Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 787
Filter
1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 8-13, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provoked a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, namely coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, effective drugs for this disease are urgently warranted. Anisodamine is a traditional Chinese medicine that is predicted as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate its antiviral activity and crucial targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 and anisodamine were co-cultured in Vero E6 cells, and the antiviral activity of anisodamine was assessed by immunofluorescence assay. The antiviral activity of anisodamine was further measured by pseudovirus entry assay in HEK293/hACE2 cells. Finally, the predictions of crucial targets of anisodamine on SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by molecular docking studies. We discovered that anisodamine suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, and reduced the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry to HEK293/hACE2 cells. Furthermore, molecular docking studies indicated that anisodamine may target SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) with the docking score of -6.63 kcal/mol and formed three H-bonds with Gly143, Cys145, and Cys44 amino acid residues at the predicted active site of Mpro. This study suggests that anisodamine is a potent antiviral agent for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Solanaceous Alkaloids , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Solanaceous Alkaloids/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(8): 536, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976800

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore if bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid (BCoV N) impacts IFN-ß production in the host cells and to reveal further molecular mechanism of BCoV pathogenesis. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells were transiently transfected with pMyc-BCoV-N recombinant plasmids, then infected with the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Expression levels of beta interferon (IFN-ß) mRNA were detected using RT-qPCR. The results showed that BCoV N gene was 1347 bp that was consistent with the expected size. pMyc-BCoV-N recombinant protein was 1347 bp which was successfully transcribed and overexpressed in HEK 293 T cells. BCoV-N recombinant protein inhibited dose-dependently VSV-induced IFN-ß production (p < 0.01). MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3 could promote transcription levels of IFN-ß mRNA. But, BCoV-N protein demoted IFN-ß transcription levels induced by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3. Furthermore, expression levels of MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3 mRNAs were reduced in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway. In conclusion, BCoV-N reduced IFN-ß levels in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway in HEK 293 T cells which were induced by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3(5D). BCoV-N protein inhibited IFN-ß production and activation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signal pathway. Our findings demonstrated BCoV N protein is an IFN-ß antagonist through inhibition of MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3(5D) in RLRs pathway, also revealed a new mechanism of BCoV N protein to evade host innate immune response by inhibiting type I IFN production, which is beneficial to developing novel prevention strategy for BCoV disease in the animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , Nucleocapsid , RNA, Messenger , Recombinant Proteins
3.
Metabolism ; 133: 155236, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause multiple organ damages as well as metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and new onset of diabetes. The insulin/IGF signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and cell survival, but little is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in the host cell/tissue, and if so, the potential mechanism and association with COVID-19 pathology. METHODS: To determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on insulin/IGF signaling pathway, we utilized transcriptome datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and tissues from public repositories for a wide range of high-throughput gene expression data: autopsy lungs from COVID-19 patients compared to the control from non-COVID-19 patients; lungs from a human ACE2 transgenic mouse infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the control infected with mock; human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived liver organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2; adipose tissues from a mouse model of COVID-19 overexpressing human ACE2 via adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) compared to the control GFP after SARS-CoV-2 infection; iPS-derived human pancreatic cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the mock control. Gain and loss of IRF1 function models were established in HEK293T and/or Calu3 cells to evaluate the impact on insulin signaling. To understand the mechanistic regulation and relevance with COVID-19 risk factors, such as older age, male sex, obesity, and diabetes, several transcriptomes of human respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissue were analyzed. To estimate the association with COVID-19 severity, whole blood transcriptomes of critical patients with COVID-19 compared to those of hospitalized noncritical patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection impaired insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes, such as IRS, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and MAPK, in the host lung, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic cells. The impairments were attributed to interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and its gene expression was highly relevant to risk factors for severe COVID-19; increased with aging in the lung, specifically in men; augmented by obese and diabetic conditions in liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets. IRF1 activation was significantly associated with the impaired insulin signaling in human cells. IRF1 intron variant rs17622656-A, which was previously reported to be associated with COVID-19 prevalence, increased the IRF1 gene expression in human tissue and was frequently found in American and European population. Critical patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher IRF1 and lower insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes in the whole blood compared to hospitalized noncritical patients. Hormonal interventions, such as dihydrotestosterone and dexamethasone, ameliorated the pathological traits in SARS-CoV-2 infectable cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first scientific evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissues. This feature likely contributes to COVID-19 severity with cell/tissue damage and metabolic abnormalities, which may be exacerbated in older, male, obese, or diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
4.
Cells ; 11(13)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933986

ABSTRACT

Two pore channels (TPCs) are implicated in vesicle trafficking, virus infection, and autophagy regulation. As Na+- or Ca2+-permeable channels, TPCs have been reported to be activated by NAADP, PI(3,5)P2, and/or high voltage. However, a comparative study on the function and regulation of the three mammalian TPC subtypes is currently lacking. Here, we used the electrophysiological recording of enlarged endolysosome vacuoles, inside-out and outside-out membrane patches to examine the three TPCs of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, or Oc) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. While PI(3,5)P2 evoked Na+ currents with a potency order of OcTPC1 > OcTPC3 > OcTPC2, only OcTPC2 displayed a strict dependence on PI(3,5)P2. Both OcTPC1 and OcTPC3 were activatable by PI3P and OcTPC3 was also activated by additional phosphoinositide species. While OcTPC2 was voltage-independent, OcTPC1 and OcTPC3 showed voltage dependence with OcTPC3 depending on high positive voltages. Finally, while OcTPC2 preferred a luminal pH of 4.6-6.0 in endolysosomes, OcTPC1 was strongly inhibited by extracytosolic pH 5.0 in both voltage-dependent and -independent manners, and OcTPC3 was inhibited by pH 6.0 but potentiated by pH 8.0. Thus, the three OcTPCs form phosphoinositide-activated Na+ channels with different ligand selectivity, voltage dependence, and extracytosolic pH sensitivity, which likely are optimally tuned for function in specific endolysosomal populations.


Subject(s)
Lysosomes , Phosphatidylinositols , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Mammals , Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates , Rabbits
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928574

ABSTRACT

Avian coronavirus-infectious bronchitis virus (AvCoV-IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB) that has brought great threat and economic losses to the global poultry industry. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are very necessary for effective disease monitoring. At the present study, we screened a novel nanobody against IBV-N protein for development of a rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific competitive ELISA for IBV antibody detection in order to enable the assessment of inoculation effect and early warning of disease infection. Using the phage display technology and bio-panning, we obtained 7 specific nanobodies fused with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which were expressed in culture supernatant of HEK293T cells. Out of which, the nanobody of IBV-N-Nb66-vHRP has highly binding with IBV-N protein and was easily blocked by the IBV positive serums, which was finally employed as an immunoprobe for development of the competitive ELISA (cELISA). In the newly developed cELISA, we reduce the use of enzyme-conjugated secondary antibody, and the time of whole operation process is approximately 1 h. Moreover, the IBV positive serums diluted at 1:1000 can still be detected by the developed cELISA, and it has no cross reactivity with others chicken disease serums including Newcastle disease virus, Fowl adenovirus, Avian Influenza Virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Hepatitis E virus. The cut-off value of the established cELISA was 36%, and the coefficient of variation of intra- and inter-assay were 0.55-1.65% and 2.58-6.03%, respectively. Compared with the commercial ELISA (IDEXX kit), the agreement rate of two methods was defined as 98% and the kappa value was 0.96, indicating the developed cELISA has high consistency with the commercial ELISA. Taken together, the novel cELISA for IBV antibody detection is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay, which has the potential to rapidly test IBV antibody contributing to the surveillance and control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , HEK293 Cells , Horseradish Peroxidase , Humans
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928572

ABSTRACT

Sleeping Beauty (SB) is the first DNA transposon employed for efficient transposition in vertebrate cells, opening new applications for genetic engineering and gene therapies. A transposon-based gene delivery system holds the favourable features of non-viral vectors and an attractive safety profile. Here, we employed SB to engineer HEK293 cells for optimizing the production of a chimpanzee Adenovector (chAd) belonging to the Human Mastadenovirus C species. To date, chAd vectors are employed in several clinical settings for infectious diseases, last but not least COVID-19. A robust, efficient and quick viral vector production could advance the clinical application of chAd vectors. To this aim, we firstly swapped the hAd5 E1 with chAd-C E1 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We demonstrated that in the absence of human Ad5 E1, chimp Ad-C E1 gene did not support HEK293 survival. To improve chAd-C vector production, we engineered HEK293 cells to stably express the chAd-C precursor terminal protein (ch.pTP), which plays a crucial role in chimpanzee Adenoviral DNA replication. The results indicate that exogenous ch.pTP expression significantly ameliorate the packaging and amplification of recombinant chAd-C vectors thus, the engineered HEK293ch.pTP cells could represent a superior packaging cell line for the production of these vectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pan troglodytes , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , DNA Transposable Elements/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pan troglodytes/genetics
7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 301, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919756

ABSTRACT

Escalated innate immunity plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 pathology; however, the molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. Thus, we aim to characterize the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein advances human macrophage (MÏ´) inflammatory and glycolytic phenotypes and uncover novel therapeutic strategies. We found that human MÏ´s exposed to Spike protein activate IRAK4 phosphorylation. Blockade of IRAK4 in Spike protein-stimulated MÏ´s nullifies signaling of IRAK4, AKT, and baseline p38 without affecting ERK and NF-κB activation. Intriguingly, IRAK4 inhibitor (IRAK4i) rescues the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytotoxic effect in ACE2+HEK 293 cells. Moreover, the inflammatory reprogramming of MÏ´s by Spike protein was blunted by IRAK4i through IRF5 and IRF7, along with the reduction of monokines, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and CCL2. Notably, in Spike protein-stimulated MÏ´s, suppression of the inflammatory markers by IRAK4i was coupled with the rebalancing of oxidative phosphorylation over metabolic activity. This metabolic adaptation promoted by IRAK4i in Spike protein-activated MÏ´s was shown to be in part through constraining PFKBF3, HIF1α, cMYC, LDHA, lactate expression, and reversal of citrate and succinate buildup. IRAK4 knockdown could comparably impair Spike protein-enhanced inflammatory and metabolic imprints in human MÏ´s as those treated with ACE2, TLR2, and TLR7 siRNA. Extending these results, in murine models, where human SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein was not recognized by mouse ACE2, TLRs were responsible for the inflammatory and glycolytic responses instigated by Spike protein and were dysregulated by IRAK4i therapy. In conclusion, IRAK4i may be a promising strategy for severe COVID-19 patients by counter-regulating ACE2 and TLR-mediated MÏ´ hyperactivation. IRAK4i therapy counteracts MÏ´ inflammatory and glycolytic reprogramming triggered by Spike protein. This study illustrates that SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein activates IRAK4 signaling via ACE2 as well as TLR2 and TLR7 sensing in human MÏ´s. Remarkably, IRAK4i treatment can dysregulate both ACE-dependent and independent (via TLR sensing) SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-activated inflammatory and metabolic imprints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785349, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911033

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections present a tremendous threat to public health. Safe and efficacious vaccines are the most effective means in preventing the infections. A variety of vaccines have demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety around the globe. Yet, development of alternative forms of vaccines remains beneficial, particularly those with simpler production processes, less stringent storage conditions, and the capability of being used in heterologous prime/boost regimens which have shown improved efficacy against many diseases. Here we reported a novel DNA vaccine comprised of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused with CD40 ligand (CD40L) serving as both a targeting ligand and molecular adjuvant. A single intramuscular injection in Syrian hamsters induced significant neutralizing antibodies 3-weeks after vaccination, with a boost substantially improving immune responses. Moreover, the vaccine also reduced weight loss and suppressed viral replication in the lungs and nasal turbinates of challenged animals. Finally, the incorporation of CD40L into the DNA vaccine was shown to reduce lung pathology more effectively than the DNA vaccine devoid of CD40L. These results collectively indicate that this DNA vaccine candidate could be further explored because of its efficacy and known safety profile.


Subject(s)
CD40 Ligand/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Mesocricetus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Models, Animal , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 17(12): 7972-7979, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908075

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is known that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, initiating the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Since its emergence, a number of SARS-CoV-2 variants have been reported, and the variants that show high infectivity are classified as variants of concern according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this study, we performed both all-atom steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments to characterize the binding interactions between ACE2 and RBD of all current variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta) and two variants of interest (Epsilon and Kappa). We report that RBD of the Alpha (N501Y) variant requires the highest amount of force initially to be detached from ACE2 due to the N501Y mutation in addition to the role of N90-glycan, followed by Beta/Gamma (K417N/T, E484 K, and N501Y) or Delta (L452R and T478 K) variants. Among all variants investigated in this work, RBD of the Epsilon (L452R) variant is relatively easily detached from ACE2. Our results from both SMD simulations and MST experiments indicate what makes each variant more contagious in terms of RBD and ACE2 interactions. This study could shed light on developing new drugs to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry effectively.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 901217, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903025

ABSTRACT

Fc-mediated virus entry has been observed for many viruses, but the characterization of this activity in convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) is undefined. In this study, we evaluated Fc-mediated viral entry (FVE) on FcγRIIa-expressing HEK293 cells in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma and compared it with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization using ACE2-expressing HEK293 cells. The plasma were collected early in the pandemic from 39 individuals. We observed both neutralization and FVE against the infecting Washington SARS-CoV-2 strain for 31% of plasmas, neutralization, but not FVE for 61% of plasmas, and no neutralization or FVE for 8% of plasmas. Neutralization titer correlated significantly with the plasma dilution at which maximum FVE was observed, indicating Fc-mediated uptake peaked as neutralization potency waned. While total Spike-specific plasma IgG levels were similar between plasma that mediated FVE and those that did not, Spike-specific plasma IgM levels were significantly higher in plasma that did not mediate FVE. Plasma neutralization titers against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) VOC were significantly lower than titers against the Washington strain, while plasma FVE activity against the VOC was either higher or similar. This is the first report to demonstrate a functional shift in convalescent plasma antibodies from neutralizing and FVE-mediating against the earlier Washington strain, to an activity mediating only FVE and no neutralization activity against the emerging VOC, specifically the Beta (B.1.351) and Gamma (P.1) VOC. It will be important to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
11.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1031-1048, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900978

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant loss of human lives and a worldwide decline in quality of life. Treatment of COVID-19 patients is challenging, and specific treatments to reduce COVID-19 aggravation and mortality are still necessary. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel class of epiandrosterone steroidal compounds with cationic amphiphilic properties that present antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in the low micromolar range. Compounds were identified in screening campaigns using a cytopathic effect-based assay in Vero CCL81 cells, followed by hit compound validation and characterization. Compounds LNB167 and LNB169 were selected due to their ability to reduce the levels of infectious viral progeny and viral RNA levels in Vero CCL81, HEK293, and HuH7.5 cell lines. Mechanistic studies in Vero CCL81 cells indicated that LNB167 and LNB169 inhibited the initial phase of viral replication through mechanisms involving modulation of membrane lipids and cholesterol in host cells. Selection of viral variants resistant to steroidal compound treatment revealed single mutations on transmembrane, lipid membrane-interacting Spike and Envelope proteins. Finally, in vivo testing using the hACE2 transgenic mouse model indicated that SARS-CoV-2 infection could not be ameliorated by LNB167 treatment. We conclude that anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities of steroidal compounds LNB167 and LNB169 are likely host-targeted, consistent with the properties of cationic amphiphilic compounds that modulate host cell lipid biology. Although effective in vitro, protective effects were cell-type specific and did not translate to protection in vivo, indicating that subversion of lipid membrane physiology is an important, yet complex mechanism involved in SARS-CoV-2 replication and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lipids , Mice , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
12.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896808

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients show lipid metabolic alterations, but the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the Spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impairs lipid metabolism in host cells. We generated a Spike cell line in HEK293 using the pcDNA vector carrying the Spike gene expression cassette. A control cell line was generated using the empty pcDNA vector. Gene expression profiles related to lipid metabolic, autophagic, and ferroptotic pathways were investigated. Palmitic acid (PA)-overload was used to assess lipotoxicity-induced necrosis. As compared with controls, the Spike cells showed a significant increase in lipid depositions in cell membranes as well as dysregulation of expression of a panel of molecules involving lipid metabolism, autophagy, and ferroptosis. The Spike cells showed an upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a multifunctional transcriptional factor, in response to PA. Furthermore, the Spike cells exhibited increased necrosis in response to PA-induced lipotoxicity compared to control cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner via ferroptosis, which could be attenuated by the Nrf2 inhibitor trigonelline. We conclude that the Spike protein impairs lipid metabolic and autophagic pathways in host cells, leading to increased susceptibility to lipotoxicity via ferroptosis which can be suppressed by a Nrf2 inhibitor. This data also suggests a central role of Nrf2 in Spike-induced lipid metabolic impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Necrosis , Palmitic Acid/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Phytomedicine ; 102: 154154, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19 has caused millions of deaths and led to unprecedented socioeconomic damage. There is therefore, in addition to vaccination, an urgent need to develop complementary effective treatments and/or protective and preventative therapies against this deadly disease. METHODS: Here, a multi-component testing platform was established to screen a library of herbal extracts from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), to identify potent herbal extracts/phytochemicals as possible therapeutics for COVID-19. We utilized assays for spike protein (S-protein) binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2); the enzymatic inhibition of 3CL protease; and entry of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into cultured HEK293T cells and zebrafish larvae. RESULTS: Over a thousand herbal extracts were screened and approximately 20 positive hits were identified. Among these, we found that the water and ethanol extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) significantly inhibited S-protein binding to ACE2, 3CL protease activity, and viral entry into the cell and fish models. The water extract was more effective than the ethanol extract, with IC50 values of 25 to 500 µg/ml. In addition, the polysaccharide-depleted fraction of the former, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which was found in both extracts, displayed significant antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the water and ethanol extracts of PMR have an inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus host-cell entry. Furthermore, EGCG might be an active component of PMR, which blocks SARS-CoV-2 entry to cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that PMR might be considered as a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polygonum , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ethanol , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Larva , SARS-CoV-2 , Water , Zebrafish
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883630

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis are at risk of severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the neutralizing activity and coverage of SARS-CoV-2 variants of vaccine-elicited antibodies is required to guide prophylactic and therapeutic COVID-19 interventions in this frail population. By analyzing plasma samples from 130 hemodialysis and 13 peritoneal dialysis patients after two doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines, we found that 35% of the patients had low-level or undetectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S). Neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant were low or undetectable in 49% and 77% of patients, respectively, and were further reduced against other emerging variants. The fraction of non-responding patients was higher in SARS-CoV-2-naïve hemodialysis patients immunized with BNT162b2 (66%) than those immunized with mRNA-1273 (23%). The reduced neutralizing activity correlated with low antibody avidity. Patients followed up to 7 months after vaccination showed a rapid decay of the antibody response with an average 21- and 10-fold reduction of neutralizing antibodies to vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant, which increased the fraction of non-responders to 84% and 90%, respectively. These data indicate that dialysis patients should be prioritized for additional vaccination boosts. Nevertheless, their antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 must be continuously monitored to adopt the best prophylactic and therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Affinity , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cricetulus , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Follow-Up Studies , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Risk Factors , /immunology
15.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 67: 116838, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872946

ABSTRACT

Honokiol, isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Magnolia officinalis, is a biphenolic compound with several biological activities. To improve and broaden its biological activity, herein, two series of honokiol thioethers bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were prepared and assessed for their α-glucosidase and SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitory activities. Among all the honokiol thioethers, compound 7l exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with an IC50 value of 18.9 ± 2.3 µM, which was superior to the reference drug acarbose (IC50 = 24.4 ± 0.3 µM). Some interesting results of structure-activity relationships (SARs) have also been discussed. Enzyme kinetic study demonstrated that 7l was a noncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibitor, which was further supported by the results of molecular docking. Moreover, honokiol thioethers 7e, 9a, 9e, and 9r exhibited potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entering into HEK-293 T-ACE2h. Especially 9a displayed the strongest inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry with an IC50 value of 16.96 ± 2.45 µM, which was lower than the positive control Evans blue (21.98 ± 1.98 µM). Biolayer interferometry (BLI) binding and docking studies suggested that 9a and 9r may effectively block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the host ACE2 receptor through dual recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and human ACE2. Additionally, the potent honokiol thioethers 7l, 9a, and 9r displayed relatively no cytotoxicity to normal cells (LO2). These findings will provide a theoretical basis for the discovery of honokiol derivatives as potential both α-glucosidase and SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19/drug therapy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lignans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oxadiazoles , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Sulfides , alpha-Glucosidases/metabolism
16.
Phytomedicine ; 103: 154215, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a global serious pandemic and is responsible for over 4 million human deaths. Currently, although various vaccines have been developed, humans can still get SARS-CoV-2 infection after being vaccinated. Therefore, the blocking of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be potential therapeutic strategies. Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMI), a small fungal protein, is cloned from Ganoderma microsporum. It exhibits anti-cancer and immunomodulatory functions. Currently, it is still unclear whether GMI involves in interfering with viral infection. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential functions and mechanisms of GMI on inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. METHODS: The effects of GMI were examined in vitro on ACE2 overexpressing HEK293T (HEK293T/ACE2) cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 Spike lentiviral pseudovirus encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The infection efficacy was determined using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein level of ACE2 was verified by Western blot. The effects of GMI on cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2 and lung epithelial WI38-2RA cells were determined by MTT assay. Mice received GMI via nebulizer. RESULTS: GMI did not affect the cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2, WI38-2RA and macrophages. Functional studies showed that GMI inhibited GFP expressing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus from infecting HEK293T/ACE2 cells. GMI slightly interfered the interaction between ACE2 and Spike protein. GMI interacted with S2 domain of Spike protein. Specifically, GMI dramatically reduced ACE2 expression in HEK293T/ACE2 and WI38-2RA cells. Mechanistically, GMI induced ACE2 degradation via activating protein degradation system, including proteasome and lysosome. Abolishing proteasome and lysosome by MG132 and bafilomycin A1, respectively, rescued GMI-reduced ACE2 levels. In addition, GMI triggered dynamin and lipid raft-mediated ACE2 endocytosis. ACE2 levels were downregulated in the lung tissue after the mice inhaling GMI. CONCLUSIONS: GMI prevents SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection via induction of ACE2 degradation in host cells. Our findings suggest that GMI will be a potential prevention agent to alleviate SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ganoderma , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Pseudotyping
17.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855818

ABSTRACT

The dysregulation of host signaling pathways plays a critical role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and viral pathogenesis. While a number of viral proteins that can block type I IFN signaling have been identified, a comprehensive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the regulation of other signaling pathways that can be critical for viral infection and its pathophysiology is still lacking. Here, we screened the effect of 21 SARS-CoV-2 proteins on 10 different host signaling pathways, namely, Wnt, p53, TGFß, c-Myc, Hypoxia, Hippo, AP-1, Notch, Oct4/Sox2, and NF-κB, using a luciferase reporter assay. As a result, we identified several SARS-CoV-2 proteins that could act as activators or inhibitors for distinct signaling pathways in the context of overexpression in HEK293T cells. We also provided evidence for p53 being an intrinsic host restriction factor of SARS-CoV-2. We found that the overexpression of p53 is capable of reducing virus production, while the main viral protease nsp5 can repress the transcriptional activity of p53, which depends on the protease function of nsp5. Taken together, our results provide a foundation for future studies, which can explore how the dysregulation of specific signaling pathways by SARS-CoV-2 proteins can control viral infection and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855002

ABSTRACT

Several SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged that harbor mutations in the surface unit of the viral spike (S) protein that enhance infectivity and transmissibility. Here, we analyzed whether ten naturally-occurring mutations found within the extended loop harboring the S1/S2 cleavage site of the S protein, a determinant of SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism and pathogenicity, impact S protein processing and function. None of the mutations increased but several decreased S protein cleavage at the S1/S2 site, including S686G and P681H, the latter of which is found in variants of concern B.1.1.7 (Alpha variant) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron variant). None of the mutations reduced ACE2 binding and cell-cell fusion although several modulated the efficiency of host cell entry. The effects of mutation S686G on viral entry were cell-type dependent and could be linked to the availability of cathepsin L for S protein activation. These results show that polymorphisms at the S1/S2 site can modulate S protein processing and host cell entry.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells/virology , Humans , Immunoblotting , Vero Cells/virology
19.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 23(8): 1118-1129, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of animals and birds. Their tropism is primarily determined by the ability of the spike protein to bind to a host cell surface receptor. The ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 inculcates the need for the development of effective intervention strategies. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to produce pseudotyped coronaviruses of SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and show its applications, including virus entry, neutralization, and screening of entry inhibitors from natural products. METHODS: Here, we generated VSV-based pseudotyped coronaviruses (CoV-PVs) for SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Recombinant spike proteins of SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 were transiently expressed in HEK293T cells followed by infection with recombinant VSV. High titer pseudoviruses were harvested and subjected to distinct validation assays, which confirms the proper spike pseudotyping. Further, specific receptor-mediated entry was confirmed by antibody neutralization and soluble form of receptor inhibition assay on Vero E6 cells. Next, these CoV-PVs were used for screening of antiviral activity of natural products such as green tea and Spirulina extract. RESULTS: Medicinal plants and natural compounds have been traditionally used as antiviral agents. In the first series of experiments, we demonstrated that pseudotyped viruses specifically bind to their receptors for cellular entry. SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV anti-sera neutralize SARS-CoV-1-PV and SARS-CoV-2-PV, and MERS-CoV-PV, respectively. Incubation of soluble ACE2 with CoV-PVs inhibited entry of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 PVs but not MERS-CoV-PV. Also, transient expression of ACE2 and DPP4 in non-permissive BHK21 cells enabled infection by SARS-CoV-1-PV, SARS-CoV-2-PV, and MERS-CoV-PV, respectively. Next, we showed the antiviral properties of known entry inhibitors of enveloped viruses, Spirulina, and green tea extracts against CoV-PVs. SARSCoV- 1-PV, MERS-CoV-PV, and SARS-CoV-2-PV entry was blocked with higher efficiency when preincubated with either green tea or Spirulina extracts. Green tea provided a better inhibitory effect by binding to the S1 domain of the spike and blocking the spike interaction with its receptor. CONCLUSION: In summary, we demonstrated that pseudotyped viruses are an ideal tool for studying viral entry, quantification of neutralizing antibodies, and screening of entry inhibitors in a BSL-2 facility. Moreover, green tea might be a promising natural remedy against emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea
20.
J Vis Exp ; (182)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834949

ABSTRACT

The development of new technologies for cellular fluorescence microscopy has facilitated high-throughput screening methods for drug discovery. Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles with excellent photophysical properties imbued with bright and stable photoluminescence as well as narrow emission bands. Quantum dots are spherical in shape, and with the proper modification of the surface chemistry, can be used to conjugate biomolecules for cellular applications. These optical properties, combined with the ability to functionalize them with biomolecules, make them an excellent tool for investigating receptor-ligand interactions and cellular trafficking. Here, we present a method that uses quantum dots to track the binding and endocytosis of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This protocol can be used as a guide for experimentalists looking to utilize quantum dots to study protein-protein interactions and trafficking in the context of cellular physiology.


Subject(s)
Endocytosis , Quantum Dots , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL