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1.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 32: e3234, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197535

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic evidenced a scenario of increased demands on health professionals that can lead to professional burnout. This study aimed to investigate Burnout Syndrome (BS) and associated factors in nursing professionals working in intensive care units (ICU) of the public service during the COVID-19 pandemic. 157 professionals were evaluated regarding sociodemographic, occupational and working conditions variables, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used. The prevalence of BS was 45.2%, with some professionals suffering from more than one factor of the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (28.7%), depersonalization (3.8%) and low professional fulfillment (24.8%). Logistic regression analysis in the final model showed that female gender, not having children, statutory bond, professionals who had COVID-19 and declared wanting to leave the ICU environment had a higher risk of BS. The results showed BS in nursing professionals and that new risk factors were added with the advent of the pandemic.


Resumo A pandemia de COVID-19 evidenciou um cenário de acréscimo de demandas aos profissionais de saúde que pode levar ao esgotamento profissional. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a Síndrome de Burnout (SB) e fatores associados em profissionais de enfermagem nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI) durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Foram avaliados 157 profissionais em relação às variáveis sociodemográficas, ocupacionais e condições de trabalho, e o Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) foi utilizado. A prevalência da SB foi de 45,2%, com alguns profissionais em mais de um fator da síndrome: exaustão emocional (28,7%), despersonalização (3,8%) e baixa realização profissional (24,8%). Análise de regressão logística no modelo final mostrou que o gênero feminino, não ter filhos, vínculo estatutário, profissionais que tiveram COVID-19 e que declararam querer sair do ambiente de UTI tiveram maior risco de presença da SB. Os resultados evidenciaram SB nos profissionais de enfermagem e que novos fatores de risco foram acrescidos com o advento da pandemia.


Resumen La pandemia de la COVID-19 evidenció un escenario de mayores exigencias a los profesionales de la salud que puede derivar en desgaste profesional. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el Síndrome de Burnout (BS) y factores asociados en los profesionales de enfermería en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) durante la pandemia. Los 157 profesionales fueron evaluados con relación a las variables sociodemográficas, ocupacionales y condiciones de trabajo, y se utilizó el Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). La prevalencia de SB fue del 45,2%, con algunos profesionales que sufren de más de un factor del síndrome: agotamiento emocional (28,7%), despersonalización (3,8%) y baja realización profesional (24,8%). El análisis de regresión logística mostró que el sexo femenino, no tener hijos, la relación laboral reglamentaria, los profesionales que contrajeron COVID-19 y que declararon querer salir del entorno de la UCI tuvieron un mayor riesgo de presencia de SB. Los resultados mostraron SB en profesionales de enfermería y que se agregaron nuevos factores de riesgo con el advenimiento de la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Burnout, Professional , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Nurse Practitioners , Nurses , Risk Factors , Pandemics
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(2): e28737, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of vaccines, the US incidence of new COVID-19 cases per day nearly doubled from the beginning of July to the end of August 2021, fueled largely by the rapid spread of the Delta variant. While the "Delta wave" appears to have peaked nationally, some states and municipalities continue to see elevated numbers of new cases. Vigilant surveillance including at a metropolitan level can help identify any reignition and validate continued and strong public health policy responses in problem localities. OBJECTIVE: This surveillance report aimed to provide up-to-date information for the 25 largest US metropolitan areas about the rapidity of descent in the number of new cases following the Delta wave peak, as well as any potential reignition of the pandemic associated with declining vaccine effectiveness over time, new variants, or other factors. METHODS: COVID-19 pandemic dynamics for the 25 largest US metropolitan areas were analyzed through September 19, 2021, using novel metrics of speed, acceleration, jerk, and 7-day persistence, calculated from the observed data on the cumulative number of cases as reported by USAFacts. Statistical analysis was conducted using dynamic panel data models estimated with the Arellano-Bond regression techniques. The results are presented in tabular and graphic forms for visual interpretation. RESULTS: On average, speed in the 25 largest US metropolitan areas declined from 34 new cases per day per 100,000 population, during the week ending August 15, 2021, to 29 new cases per day per 100,000 population, during the week ending September 19, 2021. This average masks important differences across metropolitan areas. For example, Miami's speed decreased from 105 for the week ending August 15, 2021, to 40 for the week ending September 19, 2021. Los Angeles, San Francisco, Riverside, and San Diego had decreasing speed over the sample period and ended with single-digit speeds for the week ending September 19, 2021. However, Boston, Washington DC, Detroit, Minneapolis, Denver, and Charlotte all had their highest speed of the sample during the week ending September 19, 2021. These cities, as well as Houston and Baltimore, had positive acceleration for the week ending September 19, 2021. CONCLUSIONS: There is great variation in epidemiological curves across US metropolitan areas, including increasing numbers of new cases in 8 of the largest 25 metropolitan areas for the week ending September 19, 2021. These trends, including the possibility of waning vaccine effectiveness and the emergence of resistant variants, strongly indicate the need for continued surveillance and perhaps a return to more restrictive public health guidelines for some areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e28265, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the limitations in the use of cycle threshold (CT) values for individual patient care, population distributions of CT values may be useful indicators of local outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct an exploratory analysis of potential correlations between the population distribution of cycle threshold (CT) values and COVID-19 dynamics, which were operationalized as percent positivity, transmission rate (Rt), and COVID-19 hospitalization count. METHODS: In total, 148,410 specimens collected between September 15, 2020, and January 11, 2021, from the greater El Paso area were processed in the Dascena COVID-19 Laboratory. The daily median CT value, daily Rt, daily count of COVID-19 hospitalizations, daily change in percent positivity, and rolling averages of these features were plotted over time. Two-way scatterplots and linear regression were used to evaluate possible associations between daily median CT values and outbreak measures. Cross-correlation plots were used to determine whether a time delay existed between changes in daily median CT values and measures of community disease dynamics. RESULTS: Daily median CT values negatively correlated with the daily Rt values (P<.001), the daily COVID-19 hospitalization counts (with a 33-day time delay; P<.001), and the daily changes in percent positivity among testing samples (P<.001). Despite visual trends suggesting time delays in the plots for median CT values and outbreak measures, a statistically significant delay was only detected between changes in median CT values and COVID-19 hospitalization counts (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the literature by analyzing samples collected from an entire geographical area and contextualizing the results with other research investigating population CT values.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas , Time Factors
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e27917, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States of America has the highest global number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, which may be due in part to delays and inconsistencies in implementing public health and social measures (PHSMs). OBJECTIVE: In this descriptive analysis, we analyzed the epidemiological evidence for the impact of PHSMs on COVID-19 transmission in the United States and compared these data to those for 10 other countries of varying income levels, population sizes, and geographies. METHODS: We compared PHSM implementation timing and stringency against COVID-19 daily case counts in the United States and against those in Canada, China, Ethiopia, Japan, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe from January 1 to November 25, 2020. We descriptively analyzed the impact of border closures, contact tracing, household confinement, mandated face masks, quarantine and isolation, school closures, limited gatherings, and states of emergency on COVID-19 case counts. We also compared the relationship between global socioeconomic indicators and national pandemic trajectories across the 11 countries. PHSMs and case count data were derived from various surveillance systems, including the Health Intervention Tracking for COVID-19 database, the World Health Organization PHSM database, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. RESULTS: Implementing a specific package of 4 PHSMs (quarantine and isolation, school closures, household confinement, and the limiting of social gatherings) early and stringently was observed to coincide with lower case counts and transmission durations in Vietnam, Zimbabwe, New Zealand, South Korea, Ethiopia, and Kazakhstan. In contrast, the United States implemented few PHSMs stringently or early and did not use this successful package. Across the 11 countries, national income positively correlated (r=0.624) with cumulative COVID-19 incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that early implementation, consistent execution, adequate duration, and high adherence to PHSMs represent key factors of reducing the spread of COVID-19. Although national income may be related to COVID-19 progression, a country's wealth appears to be less important in controlling the pandemic and more important in taking rapid, centralized, and consistent public health action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Factual , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Schools/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/organization & administration
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e27189, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, swab tests proved to be effective in containing the infection and served as a means for early diagnosis and contact tracing. However, little evidence exists regarding the correct timing for the execution of the swab test, especially for asymptomatic individuals and health care workers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze changes in the positive findings over time in individual SARS-CoV-2 swab tests during a health surveillance program. METHODS: The study was conducted with 2071 health care workers at the University Hospital of Verona, with a known date of close contact with a patient with COVID-19, between February 29 and April 17, 2020. The health care workers underwent a health surveillance program with repeated swab tests to track their virological status. A generalized additive mixed model was used to investigate how the probability of a positive test result changes over time since the last known date of close contact, in an overall sample of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 and in a subset of individuals with an initial negative swab test finding before being proven positive, to assess different surveillance time intervals. RESULTS: Among the 2071 health care workers in this study, 191 (9.2%) tested positive for COVID-19, and 103 (54%) were asymptomatic with no differences based on sex or age. Among 49 (25.7%) cases, the initial swab test yielded negative findings after close contact with a patient with COVID-19. Sex, age, symptoms, and the time of sampling were not different between individuals with an initial negative swab test finding and those who initially tested positive after close contact. In the overall sample, the estimated probability of testing positive was 0.74 on day 1 after close contact, which increased to 0.77 between days 5 and 8. In the 3 different scenarios for scheduled repeated testing intervals (3, 5, and 7 days) in the subgroup of individuals with an initially negative swab test finding, the probability peaked on the sixth, ninth and tenth, and 13th and 14th days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Swab tests can initially yield false-negative outcomes. The probability of testing positive increases from day 1, peaking between days 5 and 8 after close contact with a patient with COVID-19. Early testing, especially in this final time window, is recommended together with a health surveillance program scheduled in close intervals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e26784, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite recent achievements in vaccines, antiviral drugs, and medical infrastructure, the emergence of COVID-19 has posed a serious threat to humans worldwide. Most countries are well connected on a global scale, making it nearly impossible to implement perfect and prompt mitigation strategies for infectious disease outbreaks. In particular, due to the explosive growth of international travel, the complex network of human mobility enabled the rapid spread of COVID-19 globally. OBJECTIVE: South Korea was one of the earliest countries to be affected by COVID-19. In the absence of vaccines and treatments, South Korea has implemented and maintained stringent interventions, such as large-scale epidemiological investigations, rapid diagnosis, social distancing, and prompt clinical classification of severely ill patients with appropriate medical measures. In particular, South Korea has implemented effective airport screenings and quarantine measures. In this study, we aimed to assess the country-specific importation risk of COVID-19 and investigate its impact on the local transmission of COVID-19. METHODS: The country-specific importation risk of COVID-19 in South Korea was assessed. We investigated the relationships between country-specific imported cases, passenger numbers, and the severity of country-specific COVID-19 prevalence from January to October 2020. We assessed the country-specific risk by incorporating country-specific information. A renewal mathematical model was employed, considering both imported and local cases of COVID-19 in South Korea. Furthermore, we estimated the basic and effective reproduction numbers. RESULTS: The risk of importation from China was highest between January and February 2020, while that from North America (the United States and Canada) was high from April to October 2020. The R0 was estimated at 1.87 (95% CI 1.47-2.34), using the rate of α=0.07 for secondary transmission caused by imported cases. The Rt was estimated in South Korea and in both Seoul and Gyeonggi. CONCLUSIONS: A statistical model accounting for imported and locally transmitted cases was employed to estimate R0 and Rt. Our results indicated that the prompt implementation of airport screening measures (contact tracing with case isolation and quarantine) successfully reduced local transmission caused by imported cases despite passengers arriving from high-risk countries throughout the year. Moreover, various mitigation interventions, including social distancing and travel restrictions within South Korea, have been effectively implemented to reduce the spread of local cases in South Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26719, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient travel history can be crucial in evaluating evolving infectious disease events. Such information can be challenging to acquire in electronic health records, as it is often available only in unstructured text. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility of annotating and automatically extracting travel history mentions from unstructured clinical documents in the Department of Veterans Affairs across disparate health care facilities and among millions of patients. Information about travel exposure augments existing surveillance applications for increased preparedness in responding quickly to public health threats. METHODS: Clinical documents related to arboviral disease were annotated following selection using a semiautomated bootstrapping process. Using annotated instances as training data, models were developed to extract from unstructured clinical text any mention of affirmed travel locations outside of the continental United States. Automated text processing models were evaluated, involving machine learning and neural language models for extraction accuracy. RESULTS: Among 4584 annotated instances, 2659 (58%) contained an affirmed mention of travel history, while 347 (7.6%) were negated. Interannotator agreement resulted in a document-level Cohen kappa of 0.776. Automated text processing accuracy (F1 85.6, 95% CI 82.5-87.9) and computational burden were acceptable such that the system can provide a rapid screen for public health events. CONCLUSIONS: Automated extraction of patient travel history from clinical documents is feasible for enhanced passive surveillance public health systems. Without such a system, it would usually be necessary to manually review charts to identify recent travel or lack of travel, use an electronic health record that enforces travel history documentation, or ignore this potential source of information altogether. The development of this tool was initially motivated by emergent arboviral diseases. More recently, this system was used in the early phases of response to COVID-19 in the United States, although its utility was limited to a relatively brief window due to the rapid domestic spread of the virus. Such systems may aid future efforts to prevent and contain the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e25859, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed life in the United States, as the country has recorded over 23 million cases and 383,000 deaths to date. In the leadup to widespread vaccine deployment, testing and surveillance are critical for detecting and stopping possible routes of transmission. Contact tracing has become an important surveillance measure to control COVID-19 in the United States, and mobile health interventions have found increased prominence in this space. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the use and usability of MyCOVIDKey, a mobile-based web app to assist COVID-19 contact tracing efforts, during the 6-week pilot period. METHODS: A 6-week study was conducted on the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, Tennessee. The study participants, consisting primarily of graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and faculty in the Chemistry Department at Vanderbilt University, were asked to use the MyCOVIDKey web app during the course of the study period. Paradata were collected as users engaged with the MyCOVIDKey web app. At the end of the study, all participants were asked to report on their user experience in a survey, and the results were analyzed in the context of the user paradata. RESULTS: During the pilot period, 45 users enrolled in MyCOVIDKey. An analysis of their enrollment suggests that initial recruiting efforts were effective; however, participant recruitment and engagement efforts at the midpoint of the study were less effective. App use paralleled the number of users, indicating that incentives were useful for recruiting new users to sign up but did not result in users attempting to artificially inflate their use as a result of prize offers. Times to completion of key tasks were low, indicating that the main features of the app could be used quickly. Of the 45 users, 30 provided feedback through a postpilot survey, with 26 (58%) completing it in its entirety. The MyCOVIDKey app as a whole was rated 70.0 on the System Usability Scale, indicating that it performed above the accepted threshold for usability. When the key-in and self-assessment features were examined on their own, it was found that they individually crossed the same thresholds for acceptable usability but that the key-in feature had a higher margin for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The MyCOVIDKey app was found overall to be a useful tool for COVID-19 contact tracing in a university setting. Most users suggested simple-to-implement improvements, such as replacing the web app framework with a native app format or changing the placement of the scanner within the app workflow. After these updates, this tool could be readily deployed and easily adapted to other settings across the country. The need for digital contact tracing tools is becoming increasingly apparent, particularly as COVID-19 case numbers continue to increase while more businesses begin to reopen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e24251, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 transmission rates in South Asia initially were under control when governments implemented health policies aimed at controlling the pandemic such as quarantines, travel bans, and border, business, and school closures. Governments have since relaxed public health restrictions, which resulted in significant outbreaks, shifting the global epicenter of COVID-19 to India. Ongoing systematic public health surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic is needed to inform disease prevention policy to re-establish control over the pandemic within South Asia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to inform public health leaders about the state of the COVID-19 pandemic, how South Asia displays differences within and among countries and other global regions, and where immediate action is needed to control the outbreaks. METHODS: We extracted COVID-19 data spanning 62 days from public health registries and calculated traditional and enhanced surveillance metrics. We use an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in South Asia as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shifts in variables with a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: Traditional surveillance metrics indicate that South Asian countries have an alarming outbreak, with India leading the region with 310,310 new daily cases in accordance with the 7-day moving average. Enhanced surveillance indicates that while Pakistan and Bangladesh still have a high daily number of new COVID-19 cases (n=4819 and n=3878, respectively), their speed of new infections declined from April 12-25, 2021, from 2.28 to 2.18 and 3.15 to 2.35 daily new infections per 100,000 population, respectively, which suggests that their outbreaks are decreasing and that these countries are headed in the right direction. In contrast, India's speed of new infections per 100,000 population increased by 52% during the same period from 14.79 to 22.49 new cases per day per 100,000 population, which constitutes an increased outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Relaxation of public health restrictions and the spread of novel variants fueled the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Asia. Public health surveillance indicates that shifts in policy and the spread of new variants correlate with a drastic expansion in the pandemic, requiring immediate action to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Surveillance is needed to inform leaders whether policies help control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Health Polit Policy Law ; 47(2): 159-200, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196726

ABSTRACT

Data on the health and social determinants for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) in the United States are hidden, because data are often not collected or are reported in aggregate with other racial/ethnic groups despite decades of calls to disaggregate NHPI data. As a form of structural racism, data omissions contribute to systemic problems such as inability to advocate, lack of resources, and limitations on political power. The authors conducted a data audit to determine how US federal agencies are collecting and reporting disaggregated NHPI data. Using the COVID-19 pandemic as a case study, they reviewed how states are reporting NHPI cases and deaths. They then used California's neighborhood equity metric-the California Healthy Places Index (HPI)-to calculate the extent of NHPI underrepresentation in communities targeted for COVID-19 resources in that state. Their analysis shows that while collection and reporting of NHPI data nationally has improved, federal data gaps remain. States are vastly underreporting: more than half of states are not reporting NHPI COVID-19 case and death data. The HPI, used to inform political decisions about allocation of resources to combat COVID-19 in at-risk neighborhoods, underrepresents NHPIs. The authors make recommendations for improving NHPI data equity to achieve health equity and social justice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , United States
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27533, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191084

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Understanding the relationship between pain and physical activity (PA) levels is beneficial for maintaining good health status. However, the impact of pain on changes in PA during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether PA levels pre-, during, and post-COVID-19 state of emergency differ between Japanese adults who had pain after the COVID-19 state of emergency and those who did not.Data were collected from a cross-sectional online survey conducted between October 19 and 28, 2020. The analytic sample consisted of 1967 Japanese adults aged ≥40 years who completed the online survey. Participants completed questionnaires on the presence of pain and duration of PA, defined as the total PA time per week based on activity frequency and time. Participants were asked to report their PA at 3 time points: October 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), April 2020 (during the COVID-19 state of emergency), and October 2020 (after the COVID-19 state of emergency).Among participants aged ≥60 years who reported pain in October 2020, the total PA time was significantly lower than participants who did not report having pain. Furthermore, the total PA time in April 2020 was significantly lower than that in October 2019; however, no significant difference in total PA time was observed between April and October 2020. Among participants aged 40 to 59 years, no significant differences were observed in total PA times at the 3 time points between those with and without pain. In addition, the total PA time in October 2020 significantly increased compared to that in April 2020, although it significantly decreased in April 2020 compared to October 2019.This study suggests that older adults with pain have lower PA levels after the COVID-19 state of emergency.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Pain/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27423, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191078

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted almost all sectors of academic training and research, but the impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research mentoring has yet to be documented. We present the perspectives of diverse, experienced mentors in a range of HIV research disciplines on the impact of COVID-19 on mentoring the next generation of HIV researchers.In November to December, 2020, we used an online data collection platform to cross-sectionally query previously-trained HIV mentors on the challenges related to mentoring during the pandemic, surprising/positive aspects of mentoring in that context, and recommendations for other mentors. Data were coded and analyzed following a thematic analysis approach.Respondents (180 of 225 mentors invited [80% response]) reported challenges related to relationship building/maintenance, disruptions in mentees' training and research progress, and mentee and mentor distress, with particular concerns regarding mentees who are parents or from underrepresented minority backgrounds. Positive/surprising aspects included logistical ease of remote mentoring, the relationship-edifying result of the shared pandemic experience, mentee resilience and gratitude, and increased enjoyment of mentoring. Recommendations included practical tips, encouragement for patience and persistence, and prioritizing supporting mentees' and one's own mental well-being.Findings revealed gaps in HIV mentors' competencies, including the effective use of remote mentoring tools, how to work with mentees in times of distress, and the prioritization of mentor well-being. Mentors are in a unique position to identify and potentially address factors that may lead to mentees leaving their fields, especially parents and those from underrepresented backgrounds. We discuss implications beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mentoring/organization & administration , Research Personnel/education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Distance , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Professional Competence , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27105, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To assess the general Japanese population's thoughts on coronavirus disease of 2019 related discrimination by Tweets.Tweets were retrieved from search queries using the keywords "health care providers and discrimination (no hashtags)" and "corona and rural area (no hashtags)" via the Twitter application programming interface. Subsequently, a text-mining analysis was conducted on tokenized text data. R version 4.0.2 was used for the analysis.In total, 51,906 tweets for "corona and health care providers", 59,560 tweets for "corona and rural" were obtained between the search period of July 29, 2020 and September 30, 2020. The most common 20 words from the tokenized text data were translated to English. Word clouds with the original Japanese words are presented.Tweets for corona and health care providers did not suggest significant evidence of discrimination toward health care providers on Twitter. Results for corona and rural area, however, showed the unexpected word "murahachibu" (an outmoded word meaning ostracism), suggesting persistent strong social pressure to prevent bringing the disease to the community. This kind of pressure may not be supported by scientific facts. These results demonstrate the need for continued educational efforts to disseminate factual information to the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Mining , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27041, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191062

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To quantify the impact of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on the surgical volume of residents' medical practice in Costa Rica's General Surgery Residency Program.The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant disruption in people's lives. Health systems worldwide have been forced to adapt to the new normal, which has posed a challenge for medical residency programs, especially in the surgical field.This transversal study includes the surgical records of all residents of the General Surgery program who worked as main surgeons at the Mexico Hospital of the Costa Rican Social Security between December 23, 2019, and June 25, 2020.As main surgeons, a total of 10 residents performed 291 pre-pandemic surgeries and 241 pandemic surgeries.When comparing the distribution of procedures performed by residency levels, it is observed that the postgraduate year -2 increased the number of procedures performed during the pandemic period (pre-pandemic 19% vs pandemic 27%, P = .028). There was no statistically significant difference between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods in the remaining levels.When comparing the procedures by unit, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the Endocrine-Abdominal Wall Unit (pre-pandemic 18.3% vs pandemic 5.4%, P < .001). Conversely, a statistically significant increase was identified in Surgical Emergencies Unit procedures (40.0% vs post 51.7%, P = .007). No statistically significant differences were observed in the remaining the Units.The COVID-19 pandemic had no statistically significant effect on surgeries performed by residents of the General Surgery Residency Program as main surgeons in a national training center in Costa Rica. The Department's timely measures and pro-resident attitude were the key reasons for the above results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Costa Rica , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26933, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191058

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is presently unknown whether imported cases of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have different characteristics when compared with local cases. To compare the clinical characteristics of local cases of COVID-19 in China compared with those imported from abroad.This was a retrospective study of confirmed cases of COVID-19 admitted at the Beijing Ditan Fever Emergency Department between February 29th, 2020, and March 27th, 2020. The clinical characteristics of the patients were compared between local and imported cases.Compared with local cases, the imported cases were younger (27.3 ±â€Š11.7 vs. 43.6 ±â€Š22.2 years, P < .001), had a shorter interval from disease onset to admission (1.0 (0.0-2.0) vs 4.0 (2.0-7.0) days, P < .001), lower frequencies of case contact (17.4% vs 94.1%, P < .001), fever (39.1% vs 82.4%, P < .001), cough (33.3% vs 51.0%, P = .03), dyspnea (1.9% vs 11.8%, P = .01), fatigue (7.5% vs. 27.5%, P = 0.001), muscle ache (4.7% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.001), and comorbidities (P < .05). The imported cases were less severe than the local cases, with 40.4% versus 5.9% mild cases, 2.8% versus 15.7% severe cases, and no critical cases (P < .001). The length of hospital stay was longer in imported cases than in local cases (32.3 ±â€Š14.5 vs 21.7 ±â€Š11.2 days, P < .001). The imported cases showed smaller biochemical perturbations than the local cases. More imported cases had no sign of pneumonia at computed tomography (45.0% vs 14.9%, P = .001), and none had pleural effusion (0% vs 14.9%, P < .001).Compared with local cases, the imported cases of COVID-19 presented with milder disease and less extensive symptoms and signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26781, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191045

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted our clinical practice. Many gastroenterologists have changed their attitudes toward various gastroenterological clinical settings. The aim of the present study is to explore the gastroenterologist's attitudes in several clinical settings encountered in the clinical practice.An online based survey was completed by 101 of 250 Israeli gastroenterologists (40.5%).Most of the participants were males (76.2%), and most of them were in the age range of 40 to 50 (37.6%). For all questionnaire components, the 2 most common chosen options were "I perform endoscopy with N95 mask, gloves and gown protection in a standard endoscopy room without preendoscopy severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing" and "Tend to postpone endoscopy until SARS-CoV-2 test is performed because of fear from being infected, or virus spreading in the endoscopy suite." Notably, 12 (11.9%) gastroenterologists were infected by Coronavirus disease 2019 during their work. Classifying the clinical settings to either elective and non-elective, most gastroenterologists (77.4%) chose the attitude of "I perform endoscopy with N95 mask, gloves and gown protection in a standard endoscopy room without SARS-COV-2 testing" in the nonelective settings as compared to 54.2% for the elective settings, (P < .00001), whereas 32.9% of the responders chose the attitude of "Tend to postpone endoscopy until SARS-COV-2 test is performed because of fear from being infected, or virus spreading in the endoscopy suite" in the elective settings (P < .00001).Gastroenterologists' attitude in various gastroenterological settings was based on the clinical indication. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term consequences of the different attitudes.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastroenterologists/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Endoscopy, Digestive System/psychology , Female , Gastroenterologists/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26102, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Healthcare workers (HWs) perform a critical role not only in the clinical management of patients but also in providing adequate infection control and prevention measures and waste management procedures to be implemented in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 infection control precautions and waste management procedures among HWs in Saudi Arabian hospitals.This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Information on knowledge, awareness, and practice of infection control and waste management procedures were obtained from the HWs using a structured questionnaire. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Our findings indicated that most of the study participants were knowledgeable, with a mean score of 78.3%. In total, 92.5%, 90.3%, and 91.7% of the participants were aware of the infection control precautions, COVID-19 waste management procedures, the availability of infection control supplies, respectively. HWs' Knowledge regarding waste management and infection control procedures correlated significantly with sex (P ≤ .001 and <.001), education (P = .024 and .043), and working experience (P = .029 and .009), respectively.Most participants appreciated the importance of their role in infection control, surveillance, and monitoring of the ongoing safety practices in their patients as well as their facilities and communities.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/standards , Medical Waste Disposal/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25945, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Mobile Health Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Workload/psychology
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