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1.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e177, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106269

ABSTRACT

Limited prospective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) data in children regarding the impact of Omicron variant in seropositivity have been reported. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children between 1 September 2021 and 30 April 2022, representing Delta and Omicron predominance periods. Serum samples from children admitted to the major tertiary Greek paediatric hospital for any cause, except for COVID-19, were randomly collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 natural infection antibodies against nucleocapsid antigen (Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 reagent). A total of 506/1312 (38.6%) seropositive children (0-16 years) were detected (males: 261/506(51.6%); median age (IQR): 95.2 months(24-144)). Seropositivity rates (%) increased from Delta to Omicron period from 29.7% to 48.5% (P-value<0.0001). Seropositivity increased for all age groups, except for the age group of 0-1 year (P-value:0.914). The highest seropositivity rate was detected in April 2022 (52.6%) and reached 73.9% specifically for the age group 12-16 years. No significant differences were detected in seropositivity with respect to gender, origin, or hospitalisation status. Median (IQR) antibody titres were higher in the Omicron vs. Delta period in all age groups, especially in 12-16 years [32.2 COI (7-77.1) vs. 11.4 COI(2.8-50.2), P-value:0.009). During Omicron variant period increased SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was detected in paediatric population, especially in adolescents, implicating either increased transmissibility or reinfection rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Female , Child, Preschool
3.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
4.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(5): 847-864, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105693

ABSTRACT

Adolescent Medicine addresses the health care of adolescents, young adults, and their families. Adolescent psychology constitutes an important part. The COVID-19 pandemic has given insight into adolescent needs, bringing the focus on prevention rather than mere correction. One needs to factor in the unique aspects of adolescence, their need to impress peers and gain acceptance, and their unique information processing, not calculating trade-offs between risk and reward the way adults might, in a linear, rational, logical, and verbal manner. The article focuses on the need for collaborative training among the various stakeholders in Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Medicine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Psychology, Adolescent , Young Adult
5.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(3): 547-571, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105692

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. More than 5 million children have been infected in the United States. Risk factors for more severe disease progression include obesity, pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurologic comorbidities. Children with COVID-19 are admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of severe acute COVID-19 illness or COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The delta surge of 2021 was responsible for an increased disease burden in children and points to the key role of vaccinating children against this sometimes-deadly disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
6.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 490-521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101976

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a rich source of new data and comprehensive reviews on antiviral therapy. For COVID-19, intramuscular sotrovimab was noninferior to intravenous sotrovimab, serostatus did not predict the efficacy of sotrovimab, and molnupiravir appeared safe and modestly effective in decreasing hospitalization rates. Trials from low- and middle-income countries provided data to support transitioning those on first-line therapy with or without virologic suppression and those virologically suppressed on second-line therapy to dolutegravir-based regimens. Additional data supported the use of lenacapavir as a long-acting antiretroviral drug. Data across the United States demonstrate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV care continuum, although enhanced outreach efforts and decentralization of antiretroviral therapy delivery were associated with improvements in care engagement outcomes. Researchers described potential mechanisms for the emergence of integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance. Studies on proviral genotyping high-lighted the limitations of its use in predicting clinically significant resistance. Several studies looked at the epidemiology and treatment of hepatitis C and B and the status of current hepatitis C virus elimination efforts. Data presented on HIV, COVID-19, and maternal and pediatric health included 2-year virologic outcome data of very early antiretroviral therapy in potentially reducing the latent HIV reservoir in infants with HIV. Data presented on COVID-19 and HIV therapeutics in children included SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in children younger than 12 years of age, remdesivir in hospitalized infants and children, and long-acting therapies for HIV treatment in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Latency , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(2): 140-146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100791

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Denial of Pregnancy is a women's subjective lack of awareness of being pregnant. It can be partial (from 20 weeks but lifted before delivery) or complete (the women notice she's pregnant when labour starts). The prevalence is around 1/500 for partial denial and 1/2500 for complete denial. This article's aim is to review the literature broadly on the subject of pregnancy denial, its psychopathological hypothesis and the state of knowledge on the outcome for mothers and children. METHODS: 26 references have been selected bases on a research on pubmed database and through bibliography on the selected papers. RESULTS: Despite a lot of psychopathological hypothesis and some epidemiological studies, no objective knowledge can lead to know what kind of women will deny their pregnancy and how to prevent it. After all the studies on mother characteristics, it seems there are no "clear-cut" explanations on why a woman denies a pregnancy or what type of women could be at risk of denial. There are no official guidelines on how to manage the condition and care for the patient long term. The first elements of research on the developmental outcome for infant seem to show a delay in psychomotor skills and possible speech disorder. They have been significant advancement on the subject of children development after pregnancy denial in the last year but the psychological and developmental impact of pregnancy denial on children and mothers is still majorly unknown. With a clinical picture known for so long, to have so little objective information on how to manage it and on the possible consequences is surprising. CONCLUSION: More research needs to be conducted to objectively know the long term effects of pregnancy denial on the whole family. International consensus should be found on the definition and care management of pregnancy denial.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 287-293, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as pandemic, health workers have shown an incredible commitment to their patients, sometimes in apocalyptic conditions. We explored ways to deal with the coronavirus stressor and psychological outcomes among physicians and nurses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 124 healthcare workers in General Hospital Nasice (Croatia) were invited to participate in a study by performing within the period of March 26 to April 6 2020 questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions that may be risk factors for covid-19 concern, Short form health survey-36, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC; consisting of 8 subscales: Confrontive Coping, Distancing, Self-Controlling, Seeking Social Support, Accepting Responsibility, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving, Positive Reappraisal). RESULTS: 11% healthworkers reports moderate to very-severe depression, 17% moderate to extremely-severe anxiety and 10% for moderate to extremely-severe stress. 67% of medical staff are worried. No statistically significant differences in the scales of depression, anxiety, and stress were found between nurses and physicians, but differences were found on Escape-Avoidance and Positive Reappraisal subscales. Nurses use significantly more avoiding coping style and positive reappraisal than doctors. Seeking social support is more pronounced in those over 40 years old, while those under 40 use more avoidable stress management techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and ensuring the mental health of coronavirus care staff is crucial for global health. The education of medical staff in the field of stress management is a conditio sine qua non of the issue of an adequate relationship with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(20): 7695-7704, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The majority of children experience a mild course of acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Only few studies have looked at long-term recovery from COVID-19 infection in children. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of long-COVID by performing a thorough analysis of the clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics of children with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between August and October 2021, data were obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 251 children diagnosed with COVID-19 at a tertiary single-center hospital. The prognostic effects of admission-related factors were compared between patients who experienced long-lasting symptoms and those who did not. RESULTS: Long-COVID symptoms were noted in 12.4% of patients. Joint pain (7.6%), lumbago (4.8%), and headache (3.2%) were the most common symptoms. The mean onset of long-COVID symptoms was 1.35±0.49 months. The onset of long-COVID symptoms was 4 weeks after initial diagnosis in 64.5% of patients and 4-8 weeks later in 35.5% of the patients. The mean duration of long-COVID symptoms was 5.32±2.51 months. Children with long-COVID had higher leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, platelets, and D-dimer when compared with patients without long-COVID (p < 0.001). Leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, and D-dimer had the highest AUC in the ROC analysis (0.694, 0.658, 0.681, 0.667, and 0.612, respectively) and were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the majority of children with COVID-19 having mild or asymptomatic acute disease, the majority of long-COVID symptoms were associated with functional impairment between 1 and 9 months after the start of the infection. Increased leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, platelets, and D-dimer appear to be the most powerful laboratory predictors for long-COVID and monitoring these predictors may assist clinicians to identify and follow-up patients with higher risk for long-COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2813-2822, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for generating a global pandemic with deadly consequences and life changes worldwide. With the appearance of the new variants of the virus, clinical manifestations have been reported in the pediatric population, some with severe evolution. The aim of this study was to identify the laboratory parameters necessary to establish an effective therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period from August 2020 to September 2021, 234 pediatric patients met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the study. After confirming the COVID-19 diagnosis, laboratory parameters were analyzed and compared to the severity of the illness. RESULTS: Thrombocytopenia (p<0.001), leukocytosis (p<0.001), and lymphopenia (p<0.001) correlated with the severity of the disease. Also, D-dimer values were closely monitored due to the high association of this parameter with an unsatisfactory prognosis and a severe form of the disease. CONCLUSION: The D-dimer values and complete blood count are useful parameters in COVID-19 evaluation in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Biomarkers
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(44): 1396-1400, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100530

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Immunization Agenda 2030, an ambitious global immunization strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report updates a 2020 report (2) with global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends through 2021. Global estimates of coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTPcv3) decreased from an average of 86% during 2015-2019 to 83% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. Worldwide in 2021, 25.0 million infants (19% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTPcv3, 2.1 million more than in 2020 and 5.9 million more than in 2019. In 2021, the number of infants who did not receive any DTPcv dose by age 12 months (18.2 million) was 37% higher than in 2019 (13.3 million). Coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) decreased from an average of 85% during 2015-2019 to 84% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. These are the lowest coverage levels for DTPcv3 and MCV1 since 2008. ​Global coverage estimates were also lower in 2021 than in 2020 and 2019 for bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) as well as for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), polio vaccine (Pol), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in disruptions to routine immunization services worldwide. Full recovery to immunization programs will require context-specific strategies to address immunization gaps by catching up missed children, prioritizing essential health services, and strengthening immunization programs to prevent outbreaks (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Immunization Schedule
14.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 73-77, 2021 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than 90% of children infected with COVID-19 worldwide developed mild to moderate disease. In Colombia, during 2020, COVID-19 infections in children stayed below 9.2% of the total cases, with no trends for age group or sex. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute respiratory symptoms and COVID-19 in children from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia during the second semester of 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in over 5,000 scholar children. Antecedents and use of health services were informed. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: A total of 151.470 persons per day accounting for an IR of 157,8 per 100,000 people; almost three times the rate reported by the official surveillance system in the city. CONCLUSION: A lack of diagnosis and consultation in children was found compared to the general population. Further research is needed to elucidate the true burden of the disease in children.


Introducción. Más del 90% de los niños infectados con COVID-19 en el mundo, desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada. En Colombia, durante el 2020, la infección del COVID-19 en niños se mantuvo por debajo de 9,2 % del total de los casos sin tendencias por grupo de edad o sexo. Objetivo. Estimar la incidencia de síntomas respiratorios agudos y COVID19 en niños de escuelas públicas en Bogotá (Colombia) durante el segundo semestre de 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una encuesta telefónica en más de 5.000 escolares. Se recolectó información de antecedentes médicos y uso de servicios de salud. La información obtenida se describió mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. Se contabilizó un total de 151.470 personas al día para una tasa de incidencia de 157,8 en 100.000 personas, casi tres veces la tasa reportada por el sistema de vigilancia oficial de la ciudad. Conclusión. Se encontraron deficiencias en el diagnóstico y consulta de los niños, al compararlos con la población general. Se necesita más investigación para dilucidar la verdadera carga de la enfermedad en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Colombia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Schools
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100231

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in >554M cases and >6.3M deaths worldwide. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has resulted in a broad range of clinical symptoms differing in severity. Initially, the elderly were identified as particularly susceptible to severe COVID-19, with children experiencing less severe disease. However, as new variants arise, the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is changing, and the disease severity in children is increasing. While environmental impacts on COVID-19 have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. Objective: The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health (PBC) held meeting on September 16, 2021, to explore environmental impacts on infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Methods: The PBC is an international group of environmental scientists and those interested in health outcomes. The PBC met to present preliminary data and discuss the role of exposures to airborne pollutants in enhancing susceptibility to and severity of respiratory tract viral infections, including COVID-19. Findings: Analysis of the literature and data presented identified age as an important factor in vulnerability to air pollution and enhanced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Mechanisms involved in increasing severity of COVID-19 were discussed, and gaps in knowledge were identified. Conclusions: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution enhanced morbidity and mortality to COVID-19 in a pediatric population associated with induction of oxidative stress. In addition, free radicals present on PM can induce rapid changes in the viral genome that can lead to vaccine escape, altered host susceptibility, and viral pathogenicity. Nutritional antioxidant supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of viral infections, inhibit the inflammatory cytokine storm, and boost host immunity and may be of benefit in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environment
16.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100229

ABSTRACT

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease. Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session. Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations. Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environment , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
17.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 296-302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100051

ABSTRACT

Background: The free-of-cost supply could not meet the demand for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in India, so the government approved an injection option with a price. We aimed to determine how much money an individual would be willing to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children and assess the factors determining it. Methods: We conducted a study among all adults visiting the outpatient department of a government tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India, in August 2021. Trained nursing officers combined bidding game and open-ended question methods during personal interviews to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) values. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of 1565 participants was 40.8 (12.2) years with 46.5% (n = 727) males, 70.4% (n = 1102) parents, 50.0% (n = 783) educated upto class 12 and 30.9% (n = 483) belonging to upper-middle socio-economic scale (SES). The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) WTP amount for the first dose and the subsequent/booster dose among the unvaccinated (50.2%, n = 785) and vaccinated (49.8%, n = 780) participants were ₹0 (0-100) and ₹0 (0-200), respectively. The median (IQR) WTP for inoculating children with any COVID-19 vaccine was ₹50 (0-300) in both groups. Significant differences were found in the WTP prices for adult vaccines in both groups concerning age category (P = 0.02), education (P < 0.01) and SES (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Although more than half of the respondents were unwilling to pay for themselves, WTP for COVID-19 vaccination was higher for their children. Policy-makers should consider income, education and age to cap the private sector vaccination price.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Child , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nigeria , India , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1100-1102, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099943
19.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1168-1171, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the application experience and the therapeutic effect of Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir (trade name: Paxlovid) for COVID-19 in children. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data, including collecting the clinical manifestations and clinical outcomes, dynamically monitoring the blood routine, hepatic and renal function and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid results, and observing the related side effects during the treatment, etc, of 3 cases with COVID-19 treated with Paxlovid admitted to Shanghai Children's Hospital (designated referral hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai) from May 1st to June 1st, 2022. Results: The 3 cases were 12, 14, 17 years of age, among which 2 cases were males, 1 case was female. All 3 cases were mild cases with underlying diseases and risk of developing into severe COVID-19, with symptoms of high fever, sore throat and dry cough. The treatment of Paxlovid at 3rd day of symptom onset contributed to the symptom-free after 1-2 days and negative results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after 2-4 days. All patients had no adverse manifestations of gastrointestinal tract and nervous system but a case had little skin rashes, which recovered after the withdrawal of Paxlovid. Three cases had normal hepatic and renal function during the Paxlovid treatment. At 3 months after discharge, no clinical manifestations of post-COVID syndrome were found in all 3 cases. Conclusion: Paxlovid was effective and relatively safe in the treatment of 3 children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Child , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , China
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1153-1157, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099941

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of rapid antigen test based on colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients. Methods: From May 20 to June 5 2022, 76 hospitalized children and their 55 accompanying family members with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the COVID-19 isolation unit of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University (designated referral hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai) enrolled. Their nasopharyngeal swab specimens were consecutively collected. The samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by real-time quantitative. SARS-CoV-2 antigen was tested by immunochromatography. The correlation between the antigen detection results and the change of the cycle threshold (Ct) values were evaluated, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection at different periods after the onset of the disease. Kappa consistency test was conducted to investigate the consistency between the 2 diagnostic methods. Results: Of the enrolled SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infections, 76 were children, including 41 males and 35 females, with an age of 5 (2, 9) years; 55 were accompanying families, including 8 males and 47 females, with an age of 38 (32, 41) years. All 478 samples were simultaneously tested for SARS-CoV-2 antigen and nucleic acid. In any period from disease onset to negative conversion of viral nucleic acid, the overall sensitivity of the rapid antigen test was 48.2% (119/247), the specificity was 98.3% (227/231), and antigen test and nucleic acid test showed moderate consistency (κ=0.46, P<0.05). The sensitivity of antigen test was 100% (82/82) when the Ct value was ≤25. And the sensitivity of antigen test was 8/10, 4/15 and 8.3% (3/36) when the Ct value was 26, 30 and 35, respectively. All antigen tests were negative when Ct value was >35. During the period of 1-2 days, 3-5 days, 6-7 days, 8-10 days and >10 days after onset, the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 antigen test were 5/8 and 5/5, 90.2% (37/41) and 5/5, 88.9% (24/27) and 2/5, 45.0% (36/80) and 94.1% (32/34), 18.7% (17/91) and 98.9% (183/185) respectively. The Ct values of nasopharyngeal swabs were<26 during 2 to 7 days after onset, 28.7±5.0 on day 8, 34.5±2.9 on day 13 and > 35 after 14 days, respectively. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 antigen test in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection shows acceptable sensitivity and specificity within 7 days after onset of disease, and the sensitivity was positively correlated with viral load and negatively correlated with onset time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Male , Child , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , China , COVID-19 Testing
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