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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099581

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since a large portion of the world's population is currently unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated and has limited access to approved treatments against COVID-19, there is an urgent need to continue research on treatment options, especially those at low cost and which are immediately available to patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Prior in vitro and observational studies have shown that fluoxetine, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, could be a promising antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment against COVID-19. In this report, we evaluated the potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and against variants of concern in vitro, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, Alpha B.1.1.7, Gamma P1, Delta B1.617 and Omicron BA.5. Fluoxetine, administrated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly reduced lung tissue viral titres and expression of several inflammatory markers (i.e., IL-6, TNFα, CCL2 and CXCL10). It also inhibited the replication of all variants of concern in vitro. A modulation of the ceramide system in the lung tissues, as reflected by the increase in the ratio HexCer 16:0/Cer 16:0 in fluoxetine-treated mice, may contribute to explain these effects. Our findings demonstrate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its in vitro antiviral activity against variants of concern, establishing fluoxetine as a very promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ceramides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 236-244, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100752

ABSTRACT

Infection with the new corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) was first registered in December 2019 in China, and then later spread rapidly to the rest of the world. On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) informed the public for the first time about causes of pneumonnia of unknown origin, in the city of Wuhan (Hubei Province, China), in people who were epidemiologically linked to a seafood and wet animal whole sale local market in Wuhan. Coronavrus disease, called COVID-19 (Corona virus disease 2019), after China quickly spread to most countries in the wold, and the WHO on March 11, 2020 declared a pandmic with this virus. SARS-CoV-2, has a high level of sequential similarities to the SARS-CoV-1 and uses the same receptors when it enters the human body (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/ACE2). COVID-19 is respiratry infection that is primarily transmitted via respiratry droplets. Typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection can be very moderate (infected can be even asymptomatic) to very severe, with severe respiratory symptoms (bilateral severe pneumonia), septic schock, and fatal outcome. Numeous unknows regarding the biological, epidemilogical adn clinical characteristics of COVID-19, still exist, and make it impossible to predict with certainty the further course of the current pandemic. COVID-19 is primarily a disease of the respiratory system, but SARS-CoV-2, in a number of patients also penetrates the CNS, and apparently could be responsible for fatal outcome in some cases. The entrry of the virus into the brain can lead to neurological and psychiatric manifestationss, which are not uncommon, including headache, paresthesia, myalgia, impaired consciousnessm, confusion or delirum and cerebrovascular diseases. SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals should be evaluated in a timely manner for neurological and psychiatic symptoms because tretament of infection-related neurological and psychiatric complications is an important factor in better prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.From the current point of view, it seems that in COVID-19 survivors, in the coming years and decades, the inflammatory systemic process and/or the inflammatory process of the brain could trigger long-term mechanisms that generally lead to an increase of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Psychosocial consequences as well as consequences for mental health are also significant, both for the general population and especially for health workers of all profiles. COVID-19 pandemia is associtaed with negative psychosocial consequences, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and stress, sleep disorders, simpotms of posttrauamtic stres disorder, social isolation, loneliness and stigmatization.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary
4.
Curr Drug Targets ; 23(13): 1277-1287, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098966

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 may be associated with various neurological disorders, including dysautonomia, a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In Covid-19, hypoxia, immunoinflammatory abnormality, and deregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may increase sympathetic discharge with dysautonomia development. Direct SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effects and associated inflammatory reaction may lead to neuroinflammation, affecting different parts of the central nervous system (CNS), including the autonomic center in the hypothalamus, causing dysautonomia. High circulating AngII, hypoxia, oxidative stress, high pro-inflammatory cytokines, and emotional stress can also provoke autonomic deregulation and high sympathetic outflow with the development of the sympathetic storm. During SARS-CoV-2 infection with neuro-invasion, GABA-ergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are inhibited in the hypothalamic pre-sympathetic neurons leading to sympathetic storm and dysautonomia. Different therapeutic modalities are applied to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, like antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs. Ivermectin (IVM) is a robust repurposed drug widely used to prevent and manage mild-moderate Covid-19. IVM activates both GABA-ergic neurons and nAChRs to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection- induced dysautonomia. Therefore, in this brief report, we try to identify the potential role of IVM in managing Covid-19-induced dysautonomia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Primary Dysautonomias , Humans , Animals , Bees , SARS-CoV-2 , Ivermectin , Hypoxia , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
5.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 123, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098309

ABSTRACT

The genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains many insertions/deletions (indels) from the genomes of other SARS-related coronaviruses. Some of the identified indels have recently reported to involve relatively long segments of 10-300 consecutive bases and with diverse RNA sequences around gaps between virus species, both of which are different characteristics from the classical shorter in-frame indels. These non-classical complex indels have been identified in non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), the S1 domain of the spike (S), and open reading frame 8 (ORF8). To determine whether the occurrence of these non-classical indels in specific genomic regions is ubiquitous among broad species of SARS-related coronaviruses in different animal hosts, the present study compared SARS-related coronaviruses from humans (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), bats (RaTG13 and Rc-o319), and pangolins (GX-P4L), by performing multiple sequence alignment. As a result, indel hotspots with diverse RNA sequences of different lengths between the viruses were confirmed in the Nsp2 gene (approximately 2500-2600 base positions in the overall 29,900 bases), Nsp3 gene (approximately 3000-3300 and 3800-3900 base positions), N-terminal domain of the spike protein (21,500-22,500 base positions), and ORF8 gene (27,800-28,200 base positions). Abnormally high rate of point mutations and complex indels in these regions suggest that the occurrence of mutations in these hotspots may be selectively neutral or even benefit the survival of the viruses. The presence of such indel hotspots has not been reported in different human SARS-CoV-2 strains in the last 2 years, suggesting a lower rate of indels in human SARS-CoV-2. Future studies to elucidate the mechanisms enabling the frequent development of long and complex indels in specific genomic regions of SARS-related coronaviruses would offer deeper insights into the process of viral evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , SARS Virus , Animals , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Phylogeny , COVID-19/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Pangolins
6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(11): e0105822, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097912

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been the cause of human pandemic infection since late 2019. SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals has also been reported both naturally and experimentally, rendering awareness about a potential source of infection for one health concern. Here, we describe an epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 639 cats and 224 dogs throughout multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks in Thailand. To indicate the potential source of infection, we performed SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing of samples obtained from pets and contacted humans, combined with in-depth interviews to support the epidemiological investigation. In the tested animals, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in 23 cases (19 cats and 4 dogs). Whole-genome sequencing of selected samples showed various SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, which included the original European lineage (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617), and Omicron (BA.2). Among SARS-CoV-2-positive pets, 34.78% had evidence of contact with infected humans. Together with genomic analysis and an overlapping timeline, we revealed evidence of viral transmission from infected humans as the primary source, which spread to household cats via an undefined mode of transmission and most likely circulated between cohoused cats and caretakers within the weeks before the investigation. The SARS-CoV-2 surface glycoprotein (spike gene) obtained from caretakers of individual cats contained sequence signatures found in the sequences of infected cats, indicating possible exposure to the virus excreted by cats. Although pet-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered relatively rare, our study provides suspected episodes of human infection from animals that were initially infected through contact with infected humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , RNA, Viral , Thailand/epidemiology
8.
Methods ; 203: 431-446, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096167

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are a global health problem affecting billions of people. Developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools is key for successful patient management and curbing disease spread. Currently available diagnostics are very specific and sensitive but time-consuming and require expensive laboratory settings and well-trained personnel; thus, they are not available in resource-limited areas, for the purposes of large-scale screenings and in case of outbreaks and epidemics. Developing new, rapid, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic assays is urgently needed. This review focuses on CRISPR-based technologies and their perspectives to become platforms for point-of-care nucleic acid detection methods and as deployable diagnostic platforms that could help to identify and curb outbreaks and emerging epidemics. We describe the mechanisms and function of different classes and types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including pros and cons for developing molecular diagnostic tests and applications of each type to detect a wide range of infectious agents. Many Cas proteins (Cas3, Cas9, Cas12, Cas13, Cas14 etc.) have been leveraged to create highly accurate and sensitive diagnostic tools combined with technologies of signal amplification and fluorescent, potentiometric, colorimetric, lateral flow assay detection and other. In particular, the most advanced platforms -- SHERLOCK/v2, DETECTR, CARMEN or CRISPR-Chip -- enable detection of attomolar amounts of pathogenic nucleic acids with specificity comparable to that of PCR but with minimal technical settings. Further developing CRISPR-based diagnostic tools promises to dramatically transform molecular diagnostics, making them easily affordable and accessible virtually anywhere in the world. The burden of socially significant diseases, frequent outbreaks, recent epidemics (MERS, SARS and the ongoing COVID-19) and outbreaks of zoonotic viruses (African Swine Fever Virus etc.) urgently need the developing and distribution of express-diagnostic tools. Recently devised CRISPR-technologies represent the unprecedented opportunity to reshape epidemiological surveillance and molecular diagnostics.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Swine
9.
OMICS ; 26(11): 586-588, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097272

ABSTRACT

In this perspective analysis, we strive to answer the following question: how can we advance integrative biology research in the 21st century with lessons from animal science? At the University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Animal Science, we share here our three lessons learned in the two decades from 2002 to 2022 that we believe could inform integrative biology, systems science, and animal science scholarship in other countries and geographies. Cultivating multiomics knowledge through a conceptual lens of integrative biology is crucial for life sciences research that can stand the test of diverse biological, clinical, and ecological contexts. Moreover, in an era of the current COVID-19 pandemic, animal nutrition and animal science, and the study of their interactions with human health (and vice versa) through integrative biology approaches hold enormous prospects and significance for systems medicine and ecosystem health.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , History, 21st Century , Ecosystem , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biology
10.
Nature ; 610(7933): S42-S44, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096648
11.
Immunity ; 55(11): 2103-2117.e10, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095502

ABSTRACT

The surface of the central nervous system (CNS) is protected by the meninges, which contain a dense network of meningeal macrophages (MMs). Here, we examined the role of tissue-resident MM in viral infection. MHC-II- MM were abundant neonatally, whereas MHC-II+ MM appeared over time. These barrier macrophages differentially responded to in vivo peripheral challenges such as LPS, SARS-CoV-2, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Peripheral LCMV infection, which was asymptomatic, led to a transient infection and activation of the meninges. Mice lacking macrophages but conserving brain microglia, or mice bearing macrophage-specific deletion of Stat1 or Ifnar, exhibited extensive viral spread into the CNS. Transcranial pharmacological depletion strategies targeting MM locally resulted in several areas of the meninges becoming infected and fatal meningitis. Low numbers of MHC-II+ MM, which is seen upon LPS challenge or in neonates, corelated with higher viral load upon infection. Thus, MMs protect against viral infection and may present targets for therapeutic manipulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Animals , Mice , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/physiology , Macrophages , Meninges
12.
13.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090288

ABSTRACT

Chemical investigation of the total extract of the Egyptian soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens, led to the isolation of eight compounds, including two new metabolites, sesquiterpene fusceterpene A (1) and a sterol fuscesterol A (4), along with six known compounds. The structures of 1-8 were elucidated via intensive studies of their 1D, 2D-NMR, and HR-MS analyses, as well as a comparison of their spectral data with those mentioned in the literature. Subsequent comprehensive in-silico-based investigations against almost all viral proteins, including those of the new variants, e.g., Omicron, revealed the most probable target for these isolated compounds, which was found to be Mpro. Additionally, the dynamic modes of interaction of the putatively active compounds were highlighted, depending on 50-ns-long MDS. In conclusion, the structural information provided in the current investigation highlights the antiviral potential of H. fuscescens metabolites with 3ß,5α,6ß-trihydroxy steroids with different nuclei against SARS-CoV-2, including newly widespread variants.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , COVID-19 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Anthozoa/chemistry , Sterols , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090286

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a kind of lung disease with acute dyspnea, pulmonary inflammation, respiratory distress, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accompanied by the mid- and end-stage characteristics of COVID-19, clinically. It is imperative to find non-toxic natural substances on preventing ALI and its complications. The animal experiments demonstrated that Lentinus edodes polysaccharides (PLE) had a potential role in alleviating ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which was manifested by reducing the levels of serum lung injury indicators (C3, hs-CRP, and GGT), reducing the levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6), and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) in the lung. Furthermore, PLE had the typical characteristics of pyran-type linked by ß-type glycosidic linkages. The conclusions indicated that PLE could be used as functional foods and natural drugs in preventing ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Shiitake Mushrooms , Animals , Oxidative Stress , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Lung , Lipopolysaccharides
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090211

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Arteriviridae. The Gp5/M dimer, the major component of the viral envelope, is required for virus budding and is an antibody target. We used alphafold2, an artificial-intelligence-based system, to predict a credible structure of Gp5/M. The short disulfide-linked ectodomains lie flat on the membrane, with the exception of the erected N-terminal helix of Gp5, which contains the antibody epitopes and a hypervariable region with a changing number of carbohydrates. The core of the dimer consists of six curved and tilted transmembrane helices, and three are from each protein. The third transmembrane regions extend into the cytoplasm as amphiphilic helices containing the acylation sites. The endodomains of Gp5 and M are composed of seven ß-strands from each protein, which interact via ß-strand seven. The area under the membrane forms an open cavity with a positive surface charge. The M and Orf3a proteins of coronaviruses have a similar structure, suggesting that all four proteins are derived from the same ancestral gene. Orf3a, like Gp5/M, is acylated at membrane-proximal cysteines. The role of Gp5/M during virus replication is discussed, in particular the mechanisms of virus budding and models of antibody-dependent virus neutralization.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Swine , Animals , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Epitopes , Virus Replication
16.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(2 Suppl 1): e3-e14, 2022 02.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089544

ABSTRACT

Razionale. In Italia la pandemia COVID-19 ha determinato importanti riorganizzazioni logistiche nell'erogazione delle cure ospedaliere e di specialistica ambulatoriale. Ciò ha spinto clinici e decisori pubblico-amministrativi della Sanità ad adottare nuovi modelli organizzativi in molteplici scenari clinici. Materiali e metodi. Il registro OIBOH (Optimal Intensification therapy in a Broad Observed High risk patient population with coronary disease) è uno studio osservazionale "cross-sectional" condotto in vari centri italiani di cardiologia ambulatoriale per valutare durante la pandemia COVID-19 la capacità di identificare in breve tempo i pazienti ad altissimo rischio cardiovascolare residuo dopo un evento coronarico recente (<12 mesi). Successivamente alla valutazione clinica iniziale, venivano arruolati i pazienti ritenuti ad altissimo rischio, registrando le caratteristiche cliniche e di trattamento in una scheda di raccolta dati elettronica.Risultati. Al registro hanno partecipato 134 centri di cardiologia ambulatoriale che hanno arruolato 1428 pazienti su 3227 esaminati fra quelli che avevano avuto accesso ad una visita cardiologica durante la pandemia nel periodo ottobre 2020-marzo 2021. Il criterio di arruolamento era costituito dall'aver avuto una diagnosi di coronaropatia confermata angiograficamente negli ultimi 12 mesi, per sindrome coronarica acuta (SCA) o cronica (SCC). La SCA come evento indice era presente nel 93% dei pazienti arruolati mentre la SCC nel 7%. L'età media era 67 ± 10 anni, il 25% era di sesso femminile. Il 96.1% dei pazienti con SCA e il 67.6% dei pazienti con SCC sono stati sottoposti a rivascolarizzazione coronarica. Il 46% e 47% dei pazienti con SCA e SCC, rispettivamente, era diabetico. Oltre il 65% dei pazienti presentava una malattia coronarica multivasale. È stata osservata una importante prevalenza di arteriopatia periferica (17.5% nei pazienti con SCA e 19.6% nei pazienti con SCC). I valori di pressione arteriosa e frequenza cardiaca risultavano ben controllati (128 ± 25.2 mmHg e 65 ± 12.3 b/min nei pazienti con SCA; 127 ± 23.4 mmHg e 67 ± 13.2 b/min nei pazienti con SCC). Viceversa, è stato riportato uno scarso controllo dei livelli di colesterolemia LDL, con un valore medio di 88.8 ± 38.6 mg/dl nei pazienti con SCA e 86 ± 36.6 mg/dl nei pazienti con SCC. Solo il 16.4% dei pazienti con SCA raggiungeva i livelli raccomandati dalle attuali linee guida europee. Nonostante l'estensivo uso di statine (>90%), si è rilevato un utilizzo limitato dell'associazione statina ad alta intensità + ezetimibe (solo il 22.4% dei pazienti). Estremamente basso è stato l'utilizzo di inibitori di PCSK9 (2.5%). La duplice terapia antiaggregante piastrinica (DAPT) è risultata complessivamente ben condotta fin dalla dimissione ospedaliera. Nei pazienti in DAPT, l'inibitore P2Y12 più utilizzato è risultato il ticagrelor alla dose di 90 mg, soprattutto dopo un evento coronarico acuto (in circa l'80% dei pazienti con SCA). Nella stragrande maggioranza dei casi (>90%) i cardiologi ambulatoriali hanno posto indicazione a prosecuzione della DAPT oltre i 12 mesi con aspirina e ticagrelor 60 mg bid. Conclusioni. La gestione del paziente con coronaropatia in fase cronica stabilizzata è molto complessa. Tale complessità logistico-gestionale si è accentuata durante la pandemia COVID-19. Il registro OIBOH ha evidenziato un'ottima capacità di identificare le problematiche clinico-prognostiche delle cardiologie ambulatoriali italiane, specie nei pazienti ad altissimo rischio residuo. Rimangono importanti aree di miglioramento come uno stretto controllo della colesterolemia LDL, mentre altre raccomandazioni delle linee guida, come la prosecuzione della DAPT con ticagrelor 60 mg oltre i 12 mesi, risultano ben applicate. L'implementazione dell'assistenza con la medicina digitale e l'intelligenza artificiale potrebbe migliorare di molto la performance dei clinici.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Animals , Bees , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Registries , Secondary Prevention
17.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 258(3): 167-175, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089530

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been rapidly increasing worldwide. We have developed a novel angiogenic therapy with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), which is effective and safe in animal models of AD and vascular dementia. We performed two trials of LIPUS therapy for AD (mild cognitive impairment due to AD and mild AD); a roll-in open trial for safety, and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (RCT) trial for efficacy and safety. The LIPUS therapy was performed for whole brain through the bilateral temporal bones for one hour 3 times a week as one session under the special conditions (1.3 MPa, 32 cycles, 5% duty cycle) we identified. The LIPUS therapy was performed for one session in the roll-in trial, and 6 sessions in the RCT trial with 3-month intervals for 1.5 years. The primary endpoint was ADAS-J cog scores. The RCT trial was terminated prematurely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the roll-in trial (N = 5), no adverse effects were noted. In the RCT trial (N = 22), the worsening of ADAS-J cog scores tended to be suppressed in the LIPUS group compared with the placebo group at week 72 (P = 0.257). When responders were defined as those with no worsening of ADAS-J cog scores at week 72, the prevalence was 50% (5/10) and 0% (0/5) in the LIPUS and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.053). No adverse effects were noted. These results suggest that the LIPUS therapy is safe and tends to suppress cognitive impairment although a next pivotal trial with a large number of subjects is warranted.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Pilot Projects , Pandemics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonic Waves
18.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 33(6): 727-733, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089488

ABSTRACT

Idiotype-based therapeutics have failed to deliver their promise, necessitating rethinking of the concept and its potential to develop a viable immunotherapy method. The idiotype based hypothesis is discussed in this paper in order to produce effective anti-idiotype vaccinations. Polyclonal anti-idiotype reagents have been shown to be more successful in animal models, and a better understanding of the immune response in humans supports the idea that polyclonal anti-idiotype vaccines will be more effective than monoclonal-based anti-idiotype vaccines. This innovative approach can be used to produce therapeutic antibodies in a Biotech-standard manner. The idiotype network has been tweaked in the lab to provide protection against a variety of microbiological diseases. Antibodies to image-idiotype antigens, both internal and non-internal, can elicit unique immune responses to antigens. The current outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-2) has presented a fantastic chance to use idiotype/anti-idiotype antibodies as a protective regimen, which might be used to treat COVID-19 patients. The development of various effective vaccinations has been crucial in the pandemic's management, but their effectiveness has been limited. In certain healthy people, the development of viral variations and vaccinations can be linked to rare off-target or hazardous effects, such as allergic responses, myocarditis and immune-mediated thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. Many of these occurrences are most likely immune-mediated. The current analysis reveals successful idiotype/anti-idiotype antibody uses in a variety of viral illnesses, emphazising their importance in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin Idiotypes , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/therapeutic use
19.
Science ; 376(6590): eabi9591, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088383

ABSTRACT

In this work, we find that CD8+ T cells expressing inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the human equivalent of Ly49+CD8+ regulatory T cells in mice and are increased in the blood and inflamed tissues of patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells efficiently eliminated pathogenic gliadin-specific CD4+ T cells from the leukocytes of celiac disease patients in vitro. We also find elevated levels of KIR+CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ regulatory T cells, in COVID-19 patients, correlating with disease severity and vasculitis. Selective ablation of Ly49+CD8+ T cells in virus-infected mice led to autoimmunity after infection. Our results indicate that in both species, these regulatory CD8+ T cells act specifically to suppress pathogenic T cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Mice , Receptors, KIR , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2724-2734, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087655

ABSTRACT

The development of safe and effective vaccines to respond to COVID-19 pandemic/endemic remains a priority. We developed a novel subunit protein-peptide COVID-19 vaccine candidate (UB-612) composed of: (i) receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused to a modified single-chain human IgG1 Fc; (ii) five synthetic peptides incorporating conserved helper and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (Th/CTL) epitopes derived from SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins (three from S2 subunit, one from membrane and one from nucleocapsid), and one universal Th peptide; (iii) aluminum phosphate as adjuvant. The immunogenicity and protective immunity induced by UB-612 vaccine were evaluated in four animal models: Sprague-Dawley rats, AAV-hACE2 transduced BALB/c mice, rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. UB-612 vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses, in all animals. The immune sera from vaccinated animals neutralized the SARS-CoV-2 original wild-type strains and multiple variants of concern, including Delta and Omicron. The vaccination significantly reduced viral loads, lung pathology scores, and disease progression after intranasal and intratracheal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in mice, rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. UB-612 has been tested in primary regimens in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies and is currently being evaluated in a global pivotal Phase 3 clinical study as a single dose heterologous booster.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Rats , Mice , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macaca mulatta , Antibodies, Viral
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