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1.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 32(6): 572-582, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is highlighting the most recent evidence on the clinical efficacy and toxicity of antimalarials in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: New data confirm the effects of antimalarials in preventing SLE activity, damage and infections and in decreasing mortality. An important reduction in use of health resources is related to continued antimalarial use. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prevent preeclampsia in pregnant women with SLE. HCQ ocular toxicity is infrequent and could be associated with blood levels. Gastrointestinal and skin toxicity are underrecognized and could influence adherence. Prolongation of QT interval is extremely unusual with HCQ. Doses of HCQ of 200 mg/day seem to offer a good efficacy/toxicity balance. HCQ protection against herpes zoster and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection has been shown. On the contrary, HCQ prescription by doctors and adherence by patients are both under recommended standards. The recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in a significant shortage of HCQ in many countries with possible consequences in the correct treatment of lupus patients. SUMMARY: Recent evidence reinforces the central role of HCQ in SLE therapy. The reduction in activity, damage accrual and mortality is consistent across studies, countries and ethnical groups. On the contrary, and despite the well established beneficial effects of prolonged regular HCQ therapy, many SLE patients do never take this drug or it is eventually stopped in the setting of severe flares, pregnancy or presumed toxicity. Every effort must be made to assure the correct prescription of HCQ and not to withdraw the drug unless unequivocal signs of toxicity are present.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 668, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uganda accounts for 5% of all malaria cases and deaths reported globally and, in endemic countries, pregnancy is a risk factor for both acquisition of P. falciparum infection and development of severe malaria. In recent years, malaria control has been threatened by COVID-19 pandemic and by the emergence, in Northern Uganda, of both resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. METHODS: In this facility-based, prospective, observational study, pregnant women will be recruited at antenatal-care visits and followed-up until delivery. Collected data will explore the incidence of asymptomatic parasitemia and malaria-related outcomes, as well as the attitudes towards malaria prevention, administration of intermittent preventive treatment, healthcare seeking behavior and use of insecticide-treated nets. A subpopulation of women diagnosed with malaria will be recruited and their blood samples will be analyzed for detection of genetic markers of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Also, to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on malaria care among pregnant women, a retrospective, interrupted-time series will be conducted on at the study sites for the period January 2018 to December 2021. DISCUSSION: The present study will explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of malaria and malaria-related adverse outcomes, along with the prevalence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. To our knowledge, this is the first study aiming to explore the combined effect of these factors on a cohort of pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov public website on 26th April, 2022. CLINICALTRIALS: gov Identifier: NCT05348746.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Pyrimethamine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sulfadoxine/therapeutic use , Uganda/epidemiology
5.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(3): 330-336, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess readiness among primary public health facilities in Kenya to provide pre-referral antimalarials for severe malaria. METHODS: Nine national surveys of randomly selected primary public health facilities undertaken bi-annually between 2017 and 2021 were analysed. The outcomes included the availability of pre-referral antimalarial drugs at the health facilities and health worker knowledge of recommended pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. RESULTS: A total of 1540 health workers from 1355 health facilities were interviewed. Injectable artesunate was available at 46%, injectable quinine at 7%, and artemether at 3% of the health facilities. None of the facilities had rectal artesunate suppositories in stock. A total of 960 (62%) health workers were trained on the use of injectable artesunate. 73% of the health workers who had ever referred a child with severe malaria were aware that artesunate was the recommended treatment, 49% said that intramuscular injection was the preferred route of administration, and 60% stated the correct dose. The overall knowledge level of the treatment policy was low at 21% and only slightly higher among trained than untrained health workers (24% vs 14%; p < 0.001) and those with access to guidelines versus those without access (29% vs 17%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The readiness of primary health facilities and health workers to deliver appropriate pre-referral care to children with complicated malaria in Kenya is inadequate. Further investments are required to ensure (a) availability of nationally recommended pre-referral antimalarials; (b) appropriate training and supervision in their administration, and (c) monitoring of the entire referral process.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Kenya , Malaria/drug therapy , Public Health , Referral and Consultation
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): e171-e175, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926993

ABSTRACT

The countries of the Greater Mekong subregion-Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam-have set a target of eliminating all Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Generous funding has been provided, principally by The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, to achieve this objective and thereby prevent the spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum to India and Africa. As the remaining time to reach agreed targets is limited and future external funding is uncertain, it is important to be realistic about the future and spend what remaining funding is left, wisely. New, labour intensive, vertical approaches to malaria elimination (such as the 1-3-7 approach) should not be promoted as these are unproven, likely to be ineffective, costly, and unlikely to be sustainable in the most remote areas where malaria prevalence is highest. Instead, the focus should be on reducing the malaria burden more rapidly in the remaining localised high transmission foci with proven effective interventions, including mass drug administration. Well supported community-based health workers are the key operatives in controlling malaria, but their remit should be broadened to sustain the uptake of their services as malaria declines. This strategy is a sustainable evolution, which will improve rural health care while ensuring progress towards malaria elimination.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Mass Drug Administration , Plasmodium falciparum
8.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154259, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Artesunate, as a semi-synthetic artemisinin derivative of sesquiterpene lactone, is widely used in clinical antimalarial treatment due to its endoperoxide group. Recent studies have found that artesunate may have multiple pharmacological effects, indicating its significant therapeutic potential in multiple respiratory diseases. PURPOSE: This review aims to summarize proven and potential therapeutic effects of artesunate in common respiratory disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This review summarizes the pharmacological properties of artesunate and then interprets the function of artesunate in various respiratory diseases in detail, such as bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung injury, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, coronavirus disease 2019, etc., on different target cells and receptors according to completed and ongoing in silico, in vitro, and in vivo studies (including clinical trials). METHODS: Literature was searched in electronic databases, including Pubmed, Web of Science and CNKI with the primary keywords of 'artesunate', 'pharmacology', 'pharmacokinetics', 'respiratory disorders', 'lung', 'pulmonary', and secondary search terms of 'Artemisia annua L.', 'artemisinin', 'asthma', 'chronic obstructive lung disease', 'lung injury', 'lung cancer', 'pulmonary fibrosis', 'COVID-19' and 'virus' in English and Chinese. All experiments were included. Reviews and irrelevant studies to the therapeutic effects of artesunate on respiratory diseases were excluded. Information was sort out according to study design, subject, intervention, and outcome. RESULTS: Artesunate is promising to treat multiple common respiratory disorders via various mechanisms, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-hyperresponsiveness, anti-proliferation, airway remodeling reverse, induction of cell death, cell cycle arrest, etc. CONCLUSION: Artesunate has great potential to treat various respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Asthma , COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy
11.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911482

ABSTRACT

As the world desperately searches for ways to treat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a growing number of people are turning to herbal remedies. The Artemisia species, such as A. annua and A. afra, in particular, exhibit positive effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19 related symptoms. A. annua is a source of artemisinin, which is active against malaria, and also exhibits potential for other diseases. This has increased interest in artemisinin's potential for drug repurposing. Artemisinin-based combination therapies, so-called ACTs, have already been recognized as first-line treatments against malaria. Artemisia extract, as well as ACTs, have demonstrated inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. Artemisinin and its derivatives have also shown anti-inflammatory effects, including inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that plays a key role in the development of severe COVID-19. There is now sufficient evidence in the literature to suggest the effectiveness of Artemisia, its constituents and/or artemisinin derivatives, to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting its invasion, and replication, as well as reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and mitigating lung damage.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisia annua , Artemisia , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910484

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers are at high risk of being infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in health personnel exposed to patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled single center clinical trial. Included subjects were health care workers caring for severe COVID-19 patients. Main outcome was time to symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 127 subjects with a confirmed baseline negative RT-PCR SARS-CoV2 test were included in the trial. 62 assigned to HCQ and 65 to placebo. One subject (1.6%) in the HCQ group and 6 (9.2%) subjects in the placebo group developed COVID-19 (Log-Rank test p = 0.07). No severe COVID-19 cases were observed. The study was suspended because of a refusal to participate and losses to follow up after several trials reported lack of effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The effect size of hydroxychloroquine was higher than placebo for COVID-19 symptomatic infection in health personnel, although this was not statistically significant. The trial is underpowered due to the failure to complete the estimated sample size.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Double-Blind Method , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Placebo Effect , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896052

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Children who receive prereferral rectal artesunate (RAS) require urgent referral to a health facility where appropriate treatment for severe malaria can be provided. However, the rapid improvement of a child's condition after RAS administration may influence a caregiver's decision to follow this recommendation. Currently, the evidence on the effect of RAS on referral completion is limited. METHODS: An observational study accompanied the roll-out of RAS in three malaria endemic settings in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Community health workers and primary health centres enrolled children under 5 years with suspected severe malaria before and after the roll-out of RAS. All children were followed up 28 days after enrolment to assess their treatment-seeking pathways. RESULTS: Referral completion was 67% (1408/2104) in DRC, 48% (287/600) in Nigeria and 58% (2170/3745) in Uganda. In DRC and Uganda, RAS users were less likely to complete referral than RAS non-users in the pre-roll-out phase (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.77 and aOR=0.72, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.88, respectively). Among children seeking care from a primary health centre in Nigeria, RAS users were less likely to complete referral compared with RAS non-users in the post-roll-out phase (aOR=0.18, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.71). In Uganda, among children who completed referral, RAS users were significantly more likely to complete referral on time than RAS non-users enrolled in the pre-roll-out phase (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.79). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study raise legitimate concerns that the roll-out of RAS may lead to lower referral completion in children who were administered prereferral RAS. To ensure that community-based programmes are effectively implemented, barriers to referral completion need to be addressed at all levels. Alternative effective treatment options should be provided to children unable to complete referral. TRIAL REGISTRSTION NUMBER: NCT03568344; ClinicalTrials.gov.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Uganda/epidemiology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892893

ABSTRACT

Malaria is an infectious disease and a serious public health problem in the world, with 3.3 billion people in endemic areas in 100 countries and about 200 million new cases each year, resulting in almost 1 million deaths in 2018. Although studies look for strategies to eradicate malaria, it is necessary to know more about its pathophysiology to understand the underlying mechanisms involved, particularly the redox balance, to guarantee success in combating this disease. In this review, we addressed the involvement of oxidative stress in malaria and the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation as an adjuvant antimalarial therapy.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress
16.
Malar J ; 21(1): 175, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The collection and utilization of surveillance data is essential in monitoring progress towards achieving malaria elimination, in the timely response to increases in malaria case numbers and in the assessment of programme functioning. This paper describes the surveillance activities used by the malaria elimination task force (METF) programme which operates in eastern Myanmar, and provides an analysis of data collected from weekly surveillance, case investigations, and monitoring and evaluation of programme performance. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted using data collected from a network of 1250 malaria posts operational between 2014 and 2021. To investigate changes in data completeness, malaria post performance, malaria case numbers, and the demographic details of malaria cases, summary statistics were used to compare data collected over space and time. RESULTS: In the first 3 years of the METF programme, improvements in data transmission routes resulted in a 18.9% reduction in late reporting, allowing for near real-time analysis of data collected at the malaria posts. In 2020, travel restrictions were in place across Karen State in response to COVID-19, and from February 2021 the military coup in Myanmar resulted in widescale population displacement. However, over that period there has been no decline in malaria post attendance, and the majority of consultations continue to occur within 48 h of fever onset. Case investigations found that 43.8% of cases travelled away from their resident village in the 3 weeks prior to diagnosis and 36.3% reported never using a bed net whilst sleeping in their resident village, which increased to 72.2% when sleeping away from their resident village. Malaria post assessments performed in 82.3% of the METF malaria posts found malaria posts generally performed to a high standard. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance data collected by the METF programme demonstrate that despite significant changes in the context in which the programme operates, malaria posts have remained accessible and continue to provide early diagnosis and treatment contributing to an 89.3% decrease in Plasmodium falciparum incidence between 2014 and 2021.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Myanmar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 45, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793808

ABSTRACT

Prompt and precise diagnosis of patients is an essential component of malaria control and elimination strategies, it is even more vital for the prevention of malaria re-establishment in the post elimination phase. After eliminating malaria in China, the strategy for prevention of malaria re-establishment was updated in a timely manner from the elimination strategy focusing on each case/focus to the prevention of re-establishment focusing on timely identification of the source of infection. However, there are numerous challenges, such as the persistent large number of imported malaria cases, the long-term threat of border malaria, unknown levels of asymptomatic infections and Plasmodium falciparum HRP2/3 gene deletions, and the continuous spreading of antimalarial drug resistance. Meanwhile, the detection capacity also need to be further improved to meet the timely detection of all sources of infection, otherwise it is bound to occur introduced malaria cases and malaria re-establishment in the presence of malaria vector mosquitoes. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously strengthen the malaria detection competency at all levels, promote the research and development on the malaria parasitological testing technologies, thus improving the timely detection of various sources of infection, and preventing the re-establishment of malaria.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Antimalarials , Malaria , Animals , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors
18.
Malar J ; 21(1): 121, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789122

ABSTRACT

Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases affecting predominantly low- and middle-income countries, where pregnant women are among the populations at risk. There are limited options to prevent or treat malaria in pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester, and existing ones may not work optimally in areas where the threat of drug resistance is rising. As malaria elimination is a key goal of the global health community, the inclusion of pregnant women in the adult population to protect from malaria will be key to achieving success. New, safe, and effective options are needed but it can take decades of evidence-gathering before a medicine is recommended for use in pregnancy. This is because pregnant women are typically not included in pre-registration clinical trials due to fear of causing harm. Data to support dosing and safety in pregnancy are subsequently collected in post-licensure studies. There have been growing calls in recent years that this practice needs to change, amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic and increasing public awareness that newly developed medicines generally cannot be administered to pregnant women from the onset. The development of new anti-malarials should ensure that data informing their use in pregnancy and breastfeeding are available earlier. To achieve this, a mindset change and a different approach to medications for pregnant women are needed. Changes in non-clinical, translational, and clinical approaches in the drug development pathway, in line with recent recommendations from the regulatory bodies are proposed in this Comment. The new approach applies to any malaria-endemic region, regardless of the type of Plasmodium responsible for malaria cases. By incorporating intentional and systematic data collection from pre-registration stages of development through post-licensure, it will be possible to inform on the benefit/risk balance of a new anti-malarial earlier and help ensure that the needs of pregnant individuals are addressed in a more timely and equitable manner in the future.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Adult , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Female , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
19.
OMICS ; 26(4): 179-188, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784298

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease, impacting multiple organs in the human body. But COVID-19 also impacts other diseases of relevance to public and planetary health. To understand and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, we need an intersectional conceptual lens and systems thinking. For example, the strain on health care systems due to COVID-19 has adversely impacted global malaria elimination programs. With many epidemiological, clinical, and biological parallels documented, we examined in this study the scenario of malaria and COVID-19 syndemic in India. The disruptive influence of COVID-19 on the National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME), impact of unintended chemoprophylaxis, population genetic influences, and the shifting patterns of epidemiology are compared. Importantly, a time series analysis forecasted the burden of malaria increasing in the upcoming years. Although reported malaria cases showed a decline in 2020 compared to the previous years, an increase in cases was documented in 2021, with nine states reporting an increase up to July 2021. Pandemics often cause crosscutting disruptions in health care. Reshaping the priorities of the malaria elimination program and a diligent implementation of the priorities in the NFME would, therefore, be well-advised: (1) vector control, (2) antimalarial therapy recommendations, (3) monitoring drug resistance, (4) prevention of the spread of asymptomatic disease-causing low-density transmission, and (5) large-scale testing measures. In conclusion, the findings from the present study inform future comparative studies in other world regions to better understand the broader, systemic, temporal, and spatial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on existing and future diseases across public health systems and services.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance
20.
Malar J ; 21(1): 103, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a WHO-recommended intervention for children aged 3-59 months living in areas of high malaria transmission to provide protection against malaria during the rainy season. Operational guidelines were developed, based on WHO guidance, to support countries to mitigate the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission within communities and among community distributors when delivering SMC. METHODS: A cross-sectional study to determine adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during two distribution cycles of SMC in Nigeria, Chad and Burkina Faso. Community distributors were observed receiving equipment and delivering SMC. Adherence across six domains was calculated as the proportion of indications in which the community distributor performed the correct action. Focus group discussions were conducted with community distributors to understand their perceptions of the IPC measures and barriers and facilitators to adherence. RESULTS: Data collectors observed community distributors in Nigeria (n = 259), Burkina Faso (n = 252) and Chad (n = 266) receiving IPC equipment and delivering SMC. Adherence to IPC indications varied. In all three countries, adherence to mask use was the highest (ranging from 73.3% in Nigeria to 86.9% in Burkina Faso). Adherence to hand hygiene for at least 30 s was low (ranging from 3.6% in Nigeria to 10.3% in Burkina Faso) but increased substantially when excluding the length of time spent hand washing (ranging from 36.7% in Nigeria to 61.4% in Burkina Faso). Adherence to safe distancing in the compound ranged from 5.4% in Chad to 16.4% in Nigeria. In Burkina Faso and Chad, where disinfection wipes widely available compliance with disinfection of blister packs for SMC was low (17.4% in Burkina Faso and 16.9% in Chad). Community distributors generally found the IPC measures acceptable, however there were barriers to optimal hand hygiene practices, cultural norms made social distancing difficult to adhere to and caregivers needed assistance to administer the first dose of SMC. CONCLUSION: Adherence to IPC measures for SMC delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic varied across domains of IPC, but was largely insufficient, particularly for hand hygiene and safe distancing. Improvements in provision of protective equipment, early community engagement and adaptations to make IPC measures more feasible to implement could increase adherence.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chad , Chemoprevention , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Malaria/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons
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