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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1735-1739, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625175

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) is highly effective at preventing hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and booster and additional primary dose COVID-19 vaccinations increase protection (1-3). During August-November 2021, a series of Emergency Use Authorizations and recommendations, including those for an additional primary dose for immunocompromised persons and a booster dose for persons aged ≥18 years, were approved because of reduced immunogenicity in immunocompromised persons, waning vaccine effectiveness over time, and the introduction of the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant (4,5). Adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death and were one of the populations first recommended a booster dose in the U.S. (5,6). Data on COVID-19 vaccinations reported to CDC from 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and eight territories and freely associated states were analyzed to ascertain coverage with booster or additional primary doses among adults aged ≥65 years. During August 13-November 19, 2021, 18.7 million persons aged ≥65 years received a booster or additional primary dose of COVID-19 vaccine, constituting 44.1% of 42.5 million eligible* persons in this age group who previously completed a primary vaccination series.† Coverage was similar by sex and age group, but varied by primary series vaccine product and race and ethnicity, ranging from 30.3% among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native persons to 50.5% among non-Hispanic multiple/other race persons. Strategic efforts are needed to encourage eligible persons aged ≥18 years, especially those aged ≥65 years and those who are immunocompromised, to receive a booster and/or additional primary dose to ensure maximal protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261849, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 pandemics are both diseases of public health threat globally. Both diseases are caused by pathogens that infect mainly the respiratory system, and are involved in airborne transmission; they also share some clinical signs and symptoms. We, therefore, took advantage of collected sputum samples at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in Ghana to conduct differential diagnoses of long-standing endemic respiratory illness, particularly tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: Sputum samples collected through the enhanced national surveys from suspected COVID-19 patients and contact tracing cases were analyzed for TB. The sputum samples were processed using Cepheid's GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in pools of 4 samples to determine the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Positive pools were then decoupled and analyzed individually. Details of positive TB samples were forwarded to the NTP for appropriate case management. RESULTS: Seven-hundred and seventy-four sputum samples were analyzed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both suspected COVID-19 cases (679/774, 87.7%) and their contacts (95/774, 12.3%). A total of 111 (14.3%) were diagnosed with SARS CoV-2 infection and six (0.8%) out of the 774 individuals tested positive for pulmonary tuberculosis: five (83.3%) males and one female (16.7%). Drug susceptibility analysis identified 1 (16.7%) rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis case. Out of the six TB positive cases, 2 (33.3%) tested positive for COVID-19 indicating a coinfection. Stratifying by demography, three out of the six (50%) were from the Ayawaso West District. All positive cases received appropriate treatment at the respective sub-district according to the national guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the need for differential diagnosis among COVID-19 suspected cases and regular active TB surveillance in TB endemic settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our project aims to provide: an overview of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of mental health professionals in 23 countries;a model of recommendations for good practice and proposals for methods and digital tools to improve the well-being at work of mental health professionals and the quality of services offered during crisis and post-crisis periods;an in-depth ethics review of the assessment of the use of numerical tools for psychiatry professionals and patient support, including teleconsulting. METHODS: This is a large international survey conducted among 2,000 mental health professionals in 23 countries over a 12-month period. This survey will be based on 30 individual interviews and 20 focus group sessions, and a digital questionnaire will be sent online to 2,000 professionals based on the criteria of gender, age, professional experience, psychiatric specialty, context of work in psychiatry, and geographical location. Regarding the development of telepsychiatry during the COVID-19 pandemic, a pilot study on the use of digital tools will be carried out on 100 clients of psychiatry professionals in France and Belgium. DISCUSSION-CONCLUSION: This study will contribute to the co-construction of an international organization and monitoring system that takes into account psychiatric health professionals as major resources to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and to develop efficient processes for preparing and anticipating crises by reducing psychosocial risks as much as possible. This project also aims to design tools for remote medicine and to develop the use of numerical tools for monitoring and supporting professionals and helping professionals to build the conditions for satisfactory operational work during crises and post-crisis situations, using adapted organizational methods. Our ongoing research should support professionals in the search for existing concrete solutions to cope with emergency work situations while maintaining an optimal quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Health , Pandemics , Professional Practice , Psychotherapists/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623660

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health care systems globally. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of hospital admissions for ischemic stroke by severity in Japan. METHODS: We analysed administrative (Diagnosis Procedure Combination-DPC) data for cases of inpatients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke and admitted during the period April 1 2018 to June 27 2020. Levels of change of the weekly number of inpatient cases with ischemic stroke diagnosis after the declaration of state of emergency were assessed using interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis. The numbers of patients with various characteristics and treatment approaches were compared. We also performed an ITS analysis for each group ("independent" or "dependent") divided based on components of activities of daily living (ADL) and level of consciousness at hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 170,294 cases in 567 hospitals were included. The ITS analysis showed a significant decrease in the weekly number of ischemic stroke cases hospitalized (estimated decrease: -156 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): -209 to -104), which corresponds to -10.4% (95% CI: -13.6 to -7.1). The proportion of decline in the independent group (-21.3%; 95% CI: -26.0 to -16.2) was larger than that in the dependent group (-8.6%; 95% CI: -11.7 to -5.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a marked reduction in hospital admissions due to ischemic stroke after the declaration of the state of emergency for the COVID-19 pandemic. The independent cases were affected more in proportion than dependent cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623646

ABSTRACT

A majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections are transmitted from a minority of infected subjects, some of which may be symptomatic or pre-symptomatic. We aimed to quantify potential infectiousness among asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) in relation to prior or later symptomatic disease. We previously (at the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic) performed a cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infections among 27,000 healthcare workers (HCWs) at work in the capital region of Sweden. We performed both SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and serology. Furthermore, the cohort was comprehensively followed for sick leave, both before and after sampling. In the present report, we used the cohort database to quantify potential infectiousness among HCWs at work. Those who had sick leave either before or after sampling were classified as post-symptomatic or pre-symptomatic, whereas the virus-positive subjects with no sick leave were considered asymptomatic. About 0.2% (19/9449) of HCW at work were potentially infectious and pre-symptomatic (later had disease) and 0.17% (16/9449) were potentially infectious and asymptomatic (never had sick leave either before nor after sampling). Thus, 33% and 28% of all the 57 potentially infectious subjects were pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic, respectively. When a questionnaire was administered to HCWs with past infection, only 10,5% of HCWs had had no indication at all of having had SARS-CoV-2 infection ("truly asymptomatic"). Our findings provide a unique quantification of the different groups of asymptomatic, potentially infectious HCWs.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 542-551, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic altered risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes and whether there were differences by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status among pregnant women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study using Epic's Cosmos research platform, women who delivered during the pandemic (March-December 2020) were compared with those who delivered prepandemic (matched months 2017-2019). Within the pandemic epoch, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with those with negative test results or no SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Comparisons were performed using standardized differences, with a value greater than 0.1 indicating meaningful differences between groups. RESULTS: Among 838,489 women (225,225 who delivered during the pandemic), baseline characteristics were similar between epochs. There were no significant differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes between epochs (standardized difference<0.10). In the pandemic epoch, 108,067 (48.0%) women had SARS-CoV-2 testing available; of those, 7,432 (6.9%) had positive test results. Compared with women classified as negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to be non-Hispanic White or Asian or to reside in the Midwest and more likely to be Hispanic, have public insurance, be obese, and reside in the South or in high social vulnerability ZIP codes. There were no significant differences in the frequency of preterm birth (8.5% vs 7.6%, standardized difference=0.032), stillbirth (0.4% vs 0.4%, standardized difference=-0.002), small for gestational age (6.4% vs 6.5%, standardized difference=-0.002), large for gestational age (7.7% vs 7.7%, standardized difference=-0.001), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (16.3% vs 15.8%, standardized difference=0.014), placental abruption (0.5% vs 0.4%, standardized difference=0.007), cesarean birth (31.2% vs 29.4%, standardized difference=0.039), or postpartum hemorrhage (3.4% vs 3.1%, standardized difference=0.019) between those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and those classified as testing negative. CONCLUSION: In a geographically diverse U.S. cohort, the frequency of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes did not differ between those delivering before compared with during the pandemic, nor between those classified as positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621267

ABSTRACT

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143144, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620075

ABSTRACT

Importance: Self-harm and deaths among adolescents and young adults are notably related to drug poisonings and suicide. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are projections about a greater likelihood of such events arising among adolescents and young adults. Objective: To evaluate the risk of self-harm, overdose, and all-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study took place in Ontario, Canada, where a universal health care system captures all emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. The participants included all adolescents and young adults born in Ontario between 1990 and 2006, who were aged 14 to 24 years between March 1, 2018, and June 30, 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic era (April 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021), relative to the 2 years preceding the pandemic (March 1, 2018 to February 28, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: ED encounters or hospitalizations for self-harm or overdose. A secondary outcome was self-harm, overdose, or all-cause mortality. Cause-specific hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were used for the primary outcome. Follow-up started at March 1, 2018, or the individual's 14th birthday, whichever was later, and age was used as the time scale. Results: In this study, 1 690 733 adolescents and young adults (823 904 [51.3%] female participants) were included with a median (IQR) age of 17.7 (14.1-21.4) years at start of follow-up. After 4 110 903 person-years of follow-up, 6224 adolescents and young adults experienced the primary outcome of self-harm or overdose during the pandemic (39.7 per 10 000 person-years) vs 12 970 (51.0 per 10 000 person-years) prepandemic, with an HR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.80). The risk of self-harm, overdose, or death was also lower during than before the pandemic (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.81), but not all-cause mortality (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults, the initial 15-month period of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a relative decline in hospital care for self-harm or overdose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142322, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615905

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe outcomes among youths with SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly characterized. Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with severe outcomes within 14 days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an emergency department (ED). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study with 14-day follow-up enrolled participants between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were youths aged younger than 18 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at one of 41 EDs across 10 countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Italy, New Zealand, Paraguay, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Statistical analysis was performed from September to October 2021. Exposures: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nucleic acid (eg, polymerase chain reaction) testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe outcomes, a composite measure defined as intensive interventions during hospitalization (eg, inotropic support, positive pressure ventilation), diagnoses indicating severe organ impairment, or death. Results: Among 3222 enrolled youths who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3221 (>99.9%) had index visit outcome data available, 2007 (62.3%) were from the United States, 1694 (52.6%) were male, and 484 (15.0%) had a self-reported chronic illness; the median (IQR) age was 3 (0-10) years. After 14 days of follow-up, 735 children (22.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-24.3%]) were hospitalized, 107 (3.3% [95% CI, 2.7%-4.0%]) had severe outcomes, and 4 children (0.12% [95% CI, 0.03%-0.32%]) died. Characteristics associated with severe outcomes included being aged 5 to 18 years (age 5 to <10 years vs <1 year: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.09-2.34]; age 10 to <18 years vs <1 year: OR, 2.39 [95% CI 1.38-4.14]), having a self-reported chronic illness (OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.59-3.44]), prior episode of pneumonia (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.83-5.42]), symptoms starting 4 to 7 days prior to seeking ED care (vs starting 0-3 days before seeking care: OR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.29-3.82]), and country (eg, Canada vs US: OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]; Costa Rica vs US: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.05-2.96]; Spain vs US: OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.98]). Among a subgroup of 2510 participants discharged home from the ED after initial testing and who had complete follow-up, 50 (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.5%-2.6%) were eventually hospitalized and 12 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) had severe outcomes. Compared with hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-negative youths, the risk of severe outcomes was higher among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive youths (risk difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately 3% of SARS-CoV-2-positive youths tested in EDs experienced severe outcomes within 2 weeks of their ED visit. Among children discharged home from the ED, the risk was much lower. Risk factors such as age, underlying chronic illness, and symptom duration may be useful to consider when making clinical care decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
N Engl J Med ; 385(16): 1474-1484, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the high efficacy of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rare breakthrough infections have been reported, including infections among health care workers. Data are needed to characterize these infections and define correlates of breakthrough and infectivity. METHODS: At the largest medical center in Israel, we identified breakthrough infections by performing extensive evaluations of health care workers who were symptomatic (including mild symptoms) or had known infection exposure. These evaluations included epidemiologic investigations, repeat reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assays, antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic testing (Ag-RDT), serologic assays, and genomic sequencing. Correlates of breakthrough infection were assessed in a case-control analysis. We matched patients with breakthrough infection who had antibody titers obtained within a week before SARS-CoV-2 detection (peri-infection period) with four to five uninfected controls and used generalized estimating equations to predict the geometric mean titers among cases and controls and the ratio between the titers in the two groups. We also assessed the correlation between neutralizing antibody titers and N gene cycle threshold (Ct) values with respect to infectivity. RESULTS: Among 1497 fully vaccinated health care workers for whom RT-PCR data were available, 39 SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections were documented. Neutralizing antibody titers in case patients during the peri-infection period were lower than those in matched uninfected controls (case-to-control ratio, 0.361; 95% confidence interval, 0.165 to 0.787). Higher peri-infection neutralizing antibody titers were associated with lower infectivity (higher Ct values). Most breakthrough cases were mild or asymptomatic, although 19% had persistent symptoms (>6 weeks). The B.1.1.7 (alpha) variant was found in 85% of samples tested. A total of 74% of case patients had a high viral load (Ct value, <30) at some point during their infection; however, of these patients, only 17 (59%) had a positive result on concurrent Ag-RDT. No secondary infections were documented. CONCLUSIONS: Among fully vaccinated health care workers, the occurrence of breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2 was correlated with neutralizing antibody titers during the peri-infection period. Most breakthrough infections were mild or asymptomatic, although persistent symptoms did occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Failure
19.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613909

ABSTRACT

Conducted studies indicate the relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Moreover, the latest research indicated that cariogenic bacteria may severely influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase risk of COVID-19 complications. This article aims to review various applications of propolis and pay attention to a healthy diet rich in polyphenols, which may allow the reduction of dental plaque accumulation. A literature review has been conducted from June until November 2021. It showed that propolis could be a useful agent in decreasing the accumulation of dental plaque. Moreover, a diet rich in polyphenols prevents cariogenic bacteria and reduces the accumulation of dental plaque. A reduction of a dental plaque may influence the risk of a severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, propolis and a diet rich in polyphenols may play an important role in prophylaxis of systemic diseases. Recently, it has been proven that oral infection may affect cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, nervous system, as well as may be a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. These aspects should stimulate clinicians to further research about polyphenols.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Diet , Propolis/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Oral Health
20.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613363

ABSTRACT

In stressful situations such as the COVID-19-pandemic, unpleasant emotions are expected to increase while pleasant emotions will likely decrease. Little is known about the role cognitive appraisals, information management, and upregulating pleasant emotions can play to support emotion regulation in a pandemic. In an online survey (N = 1682), we investigated predictors of changes in pleasant and unpleasant emotions in a German sample (aged 18-88 years) shortly after the first restrictions were imposed. Crisis self-efficacy and felt restriction were predictors of changes in unpleasant emotions and joy alike. The application of emotion up-regulation strategies was weakly associated with changes in joy. Among the different upregulation strategies, only "savouring the moment" predicted changes in joy. Our study informs future research perspectives assessing the role of upregulating pleasant emotions under challenging circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Epidemics/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
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