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2.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 35(4): 404-412, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160364

ABSTRACT

Vascular research questions can be answered using various study designs. Observational studies are used frequently to address a wide range of clinical questions when randomized clinical trials are not feasible or practical. One of the powerful vascular research tools is the cohort study. The cohort study is a reliable observational study design in which individuals who share a common characteristic (a cohort) are followed over time and their outcomes are assessed at various intervals. This review focuses on the essential characteristics, design, implementation, bias, validity, and clinical significance of cohort studies and provides illustrative examples. A cohort study can be either a prospective or a retrospective study, depending on whether the outcome occurred before or after the enrollment of the cohort. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages. Confounding, selection, and information biases can all occur in cohort studies. Applications of the cohort study design include studying the natural history of a disease, describing a condition's frequency, and investigating multiple outcomes simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Research Design , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Humans , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(12): 1726-1735, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158015

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The biological and functional heterogeneity in very old patients constitutes a major challenge to prognostication and patient management in intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to the characteristics of acute diseases, geriatric conditions such as frailty, multimorbidity, cognitive impairment and functional disabilities were shown to influence outcome in that population. The goal of this study was to identify new and robust phenotypes based on the combination of these features to facilitate early outcome prediction. METHODS: Patients aged 80 years old or older with and without limitations of life-sustaining treatment and with complete data were recruited from the VIP2 study for phenotyping and from the COVIP study for external validation. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and its sub-scores taken on admission to ICU as well as demographic and geriatric patient characteristics were subjected to clustering analysis. Phenotypes were identified after repeated bootstrapping and clustering runs. RESULTS: In patients from the VIP2 study without limitations of life-sustaining treatment (n = 1977), ICU mortality was 12% and 30-day mortality 19%. Seven phenotypes with distinct profiles of acute and geriatric characteristics were identified in that cohort. Phenotype-specific mortality within 30 days ranged from 3 to 57%. Among the patients assigned to a phenotype with pronounced geriatric features and high SOFA scores, 50% died in ICU and 57% within 30 days. Mortality differences between phenotypes were confirmed in the COVIP study cohort (n = 280). CONCLUSIONS: Phenotyping of very old patients on admission to ICU revealed new phenotypes with different mortality and potential need for anticipatory intervention.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Cohort Studies , Frailty/diagnosis , Cluster Analysis , Hospital Mortality
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 923324, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154836

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have significantly affected health care systems and daily wellbeing. However, the indirect impacts of the pandemic on birth outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to examine whether the pandemic altered risk of adverse birth outcomes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all singleton births during 2016-2020 identified in Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. We compared birth outcomes during COVID-19 pandemic (January-December 2020) with before the pandemic (January-December 2016-2019) using Logstic regression adjusted for confounders. Results: A total of 19,792 and 92,750 births occurred during and before the pandemic, respectively. Maternal characteristics were similar between groups, except maternal age was higher in pandemic cohort. We observed a reduction in preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) during the pandemic [5.9 vs. 5.1%, OR (95%CI) = 0.86 (0.80, 0.92)], but the difference disappeared after multivariable adjustment [adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.02 (0.94, 1.11)]. Moreover, full term infants born during the pandemic had lower birth weights than those born before the pandemic [adjusted ß (95% CI) = -17.4 (-23.9, -10.8)]. Consistently, the risks of low birthweight (LBW, <2,500 g) and small for gestational age (SGA, < P10) were increased [LBW: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.13 (1.02, 1.24); SGA: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.11 (1.02, 1.21)], and the risks of macrosomia (≥4,000 g) and large for gestational age (LGA, ≥P90) were decreased in the pandemic cohort [macrosomia: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.77, 0.88); LGA: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.73 (0.69, 0.77)]. Conclusion: In this study, we observed no change in preterm birth and a decrease in birth weight of full term infants during the pandemic in Nanjing, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Macrosomia , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153220

ABSTRACT

ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Yet, little is known about the clinical and biologic correlates of circulating ACE2 levels in humans. We assessed the clinical and proteomic correlates of plasma (soluble) ACE2 protein levels in human heart failure. We measured plasma ACE2 using a modified aptamer assay among PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=2248). We performed an association study of ACE2 against ≈5000 other plasma proteins measured with the SomaScan platform. Plasma ACE2 was not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, worse New York Heart Association class, a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, and higher pro-BNP (pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. Plasma ACE2 exhibited associations with 1011 other plasma proteins. In pathway overrepresentation analyses, top canonical pathways associated with plasma ACE2 included clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mechanisms of viral exit from host cells, EIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) signaling, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. In conclusion, in humans with heart failure, plasma ACE2 is associated with various clinical factors known to be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including older age, male sex, and diabetes mellitus, but is not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 protein levels are prominently associated with multiple cellular pathways involved in cellular endocytosis, exocytosis, and intracellular protein trafficking. Whether these have a causal relationship with ACE2 or are relevant to novel coronavirus-2 infection remains to be assessed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/enzymology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Proteomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , United States
6.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 309, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been trained to early predict critical in-hospital events from COVID-19 using patient data at admission, but little is known on how their performance compares with each other and/or with statistical logistic regression (LR). This prospective multicentre cohort study compares the performance of a LR and five ML models on the contribution of influencing predictors and predictor-to-event relationships on prediction model´s performance. METHODS: We used 25 baseline variables of 490 COVID-19 patients admitted to 8 hospitals in Germany (March-November 2020) to develop and validate (75/25 random-split) 3 linear (L1 and L2 penalty, elastic net [EN]) and 2 non-linear (support vector machine [SVM] with radial kernel, random forest [RF]) ML approaches for predicting critical events defined by intensive care unit transfer, invasive ventilation and/or death (composite end-point: 181 patients). Models were compared for performance (area-under-the-receiver-operating characteristic-curve [AUC], Brier score) and predictor importance (performance-loss metrics, partial-dependence profiles). RESULTS: Models performed close with a small benefit for LR (utilizing restricted cubic splines for non-linearity) and RF (AUC means: 0.763-0.731 [RF-L1]); Brier scores: 0.184-0.197 [LR-L1]). Top ranked predictor variables (consistently highest importance: C-reactive protein) were largely identical across models, except creatinine, which exhibited marginal (L1, L2, EN, SVM) or high/non-linear effects (LR, RF) on events. CONCLUSIONS: Although the LR and ML models analysed showed no strong differences in performance and the most influencing predictors for COVID-19-related event prediction, our results indicate a predictive benefit from taking account for non-linear predictor-to-event relationships and effects. Future efforts should focus on leveraging data-driven ML technologies from static towards dynamic modelling solutions that continuously learn and adapt to changes in data environments during the evolving pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04659187.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Logistic Models , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Machine Learning , Hospitals
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 889, 2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our study examines if SARS-CoV-2 infections varied by vaccination status, if an individual had previously tested positive and by neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation across the Delta and Omicron epidemic waves of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Population cohort study using electronic health records for 2.7 M residents in Cheshire and Merseyside, England (3rd June 2021 to 1st March 2022). Our outcome variable was registered positive test for SARS-CoV-2. Explanatory variables were vaccination status, previous registered positive test and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation. Cox regression models were used to analyse associations. RESULTS: Originally higher SARS-CoV-2 rates in the most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods changed to being higher in the least deprived neighbourhoods from the 1st September 2021, and were inconsistent during the Omicron wave. Individuals who were fully vaccinated (two doses) were associated with fewer registered positive tests (e.g., individuals engaged in testing between 1st September and 27th November 2021-Hazards Ratio (HR) = 0.48, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) = 0.47-0.50. Individuals with a previous registered positive test were also less likely to have a registered positive test (e.g., individuals engaged in testing between 1st September and 27th November 2021-HR = 0.16, 95% CIs = 0.15-0.18. However, the Omicron period saw smaller effect sizes for both vaccination status and previous registered positive test. CONCLUSIONS: Changing patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infections during the Delta and Omicron waves reveals a dynamic pandemic that continues to affect diverse communities in sometimes unexpected ways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Vaccination
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 384, 2022 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with prognosis in COVID-19 has been limited. We investigated the association between the fatty liver index (FLI), a non-invasive and simple marker of NAFLD, and the severe complications of COVID-19 patients in South Korea. METHODS: We included 3122 COVID-19-positive patients from the nationwide COVID-19 cohort dataset in South Korea between January and June 2020. The FLI was calculated using triglyceride, body mass index, glutamyl transpeptidase, and waist circumference, which were obtained from the national health screening program data. Severe complications related to COVID-19 were defined as the composite of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment, high-oxygen flow therapy, and death within 2 months after a COVID-19 infection. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis for the development of severe complications in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of FLI were 25.01 ± 22.64. Severe complications from COVID-19 occurred in 223 (7.14%) patients, including mechanical ventilation in 82 (2.63%) patients, ICU admission in 126 (4.04%), high-flow oxygen therapy in 75 (2.40%), and death in 94 (3.01%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated that the highest tertile (T3) of FLI was positively associated with severe complications from COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.11-2.82), P = 0.017) compared with the lowest tertile (T1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that FLI, which represents NAFLD, was positively associated with an increased risk of severe complications from COVID-19. FLI might be used as a prognostic marker for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Europe/epidemiology , Male , Female
10.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 16: 17539447221137170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Management of high blood pressure (BP) typically requires adherence to medication regimes. However, it is known that the COVID-19 pandemic both interrupted access to some routine prescriptions and changed some patient health behaviours. AIM: This study, therefore, retrospectively investigated prescription reimbursement of cardiovascular (CVD) medicines as a proxy measure for patient adherence and access to medicines during the pandemic. METHODS: A cohort study of all primary care patients in England prescribed CVD medicines. The exposure was to the global pandemic. Prescriptions were compared before and after the pandemic's onset. Statistical variation was the outcome of interest. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics show changes to monthly prescriptions, with wide confidence intervals indicating varying underlying practice. Analysis of variance reveals statistically significant differences for bendroflumethiazide, potassium-sparing diuretics, nicorandil, ezetimibe, ivabradine, ranolazine, colesevelam and midodrine. After the pandemic began (March-October 2020), negative parameters are observed for ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, statins, antiplatelet, antithrombotics, ARBs, loop diuretics, doxazosin, bendroflumethiazide, nitrates and indapamide, indicating decelerating monthly prescription items (statistically significant declines of calcium channel blockers, antithrombotic, adrenoreceptor blockers and diuretics) of CVD medicines within the general population. Many data points are not statistically significant, but fluctuations remain clinically important for the large population of patients taking these medications. CONCLUSION: A concerning decline in uptake of CVD therapies for chronic heart disease was observed. Accessible screening and treatment alongside financial relief on prescription levies are needed. A video abstract is (4 min 51 s) available: https://bit.ly/39gvEHi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bendroflumethiazide , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(6): 897-906, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have investigated the management of COVID-19 cases from the operational perspective of the emergency department (ED), We sought to compare the management and outcome of COVID-19 positive and negative patients who presented to French EDs. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in four EDs. Included in the study were adult patients (≥18 years) between March 6-May 10, 2020, were hospitalized, and whose presenting symptoms were evocative of COVID-19. We compared the clinical features, management, and prognosis of patients according to their confirmed COVID-19 status. RESULTS: Of the 2,686 patients included in this study, 760 (28.3%) were COVID-19 positive. Among them, 364 (48.0%) had hypertension, 228 (30.0%) had chronic cardiac disease, 186 (24.5%) had diabetes, 126 (16.6%) were obese, and 114 (15.0%) had chronic respiratory disease. The proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) was higher among COVID-19 positive patients (185/760, 24.3%) compared to COVID-19 negative patients (206/1,926, 10.7%; P <0.001), and they required mechanical ventilation (89, 11.9% vs 37, 1.9%; P <0.001) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (135, 18.1% vs 41, 2.2%; P < 0.001) more frequently. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among COVID-19 positive patients (139, 18.3% vs 149, 7.7%; P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Emergency departments were on the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic and had to manage potential COVID-19 patients. Understanding what happened in the ED during this first outbreak is crucial to underline the importance of flexible organizations that can quickly adapt the bed capacities to the incoming flow of COVID-19 positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Disease Outbreaks
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases ranked first in terms of the number of deaths in Serbia in 2019, with 52,663 deaths. One fifth of those were from ischemic heart disease (IHD), and half of IHD deaths were from acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We present the ACS mortality time trend in Serbia during a 15-year period using the latest available data, excluding the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The data on patients who died of ACS in the period from 2005 to 2019 were obtained from the National Statistics Office and processed at the Department of Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Number of deaths, crude mortality rates (CR) and age-standardized mortality rates (ASR-E) for the European population were analyzed. Using joinpoint analysis, the time trend in terms of annual percentage change (APC) was analyzed for the female and male population aged 0 to 85+. Age-period-cohort modeling was used to estimate age, cohort and period effects in ACS mortality between 2005 and 2019 for age groups in the range 20 to 90. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2019 there were 90,572 deaths from ACS: 54,202 in men (59.8%), 36,370 in women (40.2%). Over the last 15 years, the number of deaths significantly declined: 46.7% in men, 49.5% in women. The annual percentage change was significant: -4.4% in men, -5.8% in women. Expressed in terms of APC, for the full period, the highest significant decrease in deaths was seen in women aged 65-69, -8.5%, followed by -7.6% for women aged 50-54 and 70-74. In men, the highest decreases were recorded in the age group 50-54, -6.7%, and the age group 55-59, -5.7%. In all districts there was significant decline in deaths in terms of APC for the full period in both genders, except in Zlatibor, Kolubara and Morava, where increases were recorded. In addition, in Bor and Toplica almost no change was observed over the full period for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: In the last 15 years, mortality from ACS in Serbia declined in both genders. The reasons are found in better diagnostic and treatment through an organized network for management of ACS patients. However, there are districts where this decline was small and insignificant or was offset in recent years by an increase in deaths. In addition, there is space for improvement in the still-high mortality rates through primary prevention, which at the moment is not organized.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Myocardial Ischemia , Humans , Female , Male , Serbia/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Registries , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e29343, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the initial COVID-19 cases were identified in the United States in February 2020, the United States has experienced a high incidence of the disease. Understanding the risk factors for severe outcomes identifies the most vulnerable populations and helps in decision-making. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the factors associated with COVID-19-related deaths from a large, national, individual-level data set. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using data from the Optum de-identified COVID-19 electronic health record (EHR) data set; 1,271,033 adult participants were observed from February 1, 2020, to August 31, 2020, until their deaths due to COVID-19, deaths due to other reasons, or the end of the study. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate the risks for each patient characteristic. RESULTS: A total of 1,271,033 participants (age: mean 52.6, SD 17.9 years; male: 507,574/1,271,033, 39.93%) were included in the study, and 3315 (0.26%) deaths were attributed to COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death included older age (80 vs 50-59 years old: hazard ratio [HR] 13.28, 95% CI 11.46-15.39), male sex (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.57-1.80), obesity (BMI 40 vs <30 kg/m2: HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.50-1.96), race (Hispanic White, African American, Asian vs non-Hispanic White: HR 2.46, 95% CI 2.01-3.02; HR 2.27, 95% CI 2.06-2.50; HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.65-2.57), region (South, Northeast, Midwest vs West: HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.33-1.98; HR 2.50, 95% CI 2.06-3.03; HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.11-1.64), chronic respiratory disease (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), cardiac disease (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19), diabetes (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.75-2.10), recent diagnosis of lung cancer (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.14-2.55), severely reduced kidney function (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.69-2.19), stroke or dementia (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36), other neurological diseases (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.59-1.98), organ transplant (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.67), and other immunosuppressive conditions (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest national cohort studies in the United States; we identified several patient characteristics associated with COVID-19-related deaths, and the results can serve as the basis for policy making. The study also offered directions for future studies, including the effect of other socioeconomic factors on the increased risk for minority groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Whites
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(2): 442-453, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is highly prevalent in CKD and is associated with worse cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Limited data exist on use of AF pharmacotherapies and AF-related procedures by CKD status. We examined a large "real-world" contemporary population with incident AF to study the association of CKD with management of AF. METHODS: We identified patients with newly diagnosed AF between 2010 and 2017 from two large, integrated health care delivery systems. eGFR (≥60, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2) was calculated from a minimum of two ambulatory serum creatinine measures separated by ≥90 days. AF medications and procedures were identified from electronic health records. We performed multivariable Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards regression to test the association of CKD severity with receipt of targeted AF therapies. RESULTS: Among 115,564 patients with incident AF, 34% had baseline CKD. In multivariable models, compared with those with eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, patients with eGFR 30-44 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.91; 95% CI, 0.99 to 0.93), 15-29 (aHR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.82), and <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (aHR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.70) had lower use of any AF therapy. Patients with eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m2 had lower adjusted use of rate control agents (aHR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.67), warfarin (aHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.94), and DOACs (aHR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.27) compared with patients with eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. These associations were even stronger for eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2. There was also a graded association between CKD severity and receipt of AF-related procedures (vs eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2): eGFR 30-44 ml/min per 1.73 (aHR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.87), eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (aHR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.88), and eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (aHR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: In adults with newly diagnosed AF, CKD severity was associated with lower receipt of rate control agents, anticoagulation, and AF procedures. Additional data on efficacy and safety of AF therapies in CKD populations are needed to inform management strategies.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Warfarin/therapeutic use
15.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 64(6): 345-353, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has led to an increased use of online consultations in occupational health. We examined experience, satisfaction, and difficulties with online consultations during the first year after the COVID-19 pandemic by surveying a sample of workers. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in March 2021 among full-time employees of an online panel survey (E-COCO-J: The Employee Cohort Study on the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan). Respondents were asked to report whether they had online or face-to-face consultations with occupational health professionals in the past year, their level of satisfaction, and their difficulties and problems related to the online consultations. RESULTS: Of the 1,153 respondents, 1,102 (excluding those who were unemployed or on leave) were included in the analysis. Fifty respondents had had online consultations in the past year and 57 had face-to-face consultations. The proportion of respondents who reported satisfaction with online consultations was high (more than 70%) for general health, follow-ups, and guidance consultations, among others. However, the proportion of satisfaction with online occupational consultations was low (less than 40%) for employees who worked long hours, or took leave or returned to work. Over 30% of the respondents indicated that the difficulties with online consultations were due to incongruence with their expectations ("I preferred a face-to-face consultation instead of an online one"), quality of communication ("I did not feel like I was able to consult sufficiently"), and concerns about confidentiality ("I was worried that someone could hear our conversation"). CONCLUSION: The experience of online consultations was similar to that of face-to-face consultations. Satisfaction with online occupational consultations for those who worked long hours and those who took leave or returned to work was low. In the online consultation for occupational health, the occupational health professional may be required to judge its suitability depending on type of the consultation and take necessary consideration and measures to maintain the quality of the online consultation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Humans , Pandemics , Japan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Personal Satisfaction , Cohort Studies , Referral and Consultation
16.
CMAJ ; 194(45): E1529-E1536, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postmarketing evaluations have linked myocarditis to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. We sought to estimate the incidence of myocarditis after mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, and to compare the incidence with expected rates based on historical background rates in British Columbia. METHODS: We conducted an observational study using population health administrative data from the BC COVID-19 Cohort from Dec. 15, 2020, to Mar. 10, 2022. The primary exposure was any dose of an mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was incidence of hospital admission or emergency department visit for myocarditis or myopericarditis within 7 and 21 days postvaccination, calculated as myocarditis rates per 100 000 mRNA vaccine doses, expected rates of myocarditis cases and observedto-expected ratios. We stratified analyses by age, sex, vaccine type and dose number. RESULTS: We observed 99 incident cases of myocarditis within 7 days (0.97 cases per 100 000 vaccine doses; observed v. expected ratio 14.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.83-16.55) and 141 cases within 21 days (1.37 cases per 100 000 vaccine doses; observed v. expected ratio 7.03, 95% CI 5.92-8.29) postvaccination. Cases of myocarditis per 100 000 vaccine doses were higher for people aged 12-17 years (2.64, 95% CI 1.54-4.22) and 18-29 years (2.63, 95% CI 1.94-3.50) than for older age groups, for males compared with females (1.64, 95% CI 1.30-2.04 v. 0.35, 95% CI 0.21-0.55), for those receiving a second dose compared with a third dose (1.90, 95% CI 1.50-2.39 v. 0.76, 95% CI 0.45-1.30) and for those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine compared with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine (1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.91 v. 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.98). The highest observed-to-expected ratio was seen after the second dose among males aged 18-29 years who received the mRNA-1273 vaccine (148.32, 95% CI 95.03-220.69). INTERPRETATION: Although absolute rates of myocarditis were low, vaccine type, age and sex are important factors to consider when strategizing vaccine administration to reduce the risk of postvaccination myocarditis. Our findings support the preferential use of the BNT162b2 vaccine over the mRNA-1273 vaccine for people aged 18-29 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278057, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute COVID-19 sequelae refers to a variety of health complications involving different organ systems that have been described among individuals after acute phase of illness. Data from unselected population groups with long-time follow up is needed to comprehensively describe the full spectrum of post-acute COVID-19 complications. METHODS: In this retrospective nationwide cohort study, we used data obtained from electronic health record database. Our primary cohort were adults hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 and matched (age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index) unaffected controls from general population. Individuals included from February 2020 until March 2021 were followed up for 12 months. We estimated risks of all-cause mortality, readmission and incidence of 16 clinical sequelae after acute COVID-19 phase. Using a frailty Cox model, we compared incidences of outcomes in two cohorts. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 3949 patients older than 18 years who were alive 30 days after COVID-19 hospital admission and 15511 controls. Among cases 40.3% developed at least one incident clinical sequelae after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was two times higher than in general population group. We report substantially higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.57 (95%CI 2.23-2.96) and hospital readmission aHR = 1.73 (95%CI 1.58-1.90) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We found that the risks for new clinical sequalae were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than their controls, especially for dementia aHR = 4.50 (95% CI 2.35-8.64), chronic lower respiratory disease aHR = 4.39 (95% CI 3.09-6.22), liver disease aHR 4.20 (95% CI 2.01-8.77) and other (than ischemic) forms of heart diseases aHR = 3.39 (95%CI 2.58-4.44). CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that the post-acute COVID-19 morbidity within the first year after COVID-19 hospitalization is substantial. Risks of all-cause mortality, hospitalisation and majority of clinical sequelae were significantly higher in hospitalized COVID-19 patients than in general population controls and warrant targeted prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Estonia , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277653, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140659

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the associations of exposure and modifications in exposure (i.e., discontinuation on admission, initiation during hospitalization) to eight common cardiovascular therapies with the risk of in-hospital death among inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this observational study including 838 hospitalized unvaccinated adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, the use of cardiovascular therapies was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: No cardiovascular therapy used before hospitalization was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. During hospitalization, the use of diuretics (aOR 2.59 [1.68-3.98]) was associated with an increase, and the use of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (aOR 0.39 [0.23-0.64]) and lipid-lowering agents (aOR 0.41 [0.24-0.68]) was associated with a reduction in the odds of in-hospital death. Exposure modifications associated with decreased survival were the discontinuation of an agent acting on the renin-angiotensin system (aOR 4.42 [2.08-9.37]), a ß-blocker (aOR 5.44 [1.16-25.46]), a lipid-modifying agent (aOR 3.26 [1.42-7.50]) or an anticoagulant (aOR 5.85 [1.25-27.27]), as well as the initiation of a diuretic (aOR 5.19 [2.98-9.03]) or an antiarrhythmic (aOR 6.62 [2.07-21.15]). Exposure modification associated with improved survival was the initiation of an agent acting on the renin-angiotensin system (aOR 0.17 [0.03-0.82]). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized and unvaccinated patients with COVID-19, there was no detrimental association of the prehospital use of any regular cardiovascular medication with in-hospital death, and these therapies should be continued as recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Lipids
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e28005, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 disease are variable. Multiple factors can affect the disease progression and outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 in Jordan. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected for 557 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Prince Hamzah Hospital (PHH), Jordan. Analysis was performed using appropriate statistical tests with SPSS version 24. RESULTS: Of the 557 COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases admitted to PHH, the mean age was 34.4 years (SD 18.95 years; range 5 weeks to 87 years), 86.0% (479/557) were male, 41% (29/70) were blood group A+, and 57.1% (93/163) were overweight or obese. Significant past medical history was documented in 25.9% (144/557), significant surgical history in 12.6% (70/557), current smoking in 14.9% (83/557), and pregnancy in 0.5% (3/557). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.4 (SD 9.3; range 5 to 70) days; 52.6% (293/557) were asymptomatic, and 12.9% (72/557) had more than 5 symptoms, with generalized malaise and dry cough the most common symptoms. Only 2.5% (14/557) had a respiratory rate over 25 breaths/minute, and 1.8% (10/557) had an oxygen saturation below 85%. Laboratory investigations showed a wide range of abnormalities, with lymphocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer the most common abnormalities. Ground glass opacity was the most common imaging finding. Men had a significantly higher frequency of symptoms, incidence of smoking, reduced hemoglobin, increased monocyte %, elevated creatinine levels, and intensive care unit admissions compared with women (P<.05). Hospitalization duration was associated with increased age, male gender, symptom score, history of smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, elevated respiratory rate, and elevated monocyte %, CRP, ESR, creatinine, and D-dimer (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases admitted to PHH were asymptomatic. Variabilities in symptoms, signs, laboratory results, and imaging findings should be noted. Increased age, male gender, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult
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