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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007767, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The expense of clinical trials mandates new strategies to efficiently generate evidence and test novel therapies. In this context, we designed a decentralized, patient-centered randomized clinical trial leveraging mobile technologies, rather than in-person site visits, to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of canagliflozin for the treatment of heart failure, regardless of ejection fraction or diabetes status, on the reduction of heart failure symptoms. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred patients will be enrolled with a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, stratified by reduced (≤40%) or preserved (>40%) ejection fraction and randomized 1:1 to 100 mg daily of canagliflozin or matching placebo. The primary outcome will be the 12-week change in the total symptom score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be daily step count and other scales of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. RESULTS: The trial is currently enrolling, even in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: CHIEF-HF (Canagliflozin: Impact on Health Status, Quality of Life and Functional Status in Heart Failure) is deploying a novel model of conducting a decentralized, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial for a new indication for canagliflozin to improve the symptoms of patients with heart failure. It can model a new method for more cost-effectively testing the efficacy of treatments using mobile technologies with patient-reported outcomes as the primary clinical end point of the trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04252287.


Subject(s)
Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Actigraphy/instrumentation , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Fitness Trackers , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Mobile Applications , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
2.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0279310, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Current evidence suggests the emergence of a novel syndrome (long COVID syndrome) due to sequels and persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Respiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, diaphragm thickness, and dyspnea, especially in patients with decreased respiratory muscle strength. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol for home-based inspiratory muscle training to improve respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and quality of life of patients post-COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial will be conducted at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Sample size will be determined using maximal inspiratory pressure after a pilot study with five patients per group (total of 10 patients). Patients included in the study will be evaluated in three moments: pre-training (initial), post-training (three weeks), and retention (24 weeks). The sample will be randomized in two groups: active (IMT using 30% of IMT and load increase of 10% of initial IMT every week. Patients will perform 30 repetitions, twice a day (morning and afternoon), for seven consecutive days, and six weeks) and SHAM (IMT without load). The following measurements will be assessed: anthropometry, respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary volume and capacity, dyspnea, perception of effort and lower limb fatigue, handgrip strength, functional capacity, anxiety, depression, and functional status. After initial evaluation, all patients will receive a POWERbreathe® (POWERbreathe®, HaB Ltd, Southam, UK) device to perform the training. Normality will be verified using Shapiro-Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov, according to the number of patients included. Variables presenting nonparametric distribution will be compared using Wilcoxon (intragroup analysis) and Mann-Whitney test (intergroup analysis), whereas repeated measures two-way ANOVA will be performed in case of parametric distribution. Dunn's post hoc test will be used to identify significant differences in the two-way ANOVA test. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and quality of life of post-COVID-19 patients. SECOND OUTCOMES: Pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise tolerance, handgrip strength, anxiety, depression, and functional status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial register number NCT05077241.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Hand Strength , Pilot Projects , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Breathing Exercises/methods , Diaphragm , Respiratory Muscles , Dyspnea/therapy , Muscle Strength/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 135(9-10): 260-265, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After COVID-19 infection, persistent exercise intolerance, changes in lung function have been shown. Our aim is to investigate the correlation between impulse oscillometry (IOS) parameters and exercise capacity by using incremental and endurance shuttle walk tests (ISWT, ESWT) and investigate the factors and parameters which might have an effect on both IOS parameters and exercise capacity tests. METHOD: The patients who had a history of COVID-19 were enrolled into cross-sectional study according to inclusion criteria. The IOS parameters, ISWT, ESWT, smoking status, time since COVID-19 diagnosis, length of hospital stay, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), dyspnea, hospital anxiety-depression and fatigue severity scores were recorded. RESULTS: The study comprised 72 patients, 71% of whom were male, with a mean age of 54 ± 10 years. After COVID-19 diagnosis, the median duration was 3 (min: 1, max: 5) months and 51 (71%) of the patients were hospitalized. The FEV1 and FVC values were in normal range. The area of reactance (AX), resonance frequency (Fres), reactance at 20 Hz (X20) and the difference between resonance at 20 and 5 Hz (R5-20) correlated with both ISWT and ESWT. The FEV1 correlated with all IOS parameters (p < 0.05). Reactance correlated with FFMI (p = 024, r = 0.267), different according to hospitalization (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 survivors, there could be correlations between IOS parameters and exercise capacity; and between these parameters and FEV and FVC. Furthermore, small airway disease with normal spirometric functions could be related to decreased exercise capacity in COVID-19 survivors regardless of concomitant diseases, BMI, smoking status and time since COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Oscillometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Tolerance , Spirometry , COVID-19/diagnosis
4.
Phys Ther ; 103(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate neuromuscular recruitment and efficiency in participants who recovered from COVID-19 and assess the association between neuromuscular efficiency and symptom-limited aerobic exercise capacity. METHODS: Participants who recovered from mild (n = 31) and severe (n = 17) COVID-19 were evaluated and compared with a reference group (n = 15). Participants underwent symptom-limited ergometer exercise testing with simultaneous electromyography evaluation after a 4-week recovery period. Activation of muscle fiber types IIa and IIb and neuromuscular efficiency (watts/percentage of root-mean-square obtained at the maximum effort) were determined from electromyography of the right vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Participants who had recovered from severe COVID-19 had lower power output and higher neuromuscular activity than the reference group and those who had recovered from mild COVID-19. Type IIa and IIb fibers were activated at a lower power output in participants who had recovered from severe COVID-19 than in the reference group and those who had recovered from mild COVID-19, with large effect sizes (0.40 for type IIa and 0.48 for type IIb). Neuromuscular efficiency was lower in participants who had recovered from severe COVID-19 than in the reference group and those who had recovered from mild COVID-19, with a large effect size (0.45). Neuromuscular efficiency showed a correlation with symptom-limited aerobic exercise capacity (r = 0.83). No differences were observed between participants who had recovered from mild COVID-19 and the reference group for any variables. CONCLUSION: This physiological observational study supports the notion that more severe COVID-19 symptoms at disease onset appear to correspondingly impair neuromuscular efficiency in survivors over a short time frame of 4 weeks after recovery, potentially contributing to reduced cardiorespiratory capacity. Further studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings with respect to their clinical implications for assessment/evaluation and interventions. IMPACT: After 4 weeks of recovery, neuromuscular impairment is particularly evident in severe cases; this problem may contribute to reduced cardiopulmonary exercise capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Exercise/physiology , Electromyography , Patient Acuity
5.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 313: 104062, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chronic mental and physical fatigue and post-exertional malaise are the more debilitating symptoms of long COVID-19. The study objective was to explore factors contributing to exercise intolerance in long COVID-19 to guide development of new therapies. Exercise capacity data of patients referred for a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and included in a COVID-19 Survivorship Registry at one urban health center were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Most subjects did not meet normative criteria for a maximal test, consistent with suboptimal effort and early exercise termination. Mean O2 pulse peak % predicted (of 79 ± 12.9) was reduced, supporting impaired energy metabolism as a mechanism of exercise intolerance in long COVID, n = 59. We further identified blunted rise in heart rate peak during maximal CPET. Our preliminary analyses support therapies that optimize bioenergetics and improve oxygen utilization for treating long COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Exercise Test , Oxygen , Exercise Tolerance/physiology
6.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 25(2): 83-87, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical investigations of long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rarely translated to objective findings. OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional capacity of individuals reported on deconditioning that hampered their return to their pre-COVID routine. METHODS: Assessment included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 30-second sit-to-stand test (30-STST). We compared the expected and observed scores using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Predictors of test scores were identified using linear regression models. RESULTS: We included 49 individuals, of whom 38 (77.6%) were recovering from mild COVID-19. Twenty-seven (55.1%) individuals had a 6MWT score lower than 80% of expected. The average 6MWT scores were 129.5 ± 121.2 meters and 12.2 ± 5.0 repeats lower than expected scores, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). The 6MWT score was 107.3 meters lower for individuals with severe COVID-19 (P = 0.013) and rose by 2.7 meters per each 1% increase in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (P = 0.007). The 30-STST score was 3.0 repeats lower for individuals who reported moderate to severe myalgia (P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with long COVID who report on deconditioning exhibit significantly decreased physical capacity, even following mild acute illness. Risk factors include severe COVID-19 and impaired diffusing capacity or myalgia during recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Tolerance , Myalgia
7.
Tuberk Toraks ; 71(1): 58-66, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279920

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Post-illness pulmonary rehabilitation indications of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) may include fatigue, respiratory restriction, exercise limitation, muscle weakness, deterioration in body composition, quality of life, and psychological status. Since tele-pulmonary rehabilitation (tele-PR) is the prominent approach in the current situation and questions such as who, how, and when are still unclear, in this study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of tele-PR as a hybrid model with face-to-face in post-COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty one patients who had completed viral infection treatment with the diagnosis of COVID-19 but still had persistent symptoms were enrolled in an eight-week synchronized video-conference mediated telePR program in a hybrid format, with the initial and final assessments and the first two sessions conducted in person. Before and after the tele-PR, pulmonary functions, exercise capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, body composition, quality of life, and psychological states were evaluated. Result: After the tele-PR program; a statistically significant improvement was observed in dyspnea sensation evaluated with modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and BORG levels, body mass index (BMI), incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), handgrip test, deltoid, and quadriceps 1-repetition maximum (1RM) results, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP, MEP), peripheral muscle strengths, fatigue severity scale and Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale (NEADLS). Conclusions: In this study, it has been shown that the hybrid model of tele-PR enables a comprehensive evaluation as well as the effective and safe applicability of a multidisciplinary and remotely directed program even in high workloads for post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Hand Strength , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Exercise Tolerance/physiology
8.
Heart Lung ; 58: 242, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279367
11.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(2): e20220150, 2023 02.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 exercise intolerance is poorly understood. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify the underlying exercise limitations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the source and magnitude of exercise intolerance in post-COVID-19 subjects. METHODS: Cohort study assessing subjects with different COVID-19 illness severities and a control group selected by propensity score matching. In a selected sample with CPET prior to viral infection, before and after comparisons were performed. Level of significance was 5% in the entire analysis. RESULTS: One hundred forty-four subjects with COVID-19 were assessed (median age: 43.0 years, 57% male), with different illness severities (60% mild, 21% moderate, 19% severe). CPET was performed 11.5 (7.0, 21.2) weeks after disease onset, with exercise limitations being attributed to the peripheral muscle (92%), and the pulmonary (6%), and cardiovascular (2%) systems. Lower median percent-predicted peak oxygen uptake was observed in the severe subgroup (72.2%) as compared to the controls (91.6%). Oxygen uptake differed among illness severities and controls at peak and ventilatory thresholds. Conversely, ventilatory equivalents, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, and peak oxygen pulse were similar. Subgroup analysis of 42 subjects with prior CPET revealed significant reduction in only peak treadmill speed in the mild subgroup and in oxygen uptake at peak and ventilatory thresholds in the moderate/severe subgroup. By contrast, ventilatory equivalents, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, and peak oxygen pulse did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral muscle fatigue was the most common exercise limitation etiology in post-COVID-19 patients regardless of the illness severity. Data suggest that treatment should emphasize comprehensive rehabilitation programs, including aerobic and muscle strengthening components.


FUNDAMENTO: A intolerância ao exercício pós-COVID-19 não é bem entendida. O teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP) pode identificar as limitações ao exercício subjacentes. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a etiologia e a magnitude da intolerância ao exercício em sujeitos pós-COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte que avaliou sujeitos com níveis de gravidades diferentes da doença COVID-19 e um grupo de controle selecionado por pareamento por escores de propensão. Em uma amostra seleta com TECP anterior à infecção viral disponível, foram realizadas comparações antes e depois. O nível de significância foi de 5% em toda a análise. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados cento e quarenta e dois sujeitos com COVID-19 (idade mediana: 43 anos, 57% do sexo masculino), com níveis de gravidade de doença diferentes (60% leve, 21% moderada, 19% grave). O TECP foi realizado 11,5 (7,0, 21,2) semanas após o aparecimento da doença, com as limitações ao exercício sendo atribuídas aos sistemas muscular periférico (92%), pulmonar (6%), e cardiovascular (2%). Menor valor mediano do consumo de oxigênio pico percentual foi observado no subgrupo com níveis graves de doença (72,2%) em comparação com os controles (91,6%). O consumo de oxigênio foi diferente entre os grupos com diferentes níveis de gravidade de doença e o controle no pico e nos limiares ventilatórios. Inversamente, os equivalentes ventilatórios, a inclinação da eficiência do consumo de oxigênio, e o pico do pulso de oxigênio foram semelhantes. A análise do subgrupo de 42 sujeitos com TECP prévio revelou uma redução significativa no pico de velocidade da esteira no subgrupo com nível leve de doença, e no consumo de oxigênio no pico e nos limiares ventilatórios nos subgrupos com níveis moderado/grave. Por outro lado, os equivalentes ventilatórios, a inclinação da eficiência do consumo de oxigênio e o pico do pulso de oxigênio não apresentaram alterações significativas. CONCLUSÕES: A fadiga do músculo periférico foi a etiologia de limitação de exercício mais comum em pacientes pós-COVID-19 independentemente da gravidade da doença. Os dados sugerem que o tratamento deve enfatizar programas de reabilitação abrangentes, incluindo componentes aeróbicos e de fortalecimento muscular.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Cohort Studies , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Oxygen , Exercise Tolerance/physiology
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(5): 2117-2126, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The most important cause of mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 is lung involvement. In this study, the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in the post-acute COVID-19 period on lung functions, functional capacity, dyspnea, quality of life, and psychiatric state were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were admitted to a PR program after discharge when their general condition had stabilized. The patients' scores of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, maximum vital capacity (VCmax), peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (PaO2), 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MRC), St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGSA), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after pulmonary rehabilitation were compared. The patients were divided into three groups, mild, moderate, and severe, according to their thorax CT findings. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients [mean age: 46.7 ± 12.5 (range: 19-76) years] were included in the study. Nineteen patients were in the mild group, 16 in the moderate group, and 17 patients comprised the severe group. Comparing the parameters before and after PR, significant improvement was observed in all three groups in the evaluation parameters after treatment including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, 6MWD, and MRSC; SGSA symptoms, activity, effects and total scores; HADS depression, anxiety, and total scores (p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: PR is a beneficial treatment for patients with COVID-19 with lung involvement for improving lung functions, eliminating dyspnea, and improving functional capacity, psychological status, and life quality of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Exercise Tolerance
13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(11): 1795-1803, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The present randomized, single-center, and single-blinded clinical trial tested the hypothesis that tele-supervised home-based exercise training (exercise) is an effective strategy for improving cardiovascular, respiratory, and functional capacity parameters in individuals who were hospitalized due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Thirty-two individuals (52 ± 10 yr; 17 were female) randomly assigned to exercise ( n = 12) or control groups ( n = 20) had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index), hemodynamic (brachial and central blood pressure), vascular (arterial stiffness), ventilatory (pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength), and functional parameters (handgrip strength, five-time sit to stand, timed up and go test, and 6-min walking test) assessed at baseline (30-45 d of hospital discharged) and after 12 wk of follow-up. RESULTS: Both groups similarly increased ( P < 0.001) forced vital capacity (absolute and percent of predicted), forced expiratory volume in the first second (absolute and percent of predicted), and handgrip strength during follow-up. However, only the exercise group reduced carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (-2.0 ± 0.6 m·s -1 , P = 0.048) and increased ( P < 0.05) resting oxygen saturation (1.9% ± 0.6%), mean inspiratory pressure (24.7 ± 7.1 cm H 2 O), mean expiratory pressure (20.3 ± 5.8 cm H 2 O), and percent of predicted mean expiratory pressure (14% ± 22%) during follow-up. No significant changes were found in any other variable during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings suggest that tele-supervised home-based exercise training can be a potential adjunct therapeutic to rehabilitate individuals who were hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Postural Balance , Pulse Wave Analysis , Respiratory Muscles , Time and Motion Studies
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 134(3): 622-637, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232228

ABSTRACT

Failure to recover following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have a profound impact on individuals who participate in high-intensity/volume exercise as part of their occupation/recreation. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal cardiopulmonary exercise function, fatigue, and mental health status of military-trained individuals (up to 12-mo postinfection) who feel recovered, and those with persistent symptoms from two acute disease severity groups (hospitalized and community-managed), compared with an age-, sex-, and job role-matched control. Eighty-eight participants underwent cardiopulmonary functional tests at baseline (5 mo following acute illness) and 12 mo; 25 hospitalized with persistent symptoms (hospitalized-symptomatic), 6 hospitalized and recovered (hospitalized-recovered); 28 community-managed with persistent symptoms (community-symptomatic); 12 community-managed, now recovered (community-recovered), and 17 controls. Cardiopulmonary exercise function and mental health status were comparable between the 5 and 12-mo follow-up. At 12 mo, symptoms of fatigue (48% and 46%) and shortness of breath (SoB; 52% and 43%) remain high in hospitalized-symptomatic and community-symptomatic groups, respectively. At 12 mo, COVID-19-exposed participants had a reduced capacity for work at anaerobic threshold and at peak exercise levels of deconditioning persist, with many individuals struggling to return to strenuous activity. The prevalence considered "fully fit" at 12 mo was lowest in symptomatic groups (hospitalized-symptomatic, 4%; hospitalized-recovered, 50%; community-symptomatic, 18%; community-recovered, 82%; control, 82%) and 49% of COVID-19-exposed participants remained medically nondeployable within the British Armed Forces. For hospitalized and symptomatic individuals, cardiopulmonary exercise profiles are consistent with impaired metabolic efficiency and deconditioning at 12 mo postacute illness. The long-term deployability status of COVID-19-exposed military personnel is uncertain.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Subjective exercise limiting symptoms such as fatigue and shortness of breath reduce but remain prevalent in symptomatic groups. At 12 mo, COVID-19-exposed individuals still have a reduced capacity for work at the anaerobic threshold (which best predicts sustainable intensity), despite oxygen uptake comparable to controls. The prevalence of COVID-19-exposed individuals considered "medically non-deployable" remains high at 47%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Exercise Tolerance , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatigue , Dyspnea , Employment , Mental Fatigue
18.
J Bras Pneumol ; 49(1): e20220107, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2218166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program with and without telecoaching on health-related outcomes in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: A total of 42 COVID-19 patients who completed medical treatment were randomly divided into two groups: the study (telecoaching) group (n = 21) and the control (no telecoaching) group (n = 21). Both groups participated in an 8-week home-based PR program including education, breathing exercises, strength training, and regular walking. The study group received phone calls from a physiotherapist once a week. Both groups of patients were assessed before and after the program by means of the following: pulmonary function tests; the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale; the six-minute walk test; extremity muscle strength measurement; the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (to assess disease-related quality of life); the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, to assess overall quality of life); and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: In both groups, there were significant improvements in the following: FVC; the six-minute walk distance; right and left deltoid muscle strength; Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire activity domain, impact domain, and total scores; and SF-36 social functioning, role-physical, role-emotional, and bodily pain domain scores (p < 0.05). Decreases in daily-life dyspnea, exertional dyspnea, and exertional fatigue were significant in the study group (p < 0.05), and the improvement in SF-36 social functioning domain scores was greater in the study group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A home-based PR program with telecoaching increases social functioning and decreases daily-life dyspnea, exertional dyspnea, and exertional fatigue in COVID-19 survivors in comparison with a home-based PR program without telecoaching.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Quality of Life , Dyspnea , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 13, 2023 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is an important clinical tool that provides a global assessment of the respiratory, circulatory and metabolic responses to exercise which are not adequately reflected through the measurement of individual organ system function at rest. In the context of critical COVID-19, CPET is an ideal approach for assessing long term sequelae. METHODS: In this prospective single-center study, we performed CPET 12 months after symptom onset in 60 patients that had required intensive care unit treatment for a severe COVID-19 infection. Lung function at rest and chest computed tomography (CT) scan were also performed. RESULTS: Twelve months after severe COVID-19 pneumonia, dyspnea was the most frequently reported symptom although only a minority of patients had impaired respiratory function at rest. Mild ground-glass opacities, reticulations and bronchiectasis were the most common CT scan abnormalities. The majority of the patients (80%) had a peak O2 uptake (V'O2) considered within normal limits (median peak predicted O2 uptake (V'O2) of 98% [87.2-106.3]). Length of ICU stay remained an independent predictor of V'O2. More than half of the patients with a normal peak predicted V'O2 showed ventilatory inefficiency during exercise with an abnormal increase of physiological dead space ventilation (VD/Vt) (median VD/VT of 0.27 [0.21-0.32] at anaerobic threshold (AT) and 0.29 [0.25-0.34] at peak) and a widened median peak alveolar-arterial gradient for O2 (35.2 mmHg [31.2-44.8]. Peak PetCO2 was significantly lower in subjects with an abnormal increase of VD/Vt (p = 0.001). Impairments were more pronounced in patients with dyspnea. Peak VD/Vt values were positively correlated with peak D-Dimer plasma concentrations from blood samples collected during ICU stay (r2 = 0.12; p = 0.02) and to predicted diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r2 = - 0.15; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months after severe COVID-19 pneumonia, most of the patients had a peak V'O2 considered within normal limits but showed ventilatory inefficiency during exercise with increased dead space ventilation that was more pronounced in patients with persistent dyspnea. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04519320 (19/08/2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Humans , Disease Progression , Dyspnea , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , Hospitalization , Prospective Studies
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fatigue and exercise intolerance are the most common symptoms in patients with long COVID. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate whether a home-based inspiratory muscle training (IMT) programme improves maximal functional capacity in patients' long COVID after a previous admission due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: This study was a single-centre, blinded assessor, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-six patients with long COVID and a previous admission due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either a 12-week IMT or usual care alone (NCT05279430). The physiotherapist and participants were not blinded. Patients allocated to the IMT arm were instructed to train at home twice daily using a threshold inspiratory muscle trainer and to maintain diaphragmatic breathing during the training session. The usual care arm received no intervention.The primary endpoint was the change in peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2). Secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life (QoL), ventilatory efficiency and chronotropic response during exercise (evaluated by chronotropic index-CIx- formula). We used linear mixed regression analysis for evaluating changes in primary and secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample and time to first visit after discharge were 50.4±12.2 years and 362±105 days, respectively. A total of 11 (42.3%) were female. At baseline, the mean of peakVO2, ventilatory efficiency and CIx were 18.9±5 mL/kg/min, 29.4±5.2 and 0.64±0.19, respectively. The IMT arm improved their peakVO2 significantly compared with usual care (+Δ 4.46 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 3.10 to 5.81; p<0.001). Similar positive findings were found when evaluating changes for CIx and some QoL dimensions. We did not find significant changes in ventilatory efficiency. CONCLUSION: In long COVID patients with a previous admission due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, IMT was associated with marked improvement in exercise capacity and QoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05279430.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Breathing Exercises/methods , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Muscles
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