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2.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(5): e20220018, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health care workers (HCWs) practicing in Latin American countries during the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a multinational cross-sectional survey study, using an online self-administered questionnaire. The final version of the questionnaire comprised 40 questions, organized in five sections: demographic and professional characteristics; COVID-19 knowledge; attitudes toward COVID-19; COVID-19 practices; and institutional resources. RESULTS: The study involved 251 HCWs from 19 Latin American countries who agreed to participate. In our sample, 77% of HCWs participated in some sort of institutional training on COVID-19, and 43% had a low COVID-19 knowledge score. COVID-19 knowledge was associated with the type of health center (public/private), availability of institutional training, and sources of information about COVID-19. Concerns about not providing adequate care were reported by 60% of the participants. The most commonly used ventilatory strategies were protective mechanical ventilation, alveolar recruitment maneuvers, and prone positioning, and the use of drugs to treat COVID-19 was mainly based on institutional protocols. CONCLUSIONS: In this multinational study in Latin America, almost half of HCWs had a low COVID-19 knowledge score, and the level of knowledge was associated with the type of institution, participation in institutional training, and information sources. HCWs considered that COVID-19 was very relevant, and more than half were concerned about not providing adequate care to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Latin America/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel
3.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 674-680, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the way we had to approach hospital- and intensive care unit (ICU)-related resource management, especially for demanding techniques required for advanced support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). RECENT FINDINGS: Availability of ICU beds and ECMO machines widely varies around the world. In critical conditions, such a global pandemic, the establishment of contingency capacity tiers might help in defining to which conditions and subjects ECMO can be offered. A frequent reassessment of the resource saturation, possibly integrated within a regional healthcare coordination system, may be of help to triage the patients who most likely will benefit from advanced techniques, especially when capacities are limited. SUMMARY: Indications to ECMO during the pandemic should be fluid and may be adjusted over time. Candidacy of patients should follow the same prepandemic rules, taking into account the acute disease, the burden of any eventual comorbidity and the chances of a good quality of life after recovery; but the current capacity of healthcare system should also be considered, and frequently reassessed, possibly within a wide hub-and-spoke healthcare system. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COCC/A43.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Triage , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Selection , Quality of Life
4.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 660-666, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152245

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical problem and noninvasive treatments of hypoxemia in critically-ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and describe recent advances in evidence supporting bedside decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: High-flow nasal oxygen and noninvasive ventilation, along with awake prone positioning are potentially helpful therapies for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy has been widely implemented as a form of oxygen support supported by prepandemic randomized controlled trials showing possible benefit over noninvasive ventilation. Given the sheer volume of patients, noninvasive ventilation was often required, and based on a well conducted randomized controlled trial there was a developing role for helmet-interface noninvasive. Coupled with noninvasive supports, the use of awake prone positioning demonstrated physiological benefits, but randomized controlled trial data did not demonstrate clear outcome superiority. SUMMARY: The use of noninvasive oxygen strategies and our understanding of the proposed mechanisms are evolving. Variability in patient severity and physiology may dictate a personalized approach to care. High-flow nasal oxygen may be paired with awake and spontaneously breathing prone-positioning to optimize oxygen and lung mechanics but requires further insight before widely applying to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Critical Care , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 681-685, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152244

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we describe preoperative patient selection and outcomes of patients with lung disease secondary to infection from COVID-19 who receive lung transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Lung transplants for patients with lung disease secondary to infection from COVID-19 have been performed successfully in over 200 patients in the United States. The preoperative course of these patients is somewhat atypical in comparison with patients who have had lung transplants related to chronic lung diseases, where there are more traditional indications for lung transplants. COVID-19 patients have more severe pulmonary disease often requiring mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal mechanical ventilation (ECMO), frequent nosocomial infections, and renal and cardiac dysfunction. The intraoperative course of these COVID-19 patients is often longer and requires increased transfusions of blood products in comparison with non-COVID-19 patients. Additionally, in the postoperative period, COVID-19 patients more frequently require mechanical ventilation and ECMO support. However, the survival rate of such patients at 6 months is greater than 90%. SUMMARY: Patients with respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection that require a lung transplant generally have a complicated preoperative course and the operations are more complex, but the long-term outcomes are excellent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Lung Diseases , Lung Transplantation , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Lung Diseases/surgery , Retrospective Studies
6.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(11): 100811, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150820

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic agent, has had mixed clinical results. Although antibody neutralization is the predominant approach to benchmarking CCP efficacy, CCP may also influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response. Using systems serology to comprehensively profile severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) functional antibodies of hospitalized people with COVID-19 enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CCP (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04397757), we find that the clinical benefits of CCP are associated with a shift toward reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We find that CCP has the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function and that CCP-induced immunomodulatory Fc glycan profiles and N immunodominant profiles persist for at least 2 months. We highlight a potential mechanism of action of CCP associated with durable immunomodulation, outline optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, and provide guidance for development of a different class of COVID-19 hyperinflammation-targeting antibody therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/methods , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid
7.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 553-558, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the current state of antibody therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection that has progressed immensely in a very short time period. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited clinical effect of classical passive immunotherapy (plasma therapy, hyperimmune immunoglobulin [IgG] preparations) whereas monoclonal antibody therapy, if initiated early in the disease process, shows promising results. SUMMARY: Although antibody therapy still remains to be fully explored in patients with COVID-19, a combination of IgG monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein currently appears to provide the best form of antibody therapy, Immunoglobulin A dimers and Immunoglobulin M pentamers also show promising preliminary therapeutic results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(6): 897-906, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have investigated the management of COVID-19 cases from the operational perspective of the emergency department (ED), We sought to compare the management and outcome of COVID-19 positive and negative patients who presented to French EDs. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in four EDs. Included in the study were adult patients (≥18 years) between March 6-May 10, 2020, were hospitalized, and whose presenting symptoms were evocative of COVID-19. We compared the clinical features, management, and prognosis of patients according to their confirmed COVID-19 status. RESULTS: Of the 2,686 patients included in this study, 760 (28.3%) were COVID-19 positive. Among them, 364 (48.0%) had hypertension, 228 (30.0%) had chronic cardiac disease, 186 (24.5%) had diabetes, 126 (16.6%) were obese, and 114 (15.0%) had chronic respiratory disease. The proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) was higher among COVID-19 positive patients (185/760, 24.3%) compared to COVID-19 negative patients (206/1,926, 10.7%; P <0.001), and they required mechanical ventilation (89, 11.9% vs 37, 1.9%; P <0.001) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (135, 18.1% vs 41, 2.2%; P < 0.001) more frequently. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among COVID-19 positive patients (139, 18.3% vs 149, 7.7%; P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Emergency departments were on the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic and had to manage potential COVID-19 patients. Understanding what happened in the ED during this first outbreak is crucial to underline the importance of flexible organizations that can quickly adapt the bed capacities to the incoming flow of COVID-19 positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Disease Outbreaks
9.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143622

ABSTRACT

Evusheld® (tixagevimab + cilgavimab; AZD7442) was the first anti-Spike monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail designed not only for treatment but also with pre-exposure prophylaxis in mind. The immunoglobulins were engineered for prolonged half-life by modifying the Fc fragment, thus creating a long-acting antibody (LAAB). We review here preclinical development, baseline and treatment-emergent resistance, clinical efficacy from registration trials, and real-world post-marketing evidence. The combination was initially approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis at the time of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC wave based on a trial conducted in unvaccinated subjects when the Alpha VOC was dominant. Another trial also conducted at the time of the Alpha VOC wave proved efficacy as early treatment in unvaccinated patients and led to authorization at the time of the BA.4/5 VOC wave. Tixagevimab was ineffective against any Omicron sublineage, so cilgavimab has so far been the ingredient which has made a difference. Antibody monotherapy has a high risk of selecting for immune escape variants in immunocompromised patients with high viral loads, which nowadays represent the main therapeutic indication for antibody therapies. Among Omicron sublineages, cilgavimab was ineffective against BA.1, recovered efficacy against BA.2 and BA.2.12.1, but lost efficacy again against BA.4/BA.5 and BA.2.75. Our analysis indicated that Evusheld® has been used during the Omicron VOC phase without robust clinical data of efficacy against this variant and suggested that several regulatory decisions regarding its use lacked consistency. There is an urgent need for new randomized controlled trials in vaccinated, immunocompromised subjects, using COVID-19 convalescent plasma as a control arm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964398, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141997

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess whether convalescent plasma therapy could offer survival advantages for patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An electronic search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane library and MedRxiv was performed from January 1st, 2020 to April 1st, 2022. We included studies containing patients with COVID-19 and treated with CCP. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and synthesized with a random-effect analysis model. The primary outcome was 28-d mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, ventilation-free days, 14-d mortality, improvements of symptoms, progression of diseases and requirements of mechanical ventilation. Safety outcomes included the incidence of all adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). The Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool 2.0 was used to assess the potential risk of bias in eligible studies. The heterogeneity of results was assessed by I^2 test and Q statistic test. The possibility of publication bias was assessed by conducting Begg and Egger test. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) method were used for quality of evidence. This study had been registered on PROSPERO, CRD42021273608. 32 RCTs comprising 21478 patients with Covid-19 were included. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 patients receiving CCP were not associated with significantly reduced 28-d mortality (CCP 20.0% vs control 20.8%; risk ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.02; p = 0.16; I² = 8%). For all secondary outcomes, there were no significant differences between CCP group and control group. The incidence of AEs (26.9% vs 19.4%,; risk ratio 1.14; 95% CI 0.99-01.31; p = 0.06; I² = 38%) and SAEs (16.3% vs 13.5%; risk ratio 1.03; 95% CI 0.87-1.20; p = 0.76; I² = 42%) tended to be higher in the CCP group compared to the control group, while the differences did not reach statistical significance. In all, CCP therapy was not related to significantly improved 28-d mortality or symptoms recovery, and should not be viewed as a routine treatment for COVID-19 patients. Trial registration number: CRD42021273608. Registration on February 28, 2022. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, Identifier CRD42022313265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial/methods
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 963445, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141996

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung disease. It may occur during the pancytopenia phase following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). ARDS is rare following HCT. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have strong anti-inflammatory effect and first home to the lung following intravenous infusion. MSCs are safe to infuse and have almost no side effects. During the Covid-19 pandemic many patients died from ARDS. Subsequently MSCs were evaluated as a therapy for Covid-19 induced ARDS. We report three patients, who were treated with MSCs for ARDS following HCT. Two were treated with MSCs derived from the bone marrow (BM). The third patient was treated with MSCs obtained from the placenta, so-called decidua stromal cells (DSCs). In the first patient, the pulmonary infiltrates cleared after infusion of BM-MSCs, but he died from multiorgan failure. The second patient treated with BM-MSCs died of aspergillus infection. The patient treated with DSCs had a dramatic response and survived. He is alive after 7 years with a Karnofsky score of 100%. We also reviewed experimental and clinical studies using MSCs or DSCs for ARDS. Several positive reports are using MSCs for sepsis and ARDS in experimental animals. In man, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled studies used adipose and BM-MSCs, respectively. No difference in outcome was seen compared to placebo. Some pilot studies used MSCs for Covid-19 ARDS. Positive results were achieved using umbilical cord and DSCs however, optimal source of MSCs remains to be elucidated using randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Animals , Female , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects
12.
Orv Hetil ; 163(23): 895-901, 2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140890

ABSTRACT

Cancer and the various medical treatments and tests are a major physical and psychological challenge for patients, their relatives and for the medical staff as well. Adherence and compliance become critical factors during prolonged oncological therapies. The mental health of people with malignant cancer, untreated psychological symptoms can affect survival by increasing distress and suffering, weakening quality of life and reducing adherence. Furthermore, they have a particularly high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study is to introduce the tools of cognitive behavioural therapy and the therapeutic indications in the context of mental disorders associated with chronic somatic illness. Our study presents the case of a 66-year-old woman with breast cancer. She was diagnosed with mild depressive episodes and hypochondriasis based on psychodiagnostic assessment. Instead of interpreting the patient's symptoms as a serious organic illness, the goal of psychotherapy is to develop new, more adaptive attitudes and more comforting perspective of the symptoms, and to reduce secondary depression. The elements of the 16-session cognitive behavioural therapy included behavioural activation, analysis of symptomatic behaviour, diary management, development of new alternatives and behavioural experiments, conceptualisation, and summarising learned techniques and future planning. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(23): 895-901.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Psychotherapy/methods , Quality of Life
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140687

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly and remains a challenge to global public health. COVID-19 patients manifest various symptoms from mild to severe cases with poor clinical outcomes. Prognostic values of novel markers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CLR) calculated from routine laboratory parameters have recently been reported to predict severe cases; however, whether this investigation can guide oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the ability of these markers in screening and predicting types of oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients. The retrospective data of 474 COVID-19 patients were categorized into mild and severe cases and grouped according to the types of oxygen therapy requirement, including noninvasive oxygen support, high-flow nasal cannula and invasive mechanical ventilator. Among the novel markers, the ROC curve analysis indicated a screening cutoff of CRP ≥ 30.0 mg/L, NLR ≥ 3.0 and CLR ≥ 25 in predicting the requirement of any type of oxygen support. The NLR and CLR with increasing cut-off values have discriminative power with high accuracy and specificity for more effective oxygen therapy with a high-flow nasal cannula (NLR ≥ 6.0 and CLR ≥ 60) and mechanical ventilator (NLR ≥ 8.0 and CLR ≥ 80). Our study thus identifies potential markers to differentiate the suitable management of oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients at an earlier time for improving disease outcomes with limited respiratory support resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein
14.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(9): e1447-e1453, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic forced rapid adoption of telemedicine (TM) for breast oncology visits in the United States, but the appropriate role of postpandemic TM is uncertain. We sought to understand physician and advance practice practitioner perspectives on the use of TM for outpatient breast cancer care through an electronically administered survey. METHODS: Breast medical oncology clinicians at two academic cancer centers and five satellite locations affiliated with the Dana Farber Cancer Institute and the Massachusetts General Cancer Center were invited to respond to a 21-question survey administered in September 2021 about clinicians' perceptions and attitudes toward TM during the previous 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 71 survey invitations, 51 clinicians (36 physicians and 15 advance practice practitioners) provided survey responses (response rate = 72%). Ninety-two percent of respondents (n = 47) agreed that TM visits enhance patient care. Ninety-two percent of respondents (n = 46) also agreed that TM is valuable for early-stage breast cancer follow-up visits. Most respondents felt that there was no difference between TM and face-to-face (F2F) visits when it came to patient adherence, ease of ordering tests, ease of accessing patient records, and workflow outside of the visit (82%, 82%, 78%, and 53%, respectively). Fifty-one percent of respondents (n = 26) said that TM was better for timely access to follow-up appointments. Most respondents said that F2F visits were better for seeing physical problems, personal connection with patients, overall quality of visits, and patient-physician communication (100%, 75%, 65%, and 63%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Breast clinicians believe that TM is a valuable tool to enhance outpatient breast cancer care. TM was felt to be appropriate for routine follow-up visits and second opinion consultations and is as good as or better than F2F visits for several routine aspects of breast cancer care.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Oncologists , Telemedicine , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 445, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the current climate of the pandemic, lung cancer patients are especially vulnerable to complications from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. As a high-risk population group, these patients are strongly advised to receive coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in accordance with Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to minimize morbidity and mortality. In recent years, immunotherapy has taken a preeminent role in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with dramatic improvement in overall survival. Reactive lymphadenopathy following the administration of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination can confound the radiographic interpretation of positron emission tomography-computed tomography or computed tomography scans from lung cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian female and former smoker who developed cervical, hilar, supraclavicular, mediastinal, and left retroauricular lymphadenopathy following her coronavirus disease 2019 booster vaccination. At the time, she had been receiving long-term immunotherapy for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Biopsy was pursued owing to concerns of treatment failure and confirmed recurrent malignancy. CONCLUSION: This case report highlights the importance of lymph node biopsies in lung cancer patients who present with contralateral lymphadenopathy following coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination to rule out tumor recurrence in this deserving patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
16.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 51, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes life-threatening pneumonia. Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) is expected to be the effective COVID-19 treatment for passive immunity. The high neutralizing antibodies titer of CPT is needed to prove the benefit in early developed severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This case-control study evaluated transfusion efficacy and adverse events with high-titer (≥ 1:320) COVID-19 convalescent plasma compared with standard care alone in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Among 107 severe COVID-19 patients, 55 received CPT plus standard care, and 52 received standard care alone. All-cause mortality was 15.3% in the CPT group compared with 85.4% in the standard care group (p < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed reduced mortality with CPT (HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.07-0.31; p < 0.001 and HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.08-0.79; p = 0.018, respectively). CPT resulted in decreased use of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen, and high-flow oxygen requirement. Clinical and radiological outcomes improved. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate high neutralizing antibody titer CPT is safe and reduces mortality in early developed severe COVID-19 patients. The benefit of CPT in the early course of illness is challenging and requires additional study. Trial registration Thai clinical trials registry (TCTR) no. 20220101003.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Immunization, Passive
17.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 320, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has specific characteristics compared to ARDS in other populations. Proning is recommended by analogy with other forms of ARDS, but few data are available regarding its physiological effects in this population. This study aimed to assess the effects of proning on oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 and alveolo-arterial gradient (Aa-gradient)), blood gas analysis, ventilatory ratio (VR), respiratory system compliance (CRS) and estimated dead space fraction (VD/VT HB). We also looked for variables associated with treatment failure. METHODS: Retrospective monocentric study of intubated COVID-19 ARDS patients managed with an early intubation, low to moderate positive end-expiratory pressure and early proning strategy hospitalized from March 6 to April 30 2020. Blood gas analysis, PaO2/FiO2, Aa-gradient, VR, CRS and VD/VT HB were compared before and at the end of each proning session with paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05 considered as significant). Proportions were assessed using Fischer exact test or Chi square test. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included for a total of 191 proning sessions, median duration of 16 (5-36) hours. Considering all sessions, PaO2/FiO2 increased (180 [148-210] vs 107 [90-129] mmHg, p < 0.001) and Aa-gradient decreased (127 [92-176] vs 275 [211-334] mmHg, p < 0.001) with proning. CRS (36.2 [30.0-41.8] vs 32.2 [27.5-40.9] ml/cmH2O, p = 0.003), VR (2.4 [2.0-2.9] vs 2.3 [1.9-2.8], p = 0.028) and VD/VT HB (0.72 [0.67-0.76] vs 0.71 [0.65-0.76], p = 0.022) slightly increased. Considering the first proning session, PaO2/FiO2 increased (186 [165-215] vs 104 [94-126] mmHg, p < 0.001) and Aa-gradient decreased (121 [89-160] vs 276 [238-321] mmHg, p < 0.001), while CRS, VR and VD/VT HB were unchanged. Similar variations were observed during the subsequent proning sessions. Among the patients who experienced treatment failure (defined as ICU death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), fewer expressed a positive response in terms of oxygenation (defined as increase of more than 20% in PaO2/FiO2) to the first proning (67 vs 97%, p = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Proning in COVID-19 ARDS intubated patients led to an increase in PaO2/FiO2 and a decrease in Aa-gradient if we consider all the sessions together, the first one or the 4 subsequent sessions independently. When considering all sessions, CRS increased and VR and VD/VT HB only slightly increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 371, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 viral infection is associated with a rapid and vigorous systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker, both indicative of inflammation and propagating it. Hemoadsorption has been proposed as a potential therapy in COVID-19 patients, therefore the aim of this study is to determine suPAR kinetics during hemoadsoprtion. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of critical COVID-19 patients, enrolled when hemoperfusion therapy was initiated. Hemoadsorber was integrated into the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit. The first series of suPAR measurements was performed 10 minutes after the start of the session, sampling both incoming and outgoing lines of the adsorber. A second series of the measurements was performed beforefinishing the session with the same adsorber. Statistical significance level was set < 0.05. RESULTS: This study included 18 patients. In the beginning of the session the fraction of suPAR cleared across the adsorber was 29.5% [16-41], and in the end of the session it decreased to 7.2% [4-22], 4 times lower, p = 0.003. The median length of session was 21 hours, with minimal duration of 16 hours and maximal duration of 24 hours. The median suPAR before the procedure was 8.71 [7.18-10.78] and after the session was 7.35 [6.53-11.28] ng/ml. There was no statistically significant difference in suPAR concentrations before and after the session (p = 0.831). CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that in the beginning of the hemoadsorption procedure significant amount of suPAR is removed from the circulation. However, in the end of the procedure there is a substantial drop in adsorbed capacity. Furthermore, despite a substantial amount of suPAR cleared there is no significant difference in systemic suPAR concentrations before and after the hemoadsorption procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Renal Replacement Therapy , Kinetics
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 879, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of early treatment with convalescent plasma in patients with COVID-19 is debated. Nothing is known about the potential effect of other plasma components other than anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: To determine whether convalescent or standard plasma would improve outcomes for adults in early phase of Covid19 respiratory impairment we designed this randomized, three-arms, clinical trial (PLACO COVID) blinded on interventional arms that was conducted from June 2020 to August 2021. It was a multicentric trial at 19 Italian hospitals. We enrolled 180 hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia within 5 days from the onset of respiratory distress. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to standard of care (n = 60) or standard of care + three units of standard plasma (n = 60) or standard of care + three units of high-titre convalescent plasma (n = 60) administered on days 1, 3, 5 after randomization. Primary outcome was 30-days mortality. Secondary outcomes were: incidence of mechanical ventilation or death at day 30, 6-month mortality, proportion of days with mechanical ventilation on total length of hospital stay, IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion, viral clearance from plasma and respiratory tract samples, and variations in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The trial was analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: 180 patients (133/180 [73.9%] males, mean age 66.6 years [IQR 57-73]) were enrolled a median of 8 days from onset of symptoms. At enrollment, 88.9% of patients showed moderate/severe respiratory failure. 30-days mortality was 20% in Control arm, 23% in Convalescent (risk ratio [RR] 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-2.13, P = 0.694) and 25% in Standard plasma (RR 1.23; 95%CI, 0.63-2.37, P = 0.544). Time to viral clearance from respiratory tract was 21 days for Convalescent, 28 for Standard plasma and 23 in Control arm but differences were not statistically significant. No differences for other secondary endpoints were seen in the three arms. Serious adverse events were reported in 1.7%, 3.3% and 5% of patients in Control, Standard and Convalescent plasma arms respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Neither high-titer Convalescent nor Standard plasma improve outcomes of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04428021. First posted: 11/06/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , COVID-19/therapy , Standard of Care , Plasma
20.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Europe/epidemiology , Male , Female
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