Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.711
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269977, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951540

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the last two decades transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has been reported globally. Chemsex and specific sexual practices have been identified as risk factors. Our study aimed to identify risk factors for HCV transmission in MSM living with HIV attending in Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study from April to December 2019 at the Hospital de Infectología "La Raza" National Medical Center, in Mexico City. A case was defined as an HIV-infected MSM with positive HCV-antibody test. For each case, 3 controls were included, defined as HIV infected MSM with negative HCV-antibody test. A self-questionnaire covering sexual practices and other risk factors for HCV transmission was applied. Bivariate analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio (OR) using Chi-square test. Independent risk factors were identified in a subsequent analysis performing a logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 324 patients participated in the study, 81 cases and 243 controls. Median age was 30.5 years (IQR: 18-52) and 28.8 years (IQR: 21-45) in the case and control group, respectively. Most prevalent HCV genotype was 1a (79%). In the logistic regression model, sharing straw during cocaine inhalation (OR: 9.03; 95% CI; 1.35-13.52; P = 0.003), sharing sex toys (OR: 17.53, 95% CI; 6.85-44.86; P = 0.002), and ethyl chloride use for chemsex (OR: 2.26; 95% CI; 1.29-5.56; P = 0.037) were significant risk factors for HCV infection. CONCLUSION: This study identifies risk factors for HCV transmission in Mexico in HIV positive MSM in congruence with the findings of many studies performed worldwide. This is the first study that indicates a possible association between ethyl chloride use in chemsex and HCV infection. Assessment of local populations for risk factors for HCV transmission may help to develop specifically targeted behavioral interventions to reduce HCV transmission.


Subject(s)
Ethyl Chloride , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/complications , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e99, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947147

ABSTRACT

We investigated risk factors associated with COVID-19 by conducting a retrospective, frequency-matched case-control study, with three sampling periods (August-October 2020). We compared cases completing routine contact tracing to asymptomatic population controls. Multivariable analyses estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for non-household community settings. Meta-analyses using random effects provided pooled odds ratios (pORs). Working in healthcare (pOR 2.87; aORs 2.72, 2.81, 3.08, for study periods 1-3 respectively), social care (pOR 4.15; aORs 2.46, 5.06, 5.41, for study periods 1-3 respectively) or hospitality (pOR 2.36; aORs 2.01, 2.54, 2.63, for study periods 1-3 respectively) were associated with increased odds of being a COVID-19 case. Additionally, working in bars, pubs and restaurants, warehouse settings, construction, educational settings were significantly associated. While definitively determining where transmission occurs is impossible, we provide evidence that in certain sectors, the impact of mitigation measures may only be partial and reinforcement of measures should be considered in these settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace
3.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(6): 748-757, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with cancer are at increased risk of hospitalisation and death following infection with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we aimed to conduct one of the first evaluations of vaccine effectiveness against breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with cancer at a population level. METHODS: In this population-based test-negative case-control study of the UK Coronavirus Cancer Evaluation Project (UKCCEP), we extracted data from the UKCCEP registry on all SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results (from the Second Generation Surveillance System), vaccination records (from the National Immunisation Management Service), patient demographics, and cancer records from England, UK, from Dec 8, 2020, to Oct 15, 2021. Adults (aged ≥18 years) with cancer in the UKCCEP registry were identified via Public Health England's Rapid Cancer Registration Dataset between Jan 1, 2018, and April 30, 2021, and comprised the cancer cohort. We constructed a control population cohort from adults with PCR tests in the UKCCEP registry who were not contained within the Rapid Cancer Registration Dataset. The coprimary endpoints were overall vaccine effectiveness against breakthrough infections after the second dose (positive PCR COVID-19 test) and vaccine effectiveness against breakthrough infections at 3-6 months after the second dose in the cancer cohort and control population. FINDINGS: The cancer cohort comprised 377 194 individuals, of whom 42 882 had breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections. The control population consisted of 28 010 955 individuals, of whom 5 748 708 had SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections. Overall vaccine effectiveness was 69·8% (95% CI 69·8-69·9) in the control population and 65·5% (65·1-65·9) in the cancer cohort. Vaccine effectiveness at 3-6 months was lower in the cancer cohort (47·0%, 46·3-47·6) than in the control population (61·4%, 61·4-61·5). INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 vaccination is effective for individuals with cancer, conferring varying levels of protection against breakthrough infections. However, vaccine effectiveness is lower in patients with cancer than in the general population. COVID-19 vaccination for patients with cancer should be used in conjunction with non-pharmacological strategies and community-based antiviral treatment programmes to reduce the risk that COVID-19 poses to patients with cancer. FUNDING: University of Oxford, University of Southampton, University of Birmingham, Department of Health and Social Care, and Blood Cancer UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Viral Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on COVID-19 has mostly focused on transmission, mortality and morbidity associated with the virus. However, less attention has been given to its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with COVID-19 and evaluate its impact on the HRQoL of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out between September 2021 and March 2022 on 1105 participants. A total of 354 were COVID-19 survivors and 751 were the control group. The HRQoL was assessed using both EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D generic instruments. RESULTS: The average age of all participants was 56.17 ± 15.46. Older age, urban area, tobacco use, presence of chronic diseases especially type 1 diabetes, kidney and cardiovascular diseases were significantly associated with COVID-19. The COVID-19 survivors had significantly lower HRQoL (EQ-VAS = 50.89) compared to the control group (EQ-VAS = 63.36) (p-value < 0.0001). Pain/ discomfort and anxiety/depression were the most negatively affected by COVID-19 (p-value < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study could help healthcare professionals and policy makers to better understand the HRQoL sequelae among the COVID-19 survivors and contribute to develop tailored interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Health Status , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors
5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 187, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938327

ABSTRACT

Some COVID-19 patients experience dyspnea without objective impairment of pulmonary or cardiac function. This study determined diaphragm function and its central voluntary activation as a potential correlate with exertional dyspnea after COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in ten patients and matched controls. One year post discharge, both pulmonary function tests and echocardiography were normal. However, six patients with persisting dyspnea on exertion showed impaired volitional diaphragm function and control based on ultrasound, magnetic stimulation and balloon catheter-based recordings. Diaphragm dysfunction with impaired voluntary activation can be present 1 year after severe COVID-19 ARDS and may relate to exertional dyspnea.This prospective case-control study was registered under the trial registration number NCT04854863 April, 22 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Patient Discharge , Physical Exertion , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 558, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite their importance to current and future patient care, medical students' hygiene behaviors and acquisition of practical skills have rarely been studied in previous observational study. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical student's hygiene and practical skills. METHODS: This case-control study assessed the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on hygiene behavior by contrasting the practical skills and hygiene adherence of 371 medical students post the pandemic associated lockdown in March 2020 with that of 355 medical students prior to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Students' skills were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Their skills were then compared based on their results in hygienic venipuncture and the total OSCE score. RESULTS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, medical students demonstrated an increased level of compliance regarding hand hygiene before (prior COVID-19: 83.7%; during COVID-19: 94.9%; p < 0.001) and after patient contact (prior COVID-19: 19.4%; during COVID-19: 57.2%; p = 0.000) as well as disinfecting the puncture site correctly (prior COVID-19: 83.4%; during COVID-19: 92.7%; p < 0.001). Prior to the pandemic, students were more proficient in practical skills, such as initial venipuncture (prior COVID-19: 47.6%; during COVID-19: 38%; p < 0.041), patient communication (prior COVID-19: 85.9%; during COVID-19: 74.1%; p < 0.001) and structuring their work process (prior COVID-19: 74.4%; during COVID-19: 67.4%; p < 0.024). CONCLUSION: Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic sensitized medical students' attention and adherence to hygiene requirements, while simultaneously reducing the amount of practice opportunities, thus negatively affecting their practical skills. The latter development may have to be addressed by providing additional practice opportunities for students as soon as the pandemic situation allows.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Competence , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phlebotomy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Immunogenet ; 49(4): 243-253, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937936

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the pathogenesis is unclear. Host genetic background is one of the main factors influencing the patients' susceptibility to several viral infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association between host genetic polymorphisms of two genes, including vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and susceptibility to COVID-19 in a sample of the Iranian population. This case-control study enrolled 188 hospitalized COVID-19 patients as the case group and 218 suspected COVID-19 patients with mild signs as the control group. The VDR (rs7975232, rs731236 and rs2228570) and DBP (rs7041) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction - Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. A significant association between rs2228570 SNP in the VDR gene and the susceptibility of COVID-19 was found between case and control groups. The CT genotype (Heterozygous) of rs2228570 C > T polymorphism showed significant association with a 3.088 fold increased odds of COVID-19 (p < .0001; adjusted OR: 3.088; 95% CI: 1.902-5.012). In addition, a significant association between CC genotype of rs2228570 CT polymorphism and increased odds of COVID-19 in male and female groups (p = .001; adjusted OR: 3.125; 95% CI: 1.630-5.991 and p = .002; adjusted OR: 3.071; 95% CI: 1.485-6.354 respectively) were determined. Our results revealed no significant differences in the frequency of genotype and allele of VDR (rs7975232 and rs731236) and DBP (rs7041) between SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and controls (p > .05). Our results showed that polymorphism of VDR (rs2228570) probably could influence individual susceptibility to COVID-19. The polymorphisms of VDR (rs7975232 and rs731236) and DBP (rs7041) were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12133, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937443

ABSTRACT

To determine whether immigrant background and socioeconomic status were associated with increased risk to develop severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation at the intensive care unit and to study their effects on 90-day mortality. Nationwide case-control study with personal-level data from the Swedish Intensive Care register linked with socioeconomic data from Statistics Sweden and comorbidity data from the national patient register. For each case of COVID-19 treated with mechanical ventilation at the intensive care unit (outcome), 10 population controls were matched for age, sex and area of residence. Logistic and Cox regression were used to study the association between the exposure (immigrant background, income and educational level) and 90-day mortality. In total, 4 921 cases and 49 210 controls were matched. In the adjusted model, the risk of severe COVID-19 was highest in individuals born in Asia (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.69), South America (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.82-2.98) and Africa (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.76-2.50). Post-secondary education was associated with a lower risk of severe COVID-19 (OR = 0.75, CI = 0.69-0.82) as was the highest (vs. lowest) income quintile (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.77-0.97). In the fully adjusted Cox-regression analysis birth region of Africa (OR 1.38, CI = 1.03-1.86) and high income (OR 0.75, CI 0.63-0.89) were associated with 90-day mortality. Immigrant background, educational level and income were independently associated with acquiring severe COVID-19 with need for mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care , Humans , Social Class , Sweden/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271381, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We used SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and electronic health record (EHR) data to investigate the associations between viral genomes and clinical characteristics and severe outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of severe COVID-19 infection among patients hospitalized at a large academic referral hospital between March 2020 and May 2021. SARS-CoV-2 WGS was performed, and demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained from the EHR. Severe COVID-19 (case patients) was defined as having one or more of the following: requirement for supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or death during hospital admission. Controls were hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who did not meet the criteria for severe infection. We constructed predictive models incorporating clinical and demographic variables as well as WGS data including lineage, clade, and SARS-CoV-2 SNP/GWAS data for severe COVID-19 using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1,802 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, we performed WGS on samples collected from 590 patients, of whom 396 were case patients and 194 were controls. Age (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.032), test positive time period (p = 0.001), Charlson comorbidity index (p = 0.001), history of chronic heart failure (p = 0.003), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.002), or diabetes (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with case-control status. SARS-CoV-2 WGS data did not appreciably change the results of the above risk factor analysis, though infection with clade 20A was associated with a higher risk of severe disease, after adjusting for confounder variables (p = 0.024, OR = 3.25; 95%CI: 1.31-8.06). CONCLUSIONS: Among people hospitalized with COVID-19, older age, higher BMI, earlier test positive period, history of chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or diabetes, and infection with clade 20A SARS-CoV-2 strains can predict severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Electronic Health Records , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with thromboembolism. Antiphospholipid antibody (APLa) formation is one of the mechanisms. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with thrombosis in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Measure APLa and vitamin D in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with and without thrombosis to evaluate if thromboembolism is associated with concomitant APLa and vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: Case-control study. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a thromboembolic event (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, Cases n = 20). Controls (n = 20): Age, sex-matched without thromboembolic events. Patients with autoimmune disorders, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombophilia, anticoagulation therapy, prior thromboembolism, chronic kidney disease 3b, 4, end-stage renal disease, and malignancy were excluded. Given the limited current literature on the role of concomitant antiphospholipid antibodies and vitamin D deficiency in causing venous and/or arterial thrombosis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we enrolled 20 patients in each arm. Anti-cardiolipin IgG/IgM, beta-2 glycoprotein-1 IgG/IgM, lupus anticoagulant and vitamin D levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS: Cases were 5.7 times more likely to be vitamin D deficient (OR:5.7, 95% CI:1.3-25.6) and 7.4 times more likely to have any one APLa (OR:7.4, 95% CI: 1.6-49.5) while accounting for the effects of sex. Patients with both APLa and vitamin D deficiency had significantly more thrombosis compared to patients who were antibody positive without vitamin D deficiency (100% vs 47.4%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Thrombosis in COVID-19 was associated with concomitant APLa and vitamin D deficiency. Future studies in COVID-19 should assess the role of vitamin D in reducing thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
11.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise training (ET) programs on respiratory performance, exercise capacity, and quality of life in fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILD). METHODS: A case-control study where 31 patients with f-ILD diagnosis based on chest high-resolution computed tomography were recruited from Main Alexandria University hospital-Egypt. Ten patients were randomly assigned for only lower limbs (LL) endurance training program, and 10 patients for upper limbs, lower limbs, and breathing exercises (ULB) program for consecutive 18 sessions (3 sessions/week for 6 consecutive weeks). Eleven patients who refused to participate in the ET program were considered as control. All patients were subjected for St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), forced spirometry and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) before and after ET programs. RESULTS: Fibrosing non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and collagenic associated-ILD were the commonest pathologies among the ET groups (30% each) with mean age of 44.4±12.25 and 41.90±7.58 years for LL and ULB groups respectively and moderate-to-severe lung restriction. 6-MWT and SGRQ significantly improved after both ET programs (p<0.001). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) improved significantly after both LL training (median of 22 (interquartile range (IQR) = 17.0-24.0) vs. 17.5 (IQR = 13.0-23.0) ml/kg/min, p = 0.032) and ULB training (median of 13.5 (IQR = 11.0-21.0) vs. 10.5 (IQR = 5.0-16.0) ml/kg/min, p = 0.018). Further, maximal work load and minute ventilation (VE) significantly improved after both types of ET training (p<0.05); however, neither ventilation equivalent (VE/VCO2) nor FVC% improved after ET (p = 0.052 and 0.259 respectively). There were no statistically significant important differences between LL and ULB training programs regarding 6-MWT, SGRQ or CPET parameters (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ET was associated with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life in f-ILD patients irrespective of the type of ET program provided.


Subject(s)
Exercise Tolerance , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Exercise , Exercise Test , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Middle Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Quality of Life
12.
J Int Med Res ; 50(7): 3000605221110493, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The role of ABO types and RhD antigen in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has been investigated in several recent studies. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the relationship of ABO and RhD types with symptomatic COVID-19 disease and determine the groups associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. METHODS: This observational case-control study was performed in 530 Iraqi-Kurdish patients with COVID-19. Among them, 184 were severe cases that required hospitalization, while 346 were mild to moderate cases that were treated at home. ABO and RhD antigen groups were compared between cases and 1698 control records from 1 year before the pandemic. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on real-time polymerase chain reaction tests and high-resolution chest computed tomography scans with the typical clinical presentation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ABO and RhD antigen distributions between the COVID-19 cases and non-COVID controls. No ABO group was associated with the risk of hospitalization as a marker of the severity of infection. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between symptomatic COVID-19 disease and any ABO group or RhD antigen type. No impact of ABO groups on hospitalization was documented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(7): e24483, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This case-control study was designed to compare the composition of the predominant oral bacterial microbiome in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control group. SUBJECT: A total of 30 adult participants (15 AD and 15 healthy individuals) were entered in this study. The composition of oral bacterial microbiome was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using bacterial 16S rDNA gene. The levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines in both groups were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). RESULTS: The loads of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia were significantly more abundant in the AD compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Although Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans were relatively frequent in the AD group, no significance difference was observed in their copy number between two groups. Although the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α were higher in the AD group, there was a significant difference in their levels between the two groups (p < 0.05). Finally, there was a significant relationship between increased number of pathogenic bacteria in oral microbiome and higher concentration of cytokines in patient's blood. CONCLUSION: Our knowledge of oral microbiome and its exact association with AD is rather limited; our study showed a significant association between changes in oral microbiome bacteria, increased inflammatory cytokines, and AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Microbiota , Mouth , Adult , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Alzheimer Disease/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines , Humans , Mouth/microbiology , Pilot Projects
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite under-reporting, health workers (HWs) accounted for 2 to 30% of the reported COVID-19 cases worldwide. In line with data from other countries, Jordan recorded multiple case surges among HWs. METHODS: Based on the standardized WHO UNITY case-control study protocol on assessing risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in HWs, HWs with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited as cases from eight hospitals in Jordan. HWs exposed to COVID-19 patients in the same setting but without infection were recruited as controls. The study lasted approximately two months (from early January to early March 2021). Regression models were used to analyse exposure risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in HWs; conditional logistic regressions were utilized to estimate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for the confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 358 (102 cases and 256 controls) participants were included in the analysis. The multivariate analysis showed that being exposed to COVID-19 patients within 1 metre for more than 15 minutes increased three-fold the odds of infection (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.25-6.86). Following IPC standard precautions when in contact with patients was a significant protective factor. The multivariate analysis showed that suboptimal adherence to hand hygiene increased the odds of infection by three times (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.25-8.08). CONCLUSION: Study findings confirmed the role of hand hygiene as one of the most cost-effective measures to combat the spreading of viral infections. Future studies based on the same protocol will enable additional interpretations and confirmation of the Jordan experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Risk Factors
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 632, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunological protection via breastfeeding is well known. The immunological profile of human milk changes during lactation. No clinical trials have been conducted in lactating women with the newest mRNA vaccines against SARS- CoV-2. A Few studies have shown the presence of antibodies in breastmilk after vaccination. The aim of this work is to study possible antibodies transfer via breastmilk and also the immunological characteristics of lactating women compared to non-lactating women, after using the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study with a convenience homogenous sample of 24 healthcare workers (14 lactating and 10 non-lactating women) enrolled at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Clinical data was registered in a questionnaire. Titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG, IgA and IgM were quantified in post vaccination blood and human milk. Antibody quantification was performed by an in-house ELISA to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein. RESULTS: All women showed immunity after vaccination with positive antibodies for IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies. The dominant serum antibody response was IgG. Modest levels of antibodies in breastmilk of lactating mothers were observed in this study, especially IgG in 42.9%. There was a moderate association between higher titers of IgG and a longer duration of breastfeeding (R= 0.55, p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of antibody transfer in human milk after COVID-19 vaccination is scarce. The presence of antibodies in human milk is reported, but immunization through breastfeeding is still to be established.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lactation/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Prospective Studies
16.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924303

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, but it is not clear if reduced serum vitamin D predisposes individuals to COVID-19 and/or is a secondary consequence of infection. This study assessed the temporal association between serum vitamin D and COVID-19 with two single-institution case-control studies through the University of California San Diego (UCSD) Health System. (2) Methods: This study included patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from 1 January to 30 September 2020 with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) measured within 180 days of diagnosis. Patients were separated based on whether 25(OH)D was measured before (n = 107 cases, 214 controls) or after (n = 203 cases, 406 controls) COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 infection status was the outcome variable in the pre-diagnosis study, whereas serum 25(OH)D level was the outcome variable in the post-diagnosis study. (3) Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the odds of subsequent COVID-19 infection (OR 1.0, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.0, p = 0.98). However, COVID-19-positive individuals had serum 25(OH)D measurements that were 2.7 ng/mL lower than the controls (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.2, p = 0.03). (4) Conclusions: In our study population, serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection but were reduced in subjects after COVID-19 infection. These results support the possibility that reduced serum 25(OH)D is a consequence and not a cause of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Vitamin D
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1624-1641, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924007

ABSTRACT

We evaluated whether demographics and COVID-19 symptoms predicted COVID-19 deaths among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United States by comparing COVID-19 deaths in HCWs with 3 control groups (HCW nondeaths, non-HCW deaths, and non-HCW nondeaths) using a case-control design. We obtained patient-level data of 33 variables reported during January 1, 2020-October 12, 2021, in all US states. We used logistic regression analysis while controlling for confounders. We found that persons who were >50 years of age, male, Black, or Asian experienced significantly more deaths than matched controls. In addition, HCWs who died had higher risks for the most severe clinical indicators. We also found that the most indicative symptoms were preexisting medical conditions, shortness of breath, fever, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In summary, minority, male, and older HCWs had greater risk for COVID-19 death. Severe clinical indicators and specific symptoms may predict COVID-19-related deaths among HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Fever , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 195, 2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: PEEP selection in severe COVID-19 patients under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is challenging as no study has assessed the alveolar recruitability in this setting. The aim of the study was to compare lung recruitability and the impact of PEEP on lung aeration in moderate and severe ARDS patients with or without ECMO, using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We conducted a two-center prospective observational case-control study in adult COVID-19-related patients who had an indication for CT within 72 h of ARDS onset in non-ECMO patients or within 72  h after ECMO onset. Ninety-nine patients were included, of whom 24 had severe ARDS under ECMO, 59 severe ARDS without ECMO and 16 moderate ARDS. RESULTS: Non-inflated lung at PEEP 5 cmH2O was significantly greater in ECMO than in non-ECMO patients. Recruitment induced by increasing PEEP from 5 to 15 cmH2O was not significantly different between ECMO and non-ECMO patients, while PEEP-induced hyperinflation was significantly lower in the ECMO group and virtually nonexistent. The median [IQR] fraction of recruitable lung mass between PEEP 5 and 15 cmH2O was 6 [4-10]%. Total superimposed pressure at PEEP 5 cmH2O was significantly higher in ECMO patients and amounted to 12 [11-13] cmH2O. The hyperinflation-to-recruitment ratio (i.e., a trade-off index of the adverse effects and benefits of PEEP) was significantly lower in ECMO patients and was lower than one in 23 (96%) ECMO patients, 41 (69%) severe non-ECMO patients and 8 (50%) moderate ARDS patients. Compliance of the aerated lung at PEEP 5 cmH2O corrected for PEEP-induced recruitment (CBABY LUNG) was significantly lower in ECMO patients than in non-ECMO patients and was linearly related to the logarithm of the hyperinflation-to-recruitment ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Lung recruitability of COVID-19 pneumonia is not significantly different between ECMO and non-ECMO patients, with substantial interindividual variations. The balance between hyperinflation and recruitment induced by PEEP increase from 5 to 15 cmH2O appears favorable in virtually all ECMO patients, while this PEEP level is required to counteract compressive forces leading to lung collapse. CBABY LUNG is significantly lower in ECMO patients, independently of lung recruitability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 241, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is considered to cause high mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Old age, comorbidities and acute kidney injury are known risk factors for increased mortality in KTR. Nevertheless, mortality rates have varied across different regions. Differences in age, comorbidities and varying standards of care across geographies may explain some variations. However, it is still unclear whether post-transplant duration, induction therapy, antirejection therapy and co-infections contribute to increased mortality in KTR with COVID-19. The present study assessed risk factors in a large cohort from India. METHODS: A matched case-control study was performed to analyze risk factors for death in KTR (N = 218) diagnosed with COVID-19 between April 2020 to July 2021 at the study centre. Cases were KTR who died (non-survivors, N = 30), whereas those who survived were taken as controls (survivors, N = 188). RESULTS: A high death-to-case ratio of 13.8% was observed amongst study group KTR infected with COVID-19. There was a high incidence (12.4%) of co-infections, with cytomegalovirus being the most common co-infection among non-survivors. Diarrhea, co-infection, high oxygen requirement, and need for mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with mortality on regression analyses. Antirejection therapy, lymphopenia and requirement for renal replacement therapy were associated with worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality was much higher in KTR who required mechanical ventilation and had co-infections. Mortality did not vary with the type of transplant, post-transplant duration and usage of depletion induction therapy. An aggressive approach has to be taken for an early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of associated infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Kidney Transplantation , Case-Control Studies , Coinfection/etiology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients
20.
BMJ ; 378: o1313, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923196

ABSTRACT

The studyAntonelli M, Penfold RS, Merino J, et al. Risk factors and disease profile of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app: a prospective, community-based, nested, case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 2022;22:1.To read the full NIHR Alert, go to: https://evidence.nihr.ac.uk/alert/older-people-at-risk-from-covid-even-after-vaccine/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Frail Elderly , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL