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1.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1697-1712, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244441

ABSTRACT

Autophagy plays an important role in defending against invading microbes. However, numerous viruses can subvert autophagy to benefit their replication. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an aetiological agent that causes severe porcine epidemic diarrhoea. How PEDV infection regulates autophagy and its role in PEDV replication are inadequately understood. Herein, we report that PEDV induced complete autophagy in Vero and IPEC-DQ cells, as evidenced by increased LC3 lipidation, p62 degradation, and the formation of autolysosomes. The lysosomal protease inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) or bafilomycin A and Beclin-1 or ATG5 knockdown blocked autophagic flux and inhibited PEDV replication. PEDV infection activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) by activating TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Compound C (CC), an AMPK inhibitor, and SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited PEDV-induced autophagy and virus replication. AMPK activation led to increased ULK1S777 phosphorylation and activation. Inhibition of ULK1 activity by SBI-0206965 (SBI) and TAK1 activity by 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (5Z) or by TAK1 siRNA led to the suppression of autophagy and virus replication. Our study provides mechanistic insights into PEDV-induced autophagy and how PEDV infection leads to JNK and AMPK activation.


Subject(s)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Chloroquine , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Protease Inhibitors , RNA, Small Interfering , Swine , Virus Replication
2.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1362-1371, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hantavirus is known to be transmitted from rodents to humans. However, some reports from Argentina and Chile have claimed that the hantavirus strain Andes virus (ANDV) can cause human-to-human transmission of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for human-to-human transmission of hantavirus. METHODS: We searched PubMed (inception to 28 February 2021), Cochrane Central, Embase, LILACS and SciELO (inception to 3 July 2020), and other sources. We included studies that assessed whether interpersonal contact with a person with laboratory-confirmed hantavirus infection led to human-to-human transmission. Two reviewers conducted screening, selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity. With the exception of 1 prospective cohort study of ANDV in Chile with serious risk of bias, evidence from comparative studies (strongest level of evidence available) does not support human-to-human transmission of hantavirus infection. Noncomparative studies with a critical risk of bias suggest that human-to-human transmission of ANDV may be possible. CONCLUSIONS: The balance of the evidence does not support the claim of human-to-human transmission of ANDV. Well-designed cohort and case-control studies that control for co-exposure to rodents are needed to inform public health recommendations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Orthohantavirus , Animals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rodentia
4.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244607

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
7.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 133: 104443, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241503

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call on the zoonotic viral spillover events and the need to be prepared for future outbreaks. Zoonotic RNA viruses like the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are potential pathogens that could trigger the next pandemic. Dromedary camels are the only known animal source of MERS-CoV zoonotic infections, but little is known about the molecular antiviral response in this species. IFN-ß and other type-I interferons provide the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the host immune response. We identified the IFNB gene of the dromedary camel and all extant members of the family Camelidae. Camelid IFN-ß is unique with an even number of cysteines in the mature protein compared to other eutherian mammals with an odd number of cysteines. The viral mimetic poly(I:C) strongly induced IFN-ß expression in camel kidney cells. Induction of IFN-ß expression upon infection with camelpox virus was late and subdued when compared to poly(I:C) treatment. Prokaryotically expressed recombinant dromedary IFN-ß induced expression of IFN-responsive genes in camel kidney cells. Further, recombinant IFN-ß conferred antiviral resistance to camel kidney cells against the cytopathic effects of the camelpox virus, an endemic zoonotic pathogen. IFN-ß from this unique group of mammals will offer insights into antiviral immune mechanisms and aid in the development of specific antivirals against pathogens that have the potential to be the next zoonotic pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Camelus , Eutheria , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Zoonoses
8.
Vet Rec ; 191(9): 364, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238859
9.
Vet Rec ; 191(9): 363, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238858
10.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1315-1330, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238606

ABSTRACT

Porcine rotavirus (PoRV) is an important pathogen, leading to the occurrence of viral diarrhoea . As the infection displays obvious enterotropism, intestinal mucosal immunity is the significant line of defence against pathogen invasion. Moreover, as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) show acid resistance, bile salt resistance and immune regulation, it is of great significance to develop an oral vaccine. Most traditional plasmid delivery vectors use antibiotic genes as selective markers, easily leading to antibiotic accumulation. Therefore, to select a food-grade marker in genetically engineering food-grade microorganisms is vital. Based on the CRISPR-Cas9D10A system, we constructed a stable auxotrophic Lactobacillus paracasei HLJ-27 (Lactobacillus △Alr HLJ-27) strain. In addition, as many plasmids replicate in the host bacteria, resulting in internal gene deletions. In this study,we used a temperature-sensitive gene editing plasmidto insert the VP4 gene into the genome, yielding the insertion mutant strains VP4/△Alr HLJ-27, VP4/△Alr W56, and VP4/W56. This recombinant bacterium efficiently induced secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)-based mucosal and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based humoral immune responses. These oral mucosal vaccines have the potential to act as an alternative to the application of antibiotics in the future and induce efficient immune responses against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Lactobacillus , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Lactobacillus/genetics , Rotavirus , Swine
11.
WIREs Mech Dis ; 14(3): e1547, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232939

ABSTRACT

Gustation or the sense of taste is a primary sense, which functions as a gatekeeper for substances that enter the body. Animals, including humans, ingest foods that contain appetitive taste stimuli, including those that have sweet, moderately salty and umami (glutamate) components, and tend to avoid bitter-tasting items, as many bitter compounds are toxic. Taste is mediated by clusters of heterogeneous taste receptors cells (TRCs) organized as taste buds on the tongue, and these convey taste information from the oral cavity to higher order brain centers via the gustatory sensory neurons of the seventh and ninth cranial ganglia. One remarkable aspect of taste is that taste perception is mostly uninterrupted throughout life yet TRCs within buds are constantly renewed; every 1-2 months all taste cells have been steadily replaced. In the past decades we have learned a substantial amount about the cellular and molecular regulation of taste bud cell renewal, and how taste buds are initially established during embryogenesis. Here I review more recent findings pertaining to taste development and regeneration, as well as discuss potential mechanisms underlying taste dysfunction that often occurs with disease or its treatment. This article is categorized under: Infectious Diseases > Stem Cells and Development Cancer > Stem Cells and Development Neurological Diseases > Stem Cells and Development.


Subject(s)
Taste Buds , Taste , Animals , Stem Cells , Taste/physiology , Taste Buds/physiology , Taste Perception , Tongue
12.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234187

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), believed to have originated from a bat species, can infect a wide range of non-human hosts. Bats are known to harbor hundreds of coronaviruses capable of spillover into human populations. Recent studies have shown a significant variation in the susceptibility among bat species to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that little brown bats (LBB) express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and the transmembrane serine protease 2, which are accessible to and support SARS-CoV-2 binding. All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed that LBB ACE2 formed strong electrostatic interactions with the RBD similar to human and cat ACE2 proteins. In summary, LBBs, a widely distributed North American bat species, could be at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and potentially serve as a natural reservoir. Finally, our framework, combining in vitro and in silico methods, is a useful tool to assess the SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility of bats and other animal species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233862

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emergent swine coronavirus which infects cells from the small intestine and induces watery diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration, causing mortality in piglets (>40%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the recombinant membrane protein (M) of PDCoV (rM-PDCoV), which was developed from a synthetic gene obtained after an in silico analysis with a group of 138 GenBank sequences. A 3D model and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the highly conserved M protein structure. Therefore, the synthetic gene was successfully cloned in a pETSUMO vector and transformed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The rM-PDCoV was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot with ~37.7 kDa. The rM-PDCoV immunogenicity was evaluated in immunized (BLAB/c) mice and iELISA. The data showed increased antibodies from 7 days until 28 days (p < 0.001). The rM-PDCoV antigenicity was analyzed using pig sera samples from three states located in "El Bajío" Mexico and positive sera were determined. Our results show that PDCoV has continued circulating on pig farms in Mexico since the first report in 2019; therefore, the impact of PDCoV on the swine industry could be higher than reported in other studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Mice , Membrane Proteins , Phylogeny , Genes, Synthetic , Escherichia coli
14.
J Law Med ; 30(1): 179-190, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233836

ABSTRACT

Technologically enhanced surveillance systems have been proposed for the task of monitoring and responding to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in both human, animal and environmental contexts. The use of these systems is in their infancy, although the advent of COVID-19 has progressed similar technologies in response to that pandemic. We conducted qualitative research to identify the Australian public's key concerns about the ethical, legal and social implications of an artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning-enhanced One Health AMR surveillance system. Our study provides preliminary evidence of public support for AI/machine learning-enhanced One Health monitoring systems for AMR, provided that three main conditions are met: personal health care data must be deidentified; data use and access must be tightly regulated under strong governance; and the system must generate high-quality, reliable analyses to guide trusted health care decision-makers.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Australia , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
15.
Sci Signal ; 16(789): eadg5470, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233822

ABSTRACT

Clinical presentations that develop in response to infection result from interactions between the pathogen and host defenses. SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, directly antagonizes these defenses, leading to delayed immune engagement in the lungs that materializes only as cells succumb to infection and are phagocytosed. Leveraging the golden hamster model of COVID-19, we sought to understand the dynamics between SARS-CoV-2 infection in the airways and the systemic host response that ensues. We found that early SARS-CoV-2 replication was largely confined to the respiratory tract and olfactory system and, to a lesser extent, the heart and gastrointestinal tract but generated a host antiviral response in every organ as a result of circulating type I and III interferons. Moreover, we showed that diminishing the response in the airways by immunosuppression or administration of SARS-CoV-2 intravenously resulted in decreased immune priming, viremia, and increased viral tropism, including productive infection of the liver, kidney, spleen, and brain. Last, we showed that productive infection of the airways was required for mounting an effective and system-wide antiviral response. Together, these data illustrate how COVID-19 can result in diverse clinical presentations in which disease outcomes can be a by-product of the speed and strength of immune engagement. These studies provide additional evidence for the mechanistic basis of the diverse clinical presentations of COVID-19 and highlight the ability of the respiratory tract to generate a systemic immune defense after pathogen recognition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia , Antiviral Agents , Brain
16.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233711

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has had a severe impact on people worldwide. The reference genome of the virus has been widely used as a template for designing mRNA vaccines to combat the disease. In this study, we present a computational method aimed at identifying co-existing intra-host strains of the virus from RNA-sequencing data of short reads that were used to assemble the original reference genome. Our method consisted of five key steps: extraction of relevant reads, error correction for the reads, identification of within-host diversity, phylogenetic study, and protein binding affinity analysis. Our study revealed that multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 can coexist in both the viral sample used to produce the reference sequence and a wastewater sample from California. Additionally, our workflow demonstrated its capability to identify within-host diversity in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Through our research, we were able to shed light on the binding affinity and phylogenetic relationships of these strains with the published SARS-CoV-2 reference genome, SARS-CoV, variants of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2, and some closely related coronaviruses. These insights have important implications for future research efforts aimed at identifying within-host diversity, understanding the evolution and spread of these viruses, as well as the development of effective treatments and vaccines against them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Phylogeny , Pandemics , Genome, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(697): eadf4549, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233638

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been responsible for a global pandemic. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used as antiviral therapeutics; however, these therapeutics have been limited in efficacy by viral sequence variability in emerging variants of concern (VOCs) and in deployment by the need for high doses. In this study, we leveraged the multi-specific, multi-affinity antibody (Multabody, MB) platform, derived from the human apoferritin protomer, to enable the multimerization of antibody fragments. MBs were shown to be highly potent, neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 at lower concentrations than their corresponding mAb counterparts. In mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, a tri-specific MB targeting three regions within the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain was protective at a 30-fold lower dose than a cocktail of the corresponding mAbs. Furthermore, we showed in vitro that mono-specific MBs potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 VOCs by leveraging augmented avidity, even when corresponding mAbs lose their ability to neutralize potently, and that tri-specific MBs expanded the neutralization breadth beyond SARS-CoV-2 to other sarbecoviruses. Our work demonstrates how avidity and multi-specificity combined can be leveraged to confer protection and resilience against viral diversity that exceeds that of traditional monoclonal antibody therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer. However, only a portion of patients respond to such treatments. Therefore, it remains a prevailing clinical need to identify factors associated with acquired resistance or lack of response to ICIs. We hypothesized that the immunosuppressive CD71+ erythroid cells (CECs) within the tumor and/or distant 'out-of-field' may impair antitumor response. METHODS: We studied 38 patients with cancer through a phase II clinical trial investigating the effects of oral valproate combined with avelumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)) in virus-associated solid tumors (VASTs). We quantified the frequency/functionality of CECs in blood and biopsies of patients. Also, we established an animal model of melanoma (B16-F10) to investigate the possible effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on anti-PD-L1 therapy. RESULTS: We found a substantial expansion of CECs in the blood of patients with VAST compared with healthy controls. We noted that the frequency of CECs in circulation was significantly higher at the baseline and throughout the study in non-responders versus responders to PD-L1 therapy. Moreover, we observed that CECs in a dose-dependent manner suppress effector functions of autologous T cells in vitro. The subpopulation of CD45+CECs appears to have a more robust immunosuppressive property compared with their CD45- counterparts. This was illustrated by a stronger expression of reactive oxygen species, PD-L1/PD-L2, and V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation in this subpopulation. Lastly, we found a higher frequency of CECs in the blood circulation at the later cancer stage and their abundance was associated with anemia, and a poor response to immunotherapy. Finally, we report the expansion of CECs in the spleen and tumor microenvironment of mice with melanoma. We found that although CECs in tumor-bearing mice secret artemin, this was not the case for VAST-derived CECs in humans. Notably, our results imply that EPO, a frequently used drug for anemia treatment in patients with cancer, may promote the generation of CECs and subsequently abrogates the therapeutic effects of ICIs (eg, anti-PD-L1). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that anemia by the expansion of CECs may enhance cancer progression. Notably, measuring the frequency of CECs may serve as a valuable biomarker to predict immunotherapy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Animals , Mice , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Erythroid Cells/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233259

ABSTRACT

The human gut microbiome contains the largest number of bacteria in the body and has the potential to greatly influence metabolism, not only locally but also systemically. There is an established link between a healthy, balanced, and diverse microbiome and overall health. When the gut microbiome becomes unbalanced (dysbiosis) through dietary changes, medication use, lifestyle choices, environmental factors, and ageing, this has a profound effect on our health and is linked to many diseases, including lifestyle diseases, metabolic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases. While this link in humans is largely an association of dysbiosis with disease, in animal models, a causative link can be demonstrated. The link between the gut and the brain is particularly important in maintaining brain health, with a strong association between dysbiosis in the gut and neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. This link suggests not only that the gut microbiota composition can be used to make an early diagnosis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases but also that modifying the gut microbiome to influence the microbiome-gut-brain axis might present a therapeutic target for diseases that have proved intractable, with the aim of altering the trajectory of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others. There is also a microbiome-gut-brain link to other potentially reversible neurological diseases, such as migraine, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and long COVID, which might be considered models of therapy for neurodegenerative disease. The role of traditional methods in altering the microbiome, as well as newer, more novel treatments such as faecal microbiome transplants and photobiomodulation, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Animals , Humans , Brain-Gut Axis , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/metabolism , Brain/metabolism
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 37(3): 1223-1232, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocol for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory systems in horses does not exist. OBJECTIVES: (a) Describe the windows of a POCUS protocol for cardiorespiratory assessment of horses (CRASH); (b) Estimate the number of acoustic windows that can be acquired by a sonographer-in-training; (c) Estimate the time required to complete the protocol for specific groups of horses; (d) Describe the sonographic abnormalities detected in horses presented with cardiovascular, respiratory, or systemic disease. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven healthy horses, 14 horses competing in athletic events, and 120 horses with clinical disease. METHOD: A pocket-sized ultrasound device was used to acquire 7 sonographic cardiorespiratory windows in various clinical scenarios. The duration of the examination was timed, and images were evaluated for diagnostic quality. Abnormalities in horses with clinical disease were determined by an expert sonographer. RESULTS: The CRASH protocol could be performed in healthy and diseased horses in hospital, barn, and competition settings between 5.5 ± 0.9 (athletic horses) and 6.9 ± 1.9 min (horses with clinical disease). Thoracic windows were obtained most consistently, followed by right parasternal long-axis echocardiographic windows. Frequently detected abnormalities were pleural fluid, lung consolidation, B-lines, and moderate-to-severe left-sided heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: The CRASH protocol was feasible using a pocket-sized ultrasound device in various groups of horses, could be completed rapidly in a variety of settings, and frequently identified sonographic abnormalities when evaluated by an expert sonographer. The diagnostic accuracy, observer agreement, and utility of the CRASH protocol merit further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Horses , Animals , Feasibility Studies , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography/methods , Echocardiography/veterinary
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