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3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(4): 304-307, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244704

ABSTRACT

It has been hypothesized that bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the anti-tuberculosis vaccine, can be protective against Covid-19. Using data of performed swabs and RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in the Reggio Emilia province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) from March 6th to March 26th, 2020, we computed age, gender, and place of birth (Italy or abroad) specific risk of being tested, prevalence of positive tests, and probability of testing positive given that a swab has been taken during the epidemic peak. We report that immigrants resident in Reggio Emilia province, mostly coming from Countries with high BCG vaccination coverage, and Italians had a similar prevalence of infection (odds ratio - OR 0.99; 95%CI 0.82-1.20) and similar probability of being tested (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.81-1.10). Our data do not support the hypothesis that immigrants from Countries where BCG vaccination is recommended have a lower risk of Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Africa/ethnology , Aged , Asia/ethnology , BCG Vaccine , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poland/ethnology , Prevalence , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage
4.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 94: 101956, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242665

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is associated with diarrhea in dogs, with a high incidence and sometimes even death. However, there is currently limited information about its prevalence and molecular characterization in northeastern China. Therefore, in this study, we examined 325 canine fecal specimens in four provinces in northeastern China from 2019 to 2021. PCR results revealed that 57 out of 325 (17.5%) samples were found to be positive for CCoV, and the positive rate varies obviously with city, season, age and so on. High incidence (65%) of viral co-infection was detected in the diarrhea samples and mixed infection of distinct CCoV genotypes occurs extensively. More importantly, sequence analysis showed that the S gene has a strong mutation. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains has different origins. In particular, we found the CCoV-IIa strains of S gene sequenced and the reference strain B906_ZJ_2019 were highly clustered, and the reference strain was a recombinant strain of CCoV-I and CCoV-II. Our findings provide useful orienting clues for evaluating the pathogenic potential of CCoV in canines, and point out more details on characterization in northeastern China. Further work is required to determine the significance and continuous genetic evolution of CCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Prevalence , Phylogeny , Diarrhea/veterinary , China , Genetic Variation , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Feces
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2310, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235297

ABSTRACT

Four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-OC43, are closely related to SARS-CoV-2. These coronaviruses are known to infect humans living in temperate areas, including children under 5 years old; however, the seroprevalence of four HCoVs among children in tropical areas, including the Philippines, remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of antibodies against four HCoVs and to determine the reactivity and neutralization of these antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children in the Philippines. A total of 315 serum samples collected from 2015 to 2018, before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, in Biliran island, Philippines, were tested for the presence of antibodies against four HCoVs and SARS-CoV-2 using recombinant spike ectodomain proteins by IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactivity to and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 were also investigated. The seroprevalence of the four HCoVs was 63.8% for HCoV-229E, 71.4% for HCoV-NL63, 76.5% for HCoV-HKU1, and 83.5% for HCoV-OC43 by ELISA. Age group analysis indicated that seropositivity to all HCoVs reached 80% by 2-3 years of age. While 69/315 (21.9%) of the samples showed reactive to SARS-CoV-2, almost no neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 was detected using neutralization assay. Reactivity of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein obtained by ELISA may not correlate with neutralization capability.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Philippines/epidemiology , Recombinant Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2306, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234489

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) pose a huge threat to public health as emerging viruses. Bat-borne CoVs are especially unpredictable in their evolution due to some unique features of bat physiology boosting the rate of mutations in CoVs, which is already high by itself compared to other viruses. Among bats, a meta-analysis of overall CoVs epizootiology identified a nucleic acid observed prevalence of 9.8% (95% CI 8.7-10.9%). The main objectives of our study were to conduct a qPCR screening of CoVs' prevalence in the insectivorous bat population of Fore-Caucasus and perform their characterization based on the metagenomic NGS of samples with detected CoV RNA. According to the qPCR screening, CoV RNA was detected in 5 samples, resulting in a 3.33% (95% CI 1.1-7.6%) prevalence of CoVs in bats from these studied locations. BetaCoVs reads were identified in raw metagenomic NGS data, however, detailed characterization was not possible due to relatively low RNA concentration in samples. Our results correspond to other studies, although a lower prevalence in qPCR studies was observed compared to other regions and countries. Further studies should require deeper metagenomic NGS investigation, as a supplementary method, which will allow detailed CoV characterization.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , RNA
10.
Arch Virol ; 168(3): 78, 2023 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232759

ABSTRACT

Due to the present pandemic situation and the many animal species that are epidemiologically involved, there has been a surge of renewed interest in investigating the coronavirus (CoV) population circulating in wildlife, especially bats and rodents, which are potential reservoirs of new human pathogens. In Argentina, information about the viruses present in these mammals is very limited. To investigate the presence of coronaviruses in this country, we obtained 457 samples from hematophagous, insectivorous, and frugivorous bats and rodents from two regions of Argentina. We report here the detection of alphacoronavirus sequences in three groups of bats as well as in rodents. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relationships to alphacoronaviruses from Brazil.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Rodentia
11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(4): 1108-1118, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced our cardiac surgery program and hospital to enact drastic measures that has forced us to change how we care for cardiac surgery patients, assist with COVID-19 care, and enable support for the hospital in terms of physical resources, providers, and resident training. METHODS: In this review, we review the cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 and describe our system-wide adaptations to the pandemic, including the use of telemedicine, how a severe reduction in operative volume affected our program, the process of redeployment of staff, repurposing of residents into specific task teams, the creation of operation room intensive care units, and the challenges that we faced in this process. RESULTS: We offer a revised set of definitions of surgical priority during this pandemic and how this was applied to our system, followed by specific considerations in coronary/valve, aortic, heart failure and transplant surgery. Finally, we outline a path forward for cardiac surgery for the near future. CONCLUSIONS: We recognize that individual programs around the world will eventually face COVID-19 with varying levels of infection burden and different resources, and we hope this document can assist programs to plan for the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Life Sci ; 255: 117831, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267781

ABSTRACT

A new SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus has caused a pandemic known as COVID-19. Among coronaviruses, the main protease (Mpro) is an essential drug target which, along with papain-like proteases catalyzes the processing of polyproteins translated from viral RNA and recognizes specific cleavage sites. There are no human proteases with similar cleavage specificity and therefore, inhibitors are highly likely to be nontoxic. Therefore, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme with small molecules can block viral replication. The present study is aimed at the identification of promising lead molecules for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of antiviral compounds from plants. The binding affinity of selected small drug-like molecules to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro were studied using molecular docking. Bonducellpin D was identified as the best lead molecule which shows higher binding affinity (-9.28 kcal/mol) as compared to the control (-8.24 kcal/mol). The molecular binding was stabilized through four hydrogen bonds with Glu166 and Thr190 as well as hydrophobic interactions via eight residues. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro shows identities of 96.08% and 50.65% to that of SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro respectively at the sequence level. At the structural level, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and SARS-CoV Mpro was found to be 0.517 Å and 0.817 Å between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro. Bonducellpin D exhibited broad-spectrum inhibition potential against SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro and therefore is a promising drug candidate, which needs further validations through in vitro and in vivo studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(1): 3-16, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225841

ABSTRACT

In the current context of the pandemic triggered by SARS-COV-2, the immunization of the population through vaccination is recognized as a public health priority. In the case of SARS­COV­2, the genetic sequencing was done quickly, in one month. Since then, worldwide research has focused on obtaining a vaccine. This has a major economic impact because new technological platforms and advanced genetic engineering procedures are required to obtain a COVID­19 vaccine. The most difficult scientific challenge for this future vaccine obtained in the laboratory is the proof of clinical safety and efficacy. The biggest challenge of manufacturing is the construction and validation of production platforms capable of making the vaccine on a large scale.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Compounding/standards , Drug Compounding/trends , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/standards , Drug Development/trends , Humans , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccine Potency , Viral Vaccines/classification , Viral Vaccines/standards , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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