Variables were controlled by age, sex and altitude of residence to calculate adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Patients with DM had a 21.8% higher prevalence of COVID-19 and an additional 120.2% higher prevalence of COVID-19 pneumonia. The adjusted prevalence was also higher for these outcomes as well as for hospitalization, intubation and ICU admission. COVID-19 and pneumonia patients with DM had a 97.0% and 19.4% higher CFR, respectively. With increasing altitudes, the probability of being a confirmed COVID-19 case and the development of pneumonia decreased along CFR for patients with and without DM. However, COVID-19 patients with DM were more likely to require intubation when residing at high altitude. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that patients with DM have a higher probability of being a confirmed COVID-19 case and developing pneumonia. Higher altitude had a protective relationship against SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, it may be associated with more severe cases in patients with and without DM. High altitude decreases CFR for all COVID-19 patients. Our work also shows that women are less affected than men regardless of altitude.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332158

ABSTRACT

Acute high-altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. Our recent article "Acute Mountain Sickness, High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema and High-Altitude Cerebral Edema, a View from the High Andes" was questioned by some sea-level high-altitude experts. As a result of this, we answer some observations and further explain our opinion on these diseases. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad, which involves the pneumo-dynamic pump (ventilation), the hemo-dynamic pump (heart and circulation), and hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high-altitude Van Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude, the more tolerance to hypoxia. In order to survive, all organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to the high-altitude environment, and there cannot be any "loss of adaptation". A favorable evolution in HAPE and pulmonary hypertension can result from the oxygen treatment along with other measures.


Subject(s)
Altitude Sickness , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Edema , Altitude , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypoxia , Oxygen , Pulmonary Edema/etiology
10.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(6): 663-671, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271005

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a global health issue that influenced the lives of billions of people all over the world. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical findings and routine laboratory evaluations of COVID-19 patients in both average- and high-altitude settings in Saudi Arabia. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> A comparative study to explore the clinical characteristics and Laboratory tests results of COVID-19 patients at both high and average altitudes in Saudi Arabia has been conducted. The study included a total number of 103 patients (53 patients comprising the high-altitude group living in Taif, Saudi Arabia and 50 patients comprising the average-altitude group living in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia) were included in the study. Patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2-positive by PCR test. Clinical characteristics, laboratory test results and symptoms of adult patients were collected and expressed as mean and standard deviation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software to compare between both groups and significance was considered when the p-value is less than 0.05. <b>Results:</b> Approximately 55.3% of the total cases were male with a mean age of 40.16±12.47 years. There were highly statistically significant differences between the groups in age, heart rate (p<0.001). There were also statistically significant differences between the groups in temperature, SpO<sub>2</sub>, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath and loss of smell and taste. <b>Conclusion:</b> The current study provides an understanding of the clinical and laboratory investigations of COVID-19 patients in two regions (high altitude and average altitude) in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Saudi Arabia , Young Adult
11.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 5590879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268149

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide with different dynamics in each region. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and to explore risk factors of death, critical care admission, and use of invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a high-altitude population living in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: We conducted a concurrent cohort study of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were extracted from electronic records. Univariate and multivariable methods were performed to investigate the relationship between each variable and outcomes at 28 days of follow-up. Results: 377 adults (56.8% male) were included in the study, of whom 85 (22.6%) died. Nonsurvivors were older on average than survivors (mean age, 56.7 years [SD 15.8] vs. 70.1 years [SD 13.9]; p ≤ 0.001) and more likely male (28 [32.9%] vs. 57 [67.1%]; p=0.029). Most patients had at least one underlying disease (333 [88.3%]), including arterial hypertension (149 [39.5%]), overweight (145 [38.5%]), obesity (114 [30.2%]), and diabetes mellitus (82 [21.8%]). Frequency of critical care admission (158 [41.9%]) and invasive mechanical ventilation (123 [32.6%]) was high. Age over 65 years (OR 9.26, 95% CI 3.29-26.01; p ≤ 0.001), ICU admission (OR 12.37, 95% CI 6.08-25.18; p ≤ 0.001), and arterial pH higher than 7.47 (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.74; p=0.01) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: In this study of in-hospital patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia living at high altitude, frequency of death was similar to what has been reported. ICU admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation were high. Risk factors as older age, ICU admission, and arterial pH were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Colombia , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors
13.
14.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 292: 103709, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253545

ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggested that erythropoietin (EPO) may protect against severe COVID-19-induced injuries, ultimately preventing mortality. This hypothesis is based on the fact that, in addition to promoting the increase in red blood cells, EPO is an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and protective factor in several non-erythropoietic tissues. Furthermore, EPO promotes nitric oxide production in the hypoxic lung and stimulates ventilation by interacting with the respiratory centers of the brainstem. Given that EPO in the blood is increased at high-altitude, we evaluated the serum levels of EPO in critical patients with COVID-19 at "Hospital Agramont" in the city of El Alto (4150 masl) in Bolivia. A total of 16 patients, 15 men, one woman, with a mean age of 55.8 ± 8.49 years, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit were studied. All patients were permanent residents of El Alto, with no travel history below 3000 masl for at least one year. Blood samples were collected upon admission to the ICU. Serum EPO concentration was assessed using an ELISA kit, and a standard technique determined hemoglobin concentration. Only half of the observed patients survived the disease. Remarkably, fatal cases showed 2.5 times lower serum EPO than survivors (2.78 ± 0.8643 mU/mL vs 7.06 ± 2.713 mU/mL; p = 0.0096), and 1.24 times lower hemoglobin levels (13.96 ± 2.56 g/dL vs 17.41 ± 1.61 g/dL; p = 0.0159). While the number of cases evaluated in this work is low, our findings strongly warrant further investigation of EPO levels in COVID-19 patients at high and low altitudes. Our results also support the hypothesis that exogenous EPO administration could help critically ill COVID-19 patients overcome the disease.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19/blood , Erythropoietin/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Bolivia , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0249964, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232459

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious and has affected the whole world. We seek to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 patients in the high altitude areas of Sichuan, China. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 67 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in Sichuan's Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture were included from February 1, 2020, to March 2, 2020. Their clinical characteristics, as well as radiological and laboratory features, were extracted. Four (6.0%) patients were categorized as severe cases; 39 (58.2%) were non-severe cases, and 24 (35.8%) were asymptomatic cases. A total of 46 (68.7%) patients were associated with cluster infection events in this study. The most common symptoms were cough, sputum production, dyspnea, fatigue or myalgia, and headache. Seven (10.4%) patients showed leucopenia, and 20 (29.9%) patients showed lymphopenia. Lymphocyte counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NPR) were different between the three groups. In total, 14 (20.9%) patients had thrombocytopenia, and prothrombin times (PT) and fibrinogen levels differed between groups. We also found significant differences in sodium, chloride and calcium levels between the three groups. Antiviral therapy did not lead to obvious adverse events or shortened durations from initial positive to subsequent negative nuclei acid tests. Advanced age, hypertension, high neutrophil count, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase levels were identified as independent risk factors for symptomatic cases of COVID-19. In conclusion, the symptoms of patients in high altitude areas were mild, and about one third were asymptomatic. We also identified several independent risk factors for symptomatic cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Altitude , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
17.
High Alt Med Biol ; 22(2): 119-127, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225587

ABSTRACT

Luks, Andrew M. and Colin K. Grissom. Return to high altitude after recovery from coronavirus disease 2019. High Alt Med Biol. 22: 119-127, 2021.-With the increasing availability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and the eventual decline in the burden of the disease, it is anticipated that all forms of tourism, including travel to high altitude, will rebound in the near future. Given the physiologic challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude, it is useful to consider whether high-altitude travel will pose risks to those previously infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, particularly those with persistent symptoms after resolution of their infection. Although no studies have specifically examined this question as of yet, available data on the cardiopulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 provide some sense of the problems people may face at high altitude and who warrants evaluation before such endeavors. On average, most individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 have normal or near normal gas exchange, pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular function, and exercise capacity, although a subset of individuals have persistent functional deficits in some or all of these domains when examined up to 5 months after infection. Evaluation is warranted before planned high-altitude travel in individuals with persistent symptoms at least 2 weeks after a positive test or hospital discharge as well as in those who required care in an intensive care unit or suffered from myocarditis or arterial or venous thromboembolism. Depending on the results of this testing, planned high-altitude travel may need to be modified or even deferred pending resolution of the identified abnormalities. As more people travel to high altitude after the pandemic and further studies are conducted, additional data should become available to provide further guidance on these issues.


Subject(s)
Altitude Sickness , COVID-19 , Altitude , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9849, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223110

ABSTRACT

Several studies have examined the transmission dynamics of the novel COVID-19 disease in different parts of the world. Some have reported relationships with various environmental variables, suggesting that spread of the disease is enhanced in colder and drier climates. However, evidence is still scarce and mostly limited to a few countries, particularly from Asia. We examined the potential role of multiple environmental variables in COVID-19 infection rate [measured as mean relative infection rate = (number of infected inhabitants per week / total population) × 100.000) from February 23 to August 16, 2020 across 360 cities of Chile. Chile has a large climatic gradient (≈ 40º of latitude, ≈ 4000 m of altitude and 5 climatic zones, from desert to tundra), but all cities share their social behaviour patterns and regulations. Our results indicated that COVID-19 transmission in Chile was mostly related to three main climatic factors (minimum temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity). Transmission was greater in colder and drier cities and when atmospheric pressure was lower. The results of this study support some previous findings about the main climatic determinants of COVID-19 transmission, which may be useful for decision-making and management of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Altitude , Atmospheric Pressure , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Temperature , Tundra
19.
Auton Neurosci ; 233: 102810, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188308

ABSTRACT

We have considered some of the available evidence to account for the impact of SARS-CoV on the regulatory control of the autonomic nervous and respiratory systems. Apart from stimulating general interest in the subject, our hope was to provide putative explanations for some of the patients' symptoms based on described physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms seen in other diseases. Herein, we have focused on the carotid bodies. In this hypothetical viewpoint, we have discussed the plasticity of the carotid body chemoreflex and made a comparison between acute and chronic exposures to high altitude with COVID-19. From these discussions, we have postulated that the sensitivity of the hypoxic ventilatory response may well determine the outcome of disease severity and those that live at high altitude may be more resistant. We have provided insight into silent hypoxia and attempted to explain an absence of ventilatory drive and anxiety yet maintenance of consciousness. In an attempt to discover more about the mysteries of COVID-19, we conclude with questions and some hypothetical studies that may answer them.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carotid Body/physiopathology , Altitude , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(4): 915-916, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746220
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