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4.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154324, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 highly caused contagious infections and massive deaths worldwide as well as unprecedentedly disrupting global economies and societies, and the urgent development of new antiviral medications are required. Medicinal herbs are promising resources for the discovery of prophylactic candidate against COVID-19. Considerable amounts of experimental efforts have been made on vaccines and direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), but neither of them was fast and fully developed. PURPOSE: This study examined the computational approaches that have played a significant role in drug discovery and development against COVID-19, and these computational methods and tools will be helpful for the discovery of lead compounds from phytochemicals and understanding the molecular mechanism of action of TCM in the prevention and control of the other diseases. METHODS: A search conducting in scientific databases (PubMed, Science Direct, ResearchGate, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) found a total of 2172 articles, which were retrieved via web interface of the following websites. After applying some inclusion and exclusion criteria and full-text screening, only 292 articles were collected as eligible articles. RESULTS: In this review, we highlight three main categories of computational approaches including structure-based, knowledge-mining (artificial intelligence) and network-based approaches. The most commonly used database, molecular docking tool, and MD simulation software include TCMSP, AutoDock Vina, and GROMACS, respectively. Network-based approaches were mainly provided to help readers understanding the complex mechanisms of multiple TCM ingredients, targets, diseases, and networks. CONCLUSION: Computational approaches have been broadly applied to the research of phytochemicals and TCM against COVID-19, and played a significant role in drug discovery and development in terms of the financial and time saving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
5.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104132, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human seasonal coronaviruses usually cause mild upper-respiratory tract infection, but severe complications can occur in specific populations. Research into seasonal coronaviruses is limited and robust experimental models are largely lacking. This study aims to establish human airway organoids (hAOs)-based systems for seasonal coronavirus infection and to demonstrate their applications in studying virus-host interactions and therapeutic development. METHODS: The infections of seasonal coronaviruses 229E, OC43 and NL63 in 3D cultured hAOs with undifferentiated or differentiated phenotypes were tested. The kinetics of virus replication and production was profiled at 33 °C and 37 °C. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing was performed in hAOs under various conditions. The antiviral activity of molnupiravir and remdesivir, two approved medications for treating COVID19, was tested. FINDINGS: HAOs efficiently support the replication and infectious virus production of seasonal coronaviruses 229E, OC43 and NL63. Interestingly, seasonal coronaviruses replicate much more efficiently at 33 °C compared to 37 °C, resulting in over 10-fold higher levels of viral replication. Genome-wide transcriptomic analyses revealed distinct patterns of infection-triggered host responses at 33 °C compared to 37 °C temperature. Treatment of molnupiravir and remdesivir dose-dependently inhibited the replication of 229E, OC43 and NL63 in hAOs. INTERPRETATION: HAOs are capable of modeling 229E, OC43 and NL63 infections. The intriguing finding that lower temperature resembling that in the upper respiratory tract favors viral replication may help to better understand the pathogenesis and transmissibility of seasonal coronaviruses. HAOs-based innovative models shall facilitate the research and therapeutic development against seasonal coronavirus infections. FUNDING: This research is supported by funding of a VIDI grant (No. 91719300) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and the Dutch Cancer Society Young Investigator Grant (10140) to Q.P., and the ZonMw COVID project (114025011) from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development to R.R.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Humans , Organoids/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Seasons
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 949413, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993792

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs) are a group of cytokines with antiviral, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and immunomodulatory activities. Type I IFNs amplify and propagate the antiviral response by interacting with their receptors, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. In COVID-19, the IFNAR2 (interferon alpha and beta receptor subunit 2) gene has been associated with the severity of the disease, but the soluble receptor (sIFNAR2) levels have not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the association of IFNAR2 variants (rs2236757, rs1051393, rs3153, rs2834158, and rs2229207) with COVID-19 mortality and to assess if there was a relation between the genetic variants and/or the clinical outcome, with the levels of sIFNAR2 in plasma samples from hospitalized individuals with severe COVID-19. We included 1,202 subjects with severe COVID-19. The genetic variants were determined by employing Taqman® assays. The levels of sIFNAR2 were determined with ELISA in plasma samples from a subgroup of 351 individuals. The rs2236757, rs3153, rs1051393, and rs2834158 variants were associated with mortality risk among patients with severe COVID-19. Higher levels of sIFNAR2 were observed in survivors of COVID-19 compared to the group of non-survivors, which was not related to the studied IFNAR2 genetic variants. IFNAR2, both gene, and soluble protein, are relevant in the clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272518, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993489

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Since 2014, the Swiss Hepatitis Strategy (SHS) has targeted the elimination of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Switzerland. The epidemiology of HCV is diverse across Swiss cantons, therefore cantonal-level screening and treatment strategies should be developed. This study aimed to identify scenarios to achieve HCV elimination in the canton of Bern by 2030. METHODS: A preexisting Markov disease burden model was populated with data for Bern, and used to forecast the current and future prevalence of HCV, annual liver-related deaths (LRDs), and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis until 2030. Scenarios were developed to assess the current standard of care and potential long-term impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the HCV infected population. Additionally, potential scenarios for achieving the WHO 2030 targets and the SHS 2025 and 2030 targets (reduction of new cases of HCV, HCV-related mortality and viremic HCV cases) were identified. RESULTS: In 2019, there were an estimated 4,600 (95% UI: 3,330-4,940) viremic infections in the canton of Bern and 57% (n = 2,600) of viremic cases were diagnosed. This modelling forecasted a 10% increase in LRDs (28 in 2020 to 31 in 2030) with the current standard of care and a 50% increase in LRDs in a scenario assuming long-term delays. To achieve the WHO and SHS targets, the canton of Bern needs to increase the annual number of patients diagnosed (from 90 in 2019 to 250 per year in 2022-2024 [WHO], or 500 per year in 2022-2025 [SHS]) and treated (from 130 in 2019 to 340 per year in 2022-2024 [WHO] or 670 per year in 2022-2025 [SHS]). CONCLUSIONS: The SHS goals and the WHO targets for HCV elimination can be achieved in the Swiss canton of Bern by 2030; however, not at the current pace of screening, linkage to care and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Goals , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 808, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991682

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 6 million lives and continues to test the world economy and healthcare systems. To combat this pandemic, the biological research community has shifted efforts to the development of medical countermeasures, including vaccines and therapeutics. However, to date, the only small molecules approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in the United States are the nucleoside analogue Remdesivir and the protease inhibitor Paxlovid, though multiple compounds have received Emergency Use Authorization and many more are currently being tested in human efficacy trials. One such compound, Apilimod, is being considered as a COVID-19 therapeutic in a Phase II efficacy trial. However, at the time of writing, there are no published efficacy data in human trials or animal COVID-19 models. Here we show that, while Apilimod and other PIKfyve inhibitors have potent antiviral activity in various cell lines against multiple human coronaviruses, these compounds worsen disease in a COVID-19 murine model when given prophylactically or therapeutically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 810, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991681

ABSTRACT

There is a critical need for physiologically relevant, robust, and ready-to-use in vitro cellular assay platforms to rapidly model the infectivity of emerging viruses and develop new antiviral treatments. Here we describe the cellular complexity of human alveolar and tracheobronchial air liquid interface (ALI) tissue models during SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Our results showed that both SARS-CoV-2 and IAV effectively infect these ALI tissues, with SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting a slower replication peaking at later time-points compared to IAV. We detected tissue-specific chemokine and cytokine storms in response to viral infection, including well-defined biomarkers in severe SARS-CoV-2 and IAV infections such as CXCL10, IL-6, and IL-10. Our single-cell RNA sequencing analysis showed similar findings to that found in vivo for SARS-CoV-2 infection, including dampened IFN response, increased chemokine induction, and inhibition of MHC Class I presentation not observed for IAV infected tissues. Finally, we demonstrate the pharmacological validity of these ALI tissue models as antiviral drug screening assay platforms, with the potential to be easily adapted to include other cell types and increase the throughput to test relevant pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines , Epithelium , Humans , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Lung , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
11.
EBioMedicine ; 82: 104148, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To address the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, multiple clinical trials in humans were rapidly started, including those involving an oral treatment by nitazoxanide, despite no or limited pre-clinical evidence of antiviral efficacy. METHODS: In this work, we present a complete pre-clinical evaluation of the antiviral activity of nitazoxanide against SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: First, we confirmed the in vitro efficacy of nitazoxanide and tizoxanide (its active metabolite) against SARS-CoV-2. Then, we demonstrated nitazoxanide activity in a reconstructed bronchial human airway epithelium model. In a SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge model in hamsters, oral and intranasal treatment with nitazoxanide failed to impair viral replication in commonly affected organs. We hypothesized that this could be due to insufficient diffusion of the drug into organs of interest. Indeed, our pharmacokinetic study confirmed that concentrations of tizoxanide in organs of interest were always below the in vitro EC50. INTERPRETATION: These preclinical results suggest, if directly applicable to humans, that the standard formulation and dosage of nitazoxanide is not effective in providing antiviral therapy for Covid-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Fondation de France "call FLASH COVID-19", project TAMAC, by "Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale" through the REACTing (REsearch and ACTion targeting emerging infectious diseases), by REACTING/ANRS MIE under the agreement No. 21180 ('Activité des molécules antivirales dans le modèle hamster'), by European Virus Archive Global (EVA 213 GLOBAL) funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 871029 and DNDi under support by the Wellcome Trust Grant ref: 222489/Z/21/Z through the COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cricetinae , Humans , Nitro Compounds , Thiazoles
12.
JAMA ; 328(7): 612, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990317
13.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 34(1): 44-55, 2022.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988374

ABSTRACT

Repurposed drugs are important in resource-limited settings because the interventions are more rapidly available, have already been tested safely in other populations and are inexpensive. Repurposed drugs are an effective solution, especially for emerging diseases such as COVID-19. The REVOLUTIOn trial has the objective of evaluating three repurposed antiviral drugs, atazanavir, daclatasvir and sofosbuvir, already used for HIV- and hepatitis C virus-infected patients in a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive, multiarm, multistage study. The drugs will be tested simultaneously in a Phase II trial to first identify whether any of these drugs alone or in combination reduce the viral load. If they do, a Phase III trial will be initiated to investigate if these medications are capable of increasing the number of days free respiratory support. Participants must be hospitalized adults aged ≥ 18 years with initiation of symptoms ≤ 9 days and SpO2 ≤ 94% in room air or a need for supplemental oxygen to maintain an SpO2 > 94%. The expected total sample size ranges from 252 to 1,005 participants, depending on the number of stages that will be completed in the study. Hence, the protocol is described here in detail together with the statistical analysis plan. In conclusion, the REVOLUTIOn trial is designed to provide evidence on whether atazanavir, daclatasvir or sofosbuvir decrease the SARS-CoV-2 load in patients with COVID-19 and increase the number of days patients are free of respiratory support. In this protocol paper, we describe the rationale, design, and status of the trial. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04468087.


Os medicamentos reaproveitados são importantes em contextos de recursos limitados porque as intervenções estão mais rapidamente disponíveis, já foram testadas com segurança em outras populações e são, em geral, mais baratas. Os medicamentos reaproveitados são uma solução eficaz, especialmente para doenças emergentes, como a COVID-19. O estudo REVOLUTIOn visa avaliar três medicamentos antivirais reaproveitados: atazanavir, daclatasvir e sofosbuvir, já utilizados em pacientes infectados pelo HIV ou pelo vírus da hepatite C, em um estudo randomizado, controlado por placebo, adaptativo, multibraço e em múltiplos estágios. Os medicamentos serão testados simultaneamente em um ensaio de Fase II para primeiro identificar se algum deles, isoladamente ou em combinação, reduz a carga viral. Se reduzirem, será iniciado um estudo de Fase III para investigar se tais medicamentos são capazes de aumentar o número de dias sem suporte respiratório. Os participantes devem ser adultos hospitalizados com idade ≥ 18 anos com início dos sintomas ≤ 9 dias e saturação de oxigênio ≤ 94% em ar ambiente ou necessidade de oxigênio suplementar para manter saturação de oxigênio > 94%. O tamanho total esperado da amostra varia entre 252 e 1.005 participantes, dependendo do número de estágios que serão concluídos no estudo. Assim, o protocolo é aqui descrito em detalhes, juntamente do plano de análise estatística. Em conclusão, o estudo REVOLUTIOn foi concebido para fornecer evidências se o atazanavir, o daclatasvir ou o sofosbuvir reduzem a carga viral de SARS-CoV-2 em pacientes com COVID-19 e aumentam o número de dias em que os pacientes ficam sem suporte respiratório. Neste artigo de protocolo, descrevem-se a fundamentação, o desenho e a situação do ensaio. Identificador do ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04468087.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate , Brazil , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir , Treatment Outcome
14.
Curr Mol Med ; 22(9): 761-765, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987284

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is facing the emergence of a virus that causes pneumonia in humans, which has a higher probability of causing complications, including respiratory distress syndrome and death. The new coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV), which is currently known as SARS-CoV-2, is the cause of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, and appears to have been a zoonotic infection that has now adapted to humans. On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO), causing widespread panic worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is genetically similar to the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related (SARS) and shares many similarities with the disease features of influenza virus infection. Scientists around the world are racing towards the development of vaccines and antivirals for COVID-19. This review will provide an update of COVID-19, a brief review of the symptoms and route of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the reason why it is highly infectious, as well as the currently available treatments and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e045115, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated growing research on treatment options. We aim to provide an overview of the characteristics of studies evaluating COVID-19 treatment. DESIGN: Rapid scoping review DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase and biorxiv/medrxiv from inception to 15 May 2021. SETTING: Hospital and community care. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 patients of all ages. INTERVENTIONS: COVID-19 treatment. RESULTS: The literature search identified 616 relevant primary studies of which 188 were randomised controlled trials and 299 relevant evidence syntheses. The studies and evidence syntheses were conducted in 51 and 39 countries, respectively.Most studies enrolled patients admitted to acute care hospitals (84%), included on average 169 participants, with an average age of 60 years, study duration of 28 days, number of effect outcomes of four and number of harm outcomes of one. The most common primary outcome was death (32%).The included studies evaluated 214 treatment options. The most common treatments were tocilizumab (11%), hydroxychloroquine (9%) and convalescent plasma (7%). The most common therapeutic categories were non-steroidal immunosuppressants (18%), steroids (15%) and antivirals (14%). The most common therapeutic categories involving multiple drugs were antimalarials/antibiotics (16%), steroids/non-steroidal immunosuppressants (9%) and antimalarials/antivirals/antivirals (7%). The most common treatments evaluated in systematic reviews were hydroxychloroquine (11%), remdesivir (8%), tocilizumab (7%) and steroids (7%).The evaluated treatment was in favour 50% and 36% of the evaluations, according to the conclusion of the authors of primary studies and evidence syntheses, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This rapid scoping review characterised a growing body of comparative-effectiveness primary studies and evidence syntheses. The results suggest future studies should focus on children, elderly ≥65 years of age, patients with mild symptoms, outpatient treatment, multimechanism therapies, harms and active comparators. The results also suggest that future living evidence synthesis and network meta-analysis would provide additional information for decision-makers on managing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunosuppressive Agents , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 362: 110005, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982675
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 5051-5055, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981861

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 remains risky worldwide. We elucidate here that good IDM (isolation, disinfection, and maintenance of health) is powerful to reduce COVID-19 deaths based on the striking differences in COVID-19 case fatality rates among various scenarios. IDM means keeping COVID-19 cases away from each other and from other people, disinfecting their living environments, and maintaining their health through good nutrition, rest, and treatment of symptoms and pre-existing diseases (not through specific antiviral therapy). Good IDM could reduce COVID-19 deaths by more than 85% in 2020 and more than 99% in 2022. This is consistent with the fact that good IDM can minimize co-infections and maintain body functions and the fact that COVID-19 has become less pathogenic (this fact was supported with three novel data in this report). Although IDM has been frequently implemented worldwide to some degree, IDM has not been highlighted sufficiently. Good IDM is relative, nonspecific, flexible, and feasible in many countries, and can reduce deaths of some other relatively mild infectious diseases. IDM, vaccines, and antivirals aid each other to reduce COVID-19 deaths. The IDM concept and strategy can aid people to improve their health behavior and fight against COVID-19 and future pandemics worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979319

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of aprotinin combinations with selected antiviral-drugs treatment of influenza virus and coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection was studied in mice models of influenza pneumonia and COVID-19. The high efficacy of the combinations in reducing virus titer in lungs and body weight loss and in increasing the survival rate were demonstrated. This preclinical study can be considered a confirmatory step before introducing the combinations into clinical assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aprotinin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 683, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the development of safe and effective vaccines, effective treatments for COVID-19 disease are still urgently needed. Several antiviral drugs have shown to be effective in reducing progression of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: In the present work, we use an agent-based mathematical model to assess the potential population impact of the use of antiviral treatments in four countries with different demographic structure and current levels of vaccination coverage: Kenya, Mexico, United States (US) and Belgium. We analyzed antiviral effects on reducing hospitalization and death, and potential antiviral effects on reducing transmission. For each country, we varied daily treatment initiation rate (DTIR) and antiviral effect in reducing transmission (AVT). RESULTS: Irrespective of location and AVT, widespread antiviral treatment of symptomatic adult infections (20% DTIR) prevented the majority of COVID-19 deaths, and recruiting 6% of all adult symptomatic infections daily reduced mortality by over 20% in all countries. Furthermore, our model projected that targeting antiviral treatment to the oldest age group (65 years old and older, DTIR of 20%) can prevent over 30% of deaths. Our results suggest that early antiviral treatment (as soon as possible after inception of infection) is needed to mitigate transmission, preventing 50% more infections compared to late treatment (started 3 to 5 days after symptoms onset). Our results highlight the synergistic effect of vaccination and antiviral treatment: as the vaccination rate increases, antivirals have a larger relative impact on population transmission. Finally, our model projects that even in highly vaccinated populations, adding antiviral treatment can be extremely helpful to mitigate COVID-19 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that antiviral treatments can become a strategic tool that, in combination with vaccination, can significantly reduce COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths and can help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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