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1.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101802, 2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106168

ABSTRACT

Here, we present a protocol to characterize the antiviral ability of a protein of interest to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured cells, using MUC1 as an example. We use SARS-CoV-2 ΔN trVLP system, which utilizes transcription and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles lacking nucleocapsid gene. We describe the optimized procedure to analyze protein interference of viral attachment and entry into cells, and qRT-PCR-based quantification of viral infection. The protocol can be applied to characterize more antiviral candidates and clarify their functioning stage. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Lai et al. (2022).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleocapsid , Cell Line , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 152: 236-244, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069657

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) envelope protein (E) is recognized as a viroporin that plays important functions in virus budding, assembly and virulence. Our previous study found that PEDV E protein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), as well as suppresses the type I interferon (IFN) response, but their link and underlying mechanism remain obscure. To better understand this relationship, we investigated the roles of PEDV E protein-induced ERS in regulating cellular type I IFN production. Our results showed that PEDV E protein localized in the ER and triggered ERS through activation of PERK/eIF2α branch, as revealed by the up-regulated phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α. PEDV E protein also significantly inhibited both poly(I:C)-induced and RIG-I signaling-mediated type I interferon production. The PERK/eIF2α branch of ERS activated by PEDV E protein led to the translation attenuation of RIG-I signaling-associated antiviral proteins, resulting in the suppression of type I IFN production. However, PEDV E protein had no effect on the mRNA transcription of RIG-I-associated molecules. Moreover, suppression of ERS with 4-PBA, a widely used ERS inhibitor, restored the expression of RIG-I-signaling-associated antiviral proteins and mRNA transcription of IFN-ß and ISGs genes to their normal levels, suggesting that PEDV E protein blocks the production of type I IFN through inhibiting expression of antiviral proteins caused by ERS-mediated translation attenuation. This study elucidates the mechanism by which PEDV E protein specifically modulates the ERS to inhibit type I IFN production, which will augment our understanding of PEDV E protein-mediated virus evasion of host innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Cell Line , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 , RNA, Messenger , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17047, 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062257

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the global pandemic that affected our population in the past 2 years. Considerable research has been done to better understand the pathophysiology of this disease and to identify new therapeutic targets, especially for severe cases. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a receptor present at the surface of different cell types, namely epithelial and inflammatory cells, which has been described as a severity marker in COVID-19. The activation of Gal-3 through its binding protein (Gal-3BP) is directly linked to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute for the cytokine storm (CS) observed in severe COVID-19 patients. Here, we show that D2, a recombinant fragment of the lectin-binding region of Gal-3BP was able to stimulate the expression of IL-6 in colon and lung epithelial cell lines in ß-galactoside dependent manner. We further show that D2-induced IL-6 augmentation was reduced by the anti-Gal-3BP monoclonal antibody 1959. Our data confirm and extend prior findings of Gal-3BP mediated IL-6 induction, enlightening the potential of its antibody-mediated s blockage for the prevention and treatment of CS and severe disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carrier Proteins , Cell Line , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Galectin 3/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism
6.
Bioorg Chem ; 129: 106185, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060449

ABSTRACT

The evolving SARS-CoV-2 epidemic buffets the world, and the concerted efforts are needed to explore effective drugs. Mpro is an intriguing antiviral target for interfering with viral RNA replication and transcription. In order to get potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, we established an enzymatic assay using a fluorogenic substrate to screen the inhibitors of Mpro. Fortunately, Acriflavine (ACF) and Proflavine Hemisulfate (PRF) with the same acridine scaffold were picked out for their good inhibitory activity against Mpro with IC50 of 5.60 ± 0.29 µM and 2.07 ± 0.01 µM, respectively. Further evaluation of MST assay and enzymatic kinetics experiment in vitro showed that they had a certain affinity to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and were both non-competitive inhibitors. In addition, they inhibited about 90 % HCoV-OC43 replication in BHK-21 cells at 1 µM. Both compounds showed nano-molar activities against SARS-CoV-2 virus, which were superior to GC376 for anti-HCoV-43, and equivalent to the standard molecule remdesivir. Our study demonstrated that ACF and PRF were inhibitors of Mpro, and ACF has been previously reported as a PLpro inhibitor. Taken together, ACF and PRF might be dual-targeted inhibitors to provide protection against infections of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Acriflavine , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors , Proflavine , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Protease Inhibitors , Acriflavine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Proflavine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Animals , Cricetinae , Cell Line , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Microb Genom ; 8(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042679

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has identified viral circular RNAs (circRNAs) in human cells infected by viruses, interfering with the immune system and inducing diseases including human cancer. However, the biogenesis and regulatory mechanisms of virus-encoded circRNAs in host cells remain unknown. In this study, we used the circRNA detection tool CIRI2 to systematically determine the virus-encoded circRNAs in virus-infected cancer cell lines and cancer patients, by analysing RNA-Seq datasets derived from RNase R-treated samples. Based on the thousands of viral circRNAs we identified, the biological characteristics and potential roles of viral circRNAs in regulating host cell function were determined. In addition, we developed a Viral-circRNA Database (http://www.hywanglab.cn/vcRNAdb/), which is open to all users to search, browse and download information on circRNAs encoded by viruses upon infection.


Subject(s)
RNA, Circular , Viruses , Cell Line , Humans , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , Viruses/genetics
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(9): e3001787, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029766

ABSTRACT

Writing in PLOS Biology, Ching and colleagues show that ACE2-decorated exosomes are deployed as natural inhibitory decoys against SARS-CoV-2. High decoy levels correlate with improved patient outcomes, suggesting they directly help COVID-19 recovery and supporting the concept of successful future decoy-based therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cell Line , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024253

ABSTRACT

Acutely infectious new world alphaviruses such as Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) pose important challenges to the human population due to a lack of effective therapeutic intervention strategies. Small interfering RNAs that can selectively target the viral genome (vsiRNAs) has been observed to offer survival advantages in several in vitro and in vivo models of acute virus infections, including alphaviruses such as Chikungunya virus and filoviruses such as Ebola virus. In this study, novel vsiRNAs that targeted conserved regions in the nonstructural and structural genes of the VEEV genome were designed and evaluated for antiviral activity in mammalian cells in the context of VEEV infection. The data demonstrate that vsiRNAs were able to effectively decrease the infectious virus titer at earlier time points post infection in the context of the attenuated TC-83 strain and the virulent Trinidad Donkey strain, while the inhibition was overcome at later time points. Depletion of Argonaute 2 protein (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC complex, negated the inhibitory effect of the vsiRNAs, underscoring the involvement of the siRNA pathway in the inhibition process. Depletion of the RNAi pathway proteins Dicer, MOV10, TRBP2 and Matrin 3 decreased viral load in infected cells, alluding to an impact of the RNAi pathway in the establishment of a productive infection. Additional studies focused on rational combinations of effective vsiRNAs and delivery strategies to confer better in vivo bioavailability and distribution to key target tissues such as the brain can provide effective solutions to treat encephalitic diseases resulting from alphavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine , RNA, Small Interfering , Animals , Cell Line , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/physiology , Horses , Humans , RNA Helicases , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Virus Replication
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921613, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009864

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence supports the ability of eugenol to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and anti-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo; however, whether eugenol alleviates virus-mediated intestinal barrier damage and inflammation remains a mystery. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in piglets and significantly impacts the global swine industry. Here, we found that eugenol could alleviate TGEV-induced intestinal functional impairment and inflammatory responses in piglets. Our results indicated that eugenol improved feed efficiency in TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol not only increased serum immunoglobulin concentration (IgG) but also significantly decreased serum inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α) in TGEV-infected piglets. In addition, eugenol also significantly decreased the expression of NF-κB mRNA and the phosphorylation level of NF-κB P65 protein in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol increased villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum, and decreased serum D-lactic acid levels. Importantly, eugenol increased tight junction protein (ZO-1) and mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporter-related genes (GluT-2 and CaT-1) in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Meanwhile, compared with TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, treatment with eugenol reduced the cell cytopathic effect, attenuated the inflammatory response. Interestingly, eugenol did not increase the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin in IPEC-J2 cells. However, western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that eugenol restored TGEV-induced down-regulation of ZO-1 and Occludin, while BAY11-7082 (The NF-κB specific inhibitor) enhanced the regulatory ability of eugenol. Our findings demonstrated that eugenol attenuated TGEV-induced intestinal injury by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Eugenol may offer some therapeutic opportunities for coronavirus-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus/metabolism , Eugenol/pharmacology , Eugenol/therapeutic use , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Occludin , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 984448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987499

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs) including type I/III IFNs are the major components of the host innate immune response against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and several viral proteins have been identified to antagonize type I/III IFNs productions through diverse strategies. However, the modulation of PEDV infection upon the activation of the host's innate immune response has not been fully characterized. In this study, we observed that various IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were upregulated significantly in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LLC-PK1 cells infected with the PEDV G2 strain FJzz1. The transcriptions of IRF9 and STAT1 were increased markedly in the late stage of FJzz1 infection and the promotion of the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1, implicating the activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway during FJzz1 infection. In addition, abundant type I/III IFNs were produced after FJzz1 infection. However, type I/III IFNs and ISGs decreased greatly in FJzz1-infected LLC-PK1 cells following the silencing of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), including RIG-I and MDA5, and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. Altogether, FJzz1 infection induces the production of type-I/III IFNs in LLC-PK1 cells, in which RLRs and TLRs signaling pathways are involved, followed by the activation of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, triggering the production of numerous ISGs to exert antiviral effects of innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Cell Line , Signal Transduction , Swine , Toll-Like Receptors
13.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969491

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute, high-mortality-rate, severe infectious disease caused by an emerging MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes severe respiratory diseases. The continuous spread and great pandemic potential of MERS-CoV make it necessarily important to develop effective vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the application of Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as a bacterial vector displaying the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS vaccine candidate that is capable of producing potential neutralization antibodies. We have also used the rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector to design a recombinant vaccine by expressing the MERS-CoV S1 (spike) protein on the surface of the RV. In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends in humoral and cellular immune responses in the same animal model. This discovery not only provides more alternative vaccine development platforms for MERS-CoV vaccine development, but also provides a theoretical basis for our future selection of vaccine vector platforms for other specific pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Rabies virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
14.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964113

ABSTRACT

Membrane fusion constitutes an essential step in the replication cycle of numerous viral pathogens, hence it represents an important druggable target. In the present study, we established a virus-free, stable reporter fusion inhibition assay (SRFIA) specifically designed to identify compounds interfering with virus-induced membrane fusion. The dual reporter assay is based on two stable Vero cell lines harboring the third-generation tetracycline (Tet3G) transactivator and a bicistronic reporter gene cassette under the control of the tetracycline responsive element (TRE3G), respectively. Cell-cell fusion by the transient transfection of viral fusogens in the presence of doxycycline results in the expression of the reporter enzyme secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and the fluorescent nuclear localization marker EYFPNuc. A constitutively expressed, secreted form of nanoluciferase (secNLuc) functioned as the internal control. The performance of the SRFIA was tested for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2- and HSV-1-induced cell-cell fusion, respectively, showing high sensitivity and specificity, as well as the reliable identification of known fusion inhibitors. Parallel quantification of secNLuc enabled the detection of cytotoxic compounds or insufficient transfection efficacy. In conclusion, the SRFIA reported here is well suited for high-throughput screening for new antiviral agents and essentially will be applicable to all viral fusogens causing cell-cell fusion in Vero cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genes, Reporter , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Humans , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tetracyclines , Vero Cells
15.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0061822, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962091

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the globally distributed alphacoronavirus that can cause lethal watery diarrhea in piglets, causing substantial economic damage. However, the current commercial vaccines cannot effectively the existing diseases. Thus, it is of great necessity to identify the host antiviral factors and the mechanism by which the host immune system responds against PEDV infection required to be explored. The current work demonstrated that the host protein, the far upstream element-binding protein 3 (FUBP3), could be controlled by the transcription factor TCFL5, which could suppress PEDV replication through targeting and degrading the nucleocapsid (N) protein of the virus based on selective autophagy. For the ubiquitination of the N protein, FUBP3 was found to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8, which was then identified, transported to, and degraded in autolysosomes via NDP52/CALCOCO2 (cargo receptors), resulting in impaired viral proliferation. Additionally, FUBP3 was found to positively regulate type-I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and activate the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting and increasing the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). Collectively, this study showed a novel mechanism of FUBP3-mediated virus restriction, where FUBP3 was found to degrade the viral N protein and induce IFN-I production, aiming to hinder the replication of PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV refers to the alphacoronavirus that is found globally and has re-emerged recently, causing severe financial losses. In PEDV infection, the host activates various host restriction factors to maintain innate antiviral responses to suppress virus replication. Here, FUBP3 was detected as a new host restriction factor. FUBP3 was found to suppress PEDV replication via the degradation of the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein via E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 as well as the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2. Additionally, FUBP3 upregulated the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting with and increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) expression. This study further demonstrated that another layer of complexity could be added to the selective autophagy and innate immune response against PEDV infection are complicated.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Transcription Factors , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3 , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Vero Cells
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2204539119, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960627

ABSTRACT

Viruses evade the innate immune response by suppressing the production or activity of cytokines such as type I interferons (IFNs). Here we report the discovery of a mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus coopts an intrinsic cellular machinery to suppress the production of the key immunostimulatory cytokine IFN-ß. We reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 encoded nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) directly interacts with the cellular GIGYF2 protein. This interaction enhances the binding of GIGYF2 to the mRNA cap-binding protein 4EHP, thereby repressing the translation of the Ifnb1 mRNA. Depletion of GIGYF2 or 4EHP significantly enhances IFN-ß production, which inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our findings reveal a target for rescuing the antiviral innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and other RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins , Interferon Type I , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10174, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960479

ABSTRACT

Nsp1 is one of the first proteins expressed from the SARS-CoV-2 genome and is a major virulence factor for COVID-19. A rapid multiplexed assay for detecting the action of Nsp1 was developed in cultured lung cells. The assay is based on the acute cytopathic effects induced by Nsp1. Virtual screening was used to stratify compounds that interact with two functional Nsp1 sites: the RNA-binding groove and C-terminal helix-loop-helix region. Experimental screening focused on compounds that could be readily repurposed to treat COVID-19. Multiple synergistic combinations of compounds that significantly inhibited Nsp1 action were identified. Among the most promising combinations are Ponatinib, Rilpivirine, and Montelukast, which together, reversed the toxic effects of Nsp1 to the same extent as null mutations in the Nsp1 gene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virulence Factors
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958595

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic and the possible emergence of new viruses urgently require the rapid development of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics. However, some viruses or newly generated variants are difficult to culture in common cell types or exhibit low viral susceptibility in vivo, making it difficult to manufacture viral vector-based vaccines and understand host-virus interactions. To address these issues, we established new cell lines deficient in both type I and type II interferon responses, which are essential for host immunity and interference with virus replication. These cell lines were generated by developing an integrated CRISPR-Cas9 system that simultaneously expresses dual-guide RNA cassettes and Cas9 nuclease in a single plasmid. Using this highly efficient gene-editing system, we successfully established three cell lines starting from IFN-α/ß-deficient Vero cells, deleting the single interferon-gamma (IFNG) gene, the IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1) gene, or both genes. All cell lines clearly showed a decrease in IFN-γ-responsive antiviral gene expression and cytokine production. Moreover, production of IFN-γ-induced cytokines remained low, even after HSV-1 or HCoV-OC43 infection, while expression of the receptor responsible for viral entry increased. Ultimately, knockout of IFN-signaling genes in these cell lines promoted cytopathic effects and increased apoptosis after viral infection up to three-fold. These results indicate that our integrated CRISPR-Cas9-mediated IFNG- and IFNGR1-knockout cell lines promote virus replication and will be useful in viral studies used to design novel vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Interferon-gamma , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Receptors, Interferon , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
19.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953750

ABSTRACT

Voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv1.3 type are considered a potential new molecular target in several pathologies, including some cancer disorders and COVID-19. Lipophilic non-toxic organic inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels, such as statins and flavonoids, may have clinical applications in supporting the therapy of some cancer diseases, such as breast, pancreas, and lung cancer; melanoma; or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This study focuses on the influence of the co-application of statins-simvastatin (SIM) or mevastatin (MEV)-with flavonoids 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), 6-prenylnarigenin (6-PN), xanthohumol (XANT), acacetin (ACAC), or chrysin on the activity of Kv1.3 channels, viability, and the apoptosis of cancer cells in the human T cell line Jurkat. We showed that the inhibitory effect of co-application of the statins with flavonoids was significantly more potent than the effects exerted by each compound applied alone. Combinations of simvastatin with chrysin, as well as mevastatin with 8-prenylnaringenin, seem to be the most promising. We also found that these results correlate with an increased ability of the statin-flavonoid combination to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in cancer cells compared to single compounds. Our findings suggest that the co-application of statins and flavonoids at low concentrations may increase the effectiveness and safety of cancer therapy. Thus, the simultaneous application of statins and flavonoids may be a new and promising anticancer strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Neoplasms , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kv1.3 Potassium Channel/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Simvastatin/pharmacology
20.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0095822, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949998

ABSTRACT

The spike protein on sarbecovirus virions contains two external, protruding domains: an N-terminal domain (NTD) with unclear function and a C-terminal domain (CTD) that binds the host receptor, allowing for viral entry and infection. While the CTD is well studied for therapeutic interventions, the role of the NTD is far less well understood for many coronaviruses. Here, we demonstrate that the spike NTD from SARS-CoV-2 and other sarbecoviruses binds to unidentified glycans in vitro similarly to other members of the Coronaviridae family. We also show that these spike NTD (S-NTD) proteins adhere to Calu3 cells, a human lung cell line, although the biological relevance of this is unclear. In contrast to what has been shown for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which attaches sialic acids during cell entry, sialic acids present on Calu3 cells inhibited sarbecovirus infection. Therefore, while sarbecoviruses can interact with cell surface glycans similarly to other coronaviruses, their reliance on glycans for entry is different from that of other respiratory coronaviruses, suggesting sarbecoviruses and MERS-CoV have adapted to different cell types, tissues, or hosts during their divergent evolution. Our findings provide important clues for further exploring the biological functions of sarbecovirus glycan binding and adds to our growing understanding of the complex forces that shape coronavirus spike evolution. IMPORTANCE Spike N-terminal domains (S-NTD) of sarbecoviruses are highly diverse; however, their function remains largely understudied compared with the receptor-binding domains (RBD). Here, we show that sarbecovirus S-NTD can be phylogenetically clustered into five clades and exhibit various levels of glycan binding in vitro. We also show that, unlike some coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV, sialic acids present on the surface of Calu3, a human lung cell culture, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and other sarbecoviruses. These results suggest that while glycan binding might be an ancestral trait conserved across different coronavirus families, the functional outcome during infection can vary, reflecting divergent viral evolution. Our results expand our knowledge on the biological functions of the S-NTD across diverse sarbecoviruses and provide insight on the evolutionary history of coronavirus spike.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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