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1.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 454, 2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967615

ABSTRACT

The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 dataset is one of the largest international databases of prospectively collected clinical data on people hospitalized with COVID-19. This dataset was compiled during the COVID-19 pandemic by a network of hospitals that collect data using the ISARIC-World Health Organization Clinical Characterization Protocol and data tools. The database includes data from more than 705,000 patients, collected in more than 60 countries and 1,500 centres worldwide. Patient data are available from acute hospital admissions with COVID-19 and outpatient follow-ups. The data include signs and symptoms, pre-existing comorbidities, vital signs, chronic and acute treatments, complications, dates of hospitalization and discharge, mortality, viral strains, vaccination status, and other data. Here, we present the dataset characteristics, explain its architecture and how to gain access, and provide tools to facilitate its use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 632, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 sounded the alarm for early inspection on acute respiratory infection (ARI). However, diagnosis pathway of ARI has still not reached a consensus and its impact on prognosis needs to be further explored. METHODS: ESAR is a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial on evaluating the diagnosis performance and its impact on prognosis of ARI between mNGS and multiplex PCR. Enrolled patients will be divided into two groups with a ratio of 1:1. Group I will be directly tested by mNGS. Group II will firstly receive multiplex PCR, then mNGS in patients with severe infection if multiplex PCR is negative or inconsistent with clinical manifestations. All patients will be followed up every 7 days for 28 days. The primary endpoint is time to initiate targeted treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of significant events (oxygen inhalation, mechanical ventilation, etc.), clinical remission rate, and hospitalization length. A total of 440 participants will be enrolled in both groups. DISCUSSION: ESAR compares the efficacy of different diagnostic strategies and their impact on treatment outcomes in ARI, which is of great significance to make precise diagnosis, balance clinical resources and demands, and ultimately optimize clinical diagnosis pathways and treatment strategies. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT04955756, Registered on July 9th 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05027, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964526

ABSTRACT

Background: Brazil is a multiracial country with five major official races: White, Black, individuals with multiracial backgrounds, Asian, and Indigenous. Brazil is also one of the epicentres of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 pandemic. Thus, we evaluated how the races of the Brazilian population contribute to the outcomes in hospitalized individuals with COVID-19, and we also described the clinical profile of the five official Brazilian races. Methods: We performed an epidemiological analysis for the first 67 epidemiological weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil (from February 22, 2020, to April 04, 2021) using the data available at OpenDataSUS of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, a data set containing data from Brazilian hospitalized individuals. We evaluated more than 30 characteristics, including demographic data, clinical symptoms, comorbidities, need for intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation, and outcomes. Results: In our data, 585 655 hospitalized individuals with a positive result in SARS-CoV-2 real-time chain reaction (RT-PCR) were included. Of these total, 309 646 (52.9%) identified as White, 31 872 (5.4%) identified as Black, 7108 (1.2%) identified as Asian, 235 108 (40.1%) identified as individuals with multiracial background, and 1921 (0.3%) identified as Indigenous. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that race was significative to predict the death being that Black (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.39-1.48), individuals with multiracial background (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.34-1.38), and Indigenous (OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.70-2.15) races were more prone to die compared to the White race. The Asian individuals did not have a higher chance of dying due to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to White individuals (OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.94-1.06). In addition, other characteristics contributed as such as being male (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.16-1.19), age (mainly, +85 years old - OR = 23.02; 95% CI = 20.05-26.42) compared to 1-year-old individuals, living in rural areas (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.18-1.26) or in peri-urban places (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.40), and the presence of nosocomial infection (OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.82-2.01). Among the clinical symptoms, the main predictors were dyspnoea (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.23-1.28), respiratory discomfort (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.28-1.32), oxygen saturation <95% (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.38-1.43). Also, among the comorbidities, the main predictors were the presence of immunosuppressive disorder (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.39-1.49), neurological disorder (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.17-1.25), hepatic disorder (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.34-1.50), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.37-1.42), cardiopathy (OR = 1.13; 95%CI = 1.11-1.14), hematologic disorder (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.24-1.43), Down syndrome (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.43-1.81), renal disease (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.11-1.18), and obesity (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.15-1.21). Individuals on intensive care unit (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 2.22-2.29) and on invasive (OR = 10.92; 95% CI = 10.66-11.18) or non-invasive (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.30-1.35) mechanical ventilation were more prone to die. Conclusions: Alongside several clinical symptoms and comorbidities, we associated race with an enhanced risk of death in Black individuals, individuals with multiracial backgrounds, and Indigenous peoples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(6)2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964024

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: To estimate the association between admission functional outcomes and exposure to physiotherapy interventions with mortality rate in intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients with cardiovascular diseases and new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort including 100 ICU inpatients (mean (standard deviation), age 75 (16) years) split into COVID-19+ or COVID-19-. The association of in-ICU death with admission functional outcomes and physiotherapy interventions was investigated using univariable and multivariable regression models. Results: In total, 42 (42%) patients tested positive for COVID-19. In-ICU mortality rate was 37%, being higher for the COVID-19+ group (odds ratio, OR (95% CI): 3.15 (1.37-7.47), p = 0.008). In-ICU death was associated with lower admission ICU Mobility Scale score (0.81 (0.71-0.91), p = 0.001). Restricted mobility (24.90 (6.77-161.94), p < 0.001) and passive kinesiotherapy (30.67 (9.49-139.52), p < 0.001) were associated with in-ICU death, whereas active kinesiotherapy (0.13 (0.05-0.32), p < 0.001), standing (0.12 (0.05-0.30), p < 0.001), or walking (0.10 (0.03-0.27), p < 0.001) were associated with in-ICU discharge. Conclusions: In-ICU mortality was higher for inpatients with cardiovascular diseases who had COVID-19+, were exposed to invasive mechanical ventilation, or presented with low admission mobility scores. Restricted mobility or passive kinesiotherapy were associated with in-ICU death, whereas active mobilizations (kinesiotherapy, standing, or walking) were associated with in-ICU discharge in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Physical Therapy Modalities , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the survival of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and its associated factors. METHODS: Retrospective study of survival analysis in individuals notified and hospitalized with COVID-19 in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. As data source, the reports of hospitalized patients in the period from 1 March 2020, to 31 July 2021 were used. The Cox regression analysis plus the proportional risk assessment (assumption) were used to compare hospitalization time until the occurrence of the event (death from COVID-19) associated with possible risk factors. RESULTS: The sample comprised 9806 notifications of cases, with the occurrence of 1885 deaths from the disease (19.22%). The mean age of the group was 58 years (SD ± 18.3) and the mean hospital length of stay was 10.5 days (SD ± 11.8). The factors that presented a higher risk of death from COVID-19, associated with a lower survival rate, were non-work-related infection (HR = 4.33; p < 0.001), age group 60-79 years (HR: 1.62; p < 0.001) and 80 years or older (HR = 2.56; p < 0.001), presence of chronic cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.18; p = 0.028), chronic kidney disease (HR = 1.5; p = 0.004), smoking (HR = 1.41; p < 0.001), obesity (HR = 2.28; p < 0.001), neoplasms (HR = 1.81; p < 0.001) and chronic neurological disease (HR = 1.68; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that non-work-related infection, age group above or equal to 60 years, presence of chronic cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic neurological disease, smoking, obesity and neoplasms were associated with a higher risk of death, and, therefore, a lower survival in Brazilian patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The identification of priority groups is crucial for Health Surveillance and can guide prevention, control, monitoring, and intervention strategies against the new coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Neoplasms , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604761, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963657

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Develop a tool for applying various COVID-19 re-opening guidelines to the more than 120 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) facilities. Methods: A geographic information system boundary was created for each EPA facility encompassing the county where the EPA facility is located and the counties where employees commuted from. This commuting area is used for display in the Dashboard and to summarize population and COVID-19 health data for analysis. Results: Scientists in EPA's Office of Research and Development developed the EPA Facility Status Dashboard, an easy-to-use web application that displays data and statistical analyses on COVID-19 cases, testing, hospitalizations, and vaccination rates. Conclusion: The Dashboard was designed to provide readily accessible information for EPA management and staff to view and understand the COVID-19 risk surrounding each facility. It has been modified several times based on user feedback, availability of new data sources, and updated guidance. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or the policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , United States/epidemiology , United States Environmental Protection Agency
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 896378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963430

ABSTRACT

Aims: Pre-existing conditions, such as age, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, constitute known risk factors for severe COVID-19. However, the impact of prediabetes mellitus (PDM) on COVID-19 severity is less clear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of PDM in the acute and long-term phases of COVID-19. Materials and methods: We compared inflammatory mediators, laboratory and clinical parameters and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with prediabetes (PDM) and without diabetes (NDM) during the acute phase of infection and at three months post-hospitalization. Results: Patients with PDM had longer hospital stays and required intensive care unit admission more frequently than NDM. Upon hospitalization, PDM patients exhibited higher serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is related to reduced partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in arterial blood, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and increased COVID-19 severity. However, at three months after discharge, those with PDM did not exhibit significant alterations in laboratory parameters or residual symptoms; however, PDM was observed to influence the profile of reported symptoms. Conclusions: PDM seems to be associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, as well as higher serum levels of IL-6, which may constitute a potential biomarker of severe COVID-19 risk in affected patients. Furthermore, while PDM correlated with more severe acute-phase COVID-19, no long-term worsening of sequelae was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Prediabetic State , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Prediabetic State/complications
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(8): 2963-2972, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963153

ABSTRACT

The number of deaths from COVID-19 is closely associated with multimorbidities. This study aimed to review the clinical and functional conditions of patients who recovered from COVID-19. Additionally, identify the relationship with risk factors and comorbidities. Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) was more frequently observed in patients with severe COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the comorbidities that has contributed the most to the increase in the number of hospitalizations due to complications and the number of deaths due to infection by COVID-19. Obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 under 60 years of age. Most survivors of COVID-19 suffer primarily from muscle fatigue or weakness. In addition, patients who were more seriously ill during their hospital stay have greater impairment of functional capacity, pulmonary diffusion and fatigue symptoms, and are the main target population for long-term recovery interventions. To optimize the post-hospitalization rehabilitation of patients after discharge from COVID-19, the need for multidisciplinary work in rehabilitation, the reinforcement of public policies to ensure equity in access to the public health system and training should be considered of the health team in view of the new demands and realities generated by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 94, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acute illness severity and ongoing symptoms. METHODS: One thousand seventy-seven patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital between March and November 2020 were recruited. Using a 14-day wear protocol, wrist-worn accelerometers were sent to participants after a five-month follow-up assessment. Acute illness severity was assessed by the WHO clinical progression scale, and the severity of ongoing symptoms was assessed using four previously reported data-driven clinical recovery clusters. Two existing control populations of office workers and individuals with type 2 diabetes were comparators. RESULTS: Valid accelerometer data from 253 women and 462 men were included. Women engaged in a mean ± SD of 14.9 ± 14.7 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), with 12.1 ± 1.7 h/day spent inactive and 7.2 ± 1.1 h/day asleep. The values for men were 21.0 ± 22.3 and 12.6 ± 1.7 h /day and 6.9 ± 1.1 h/day, respectively. Over 60% of women and men did not have any days containing a 30-min bout of MVPA. Variability in sleep timing was approximately 2 h in men and women. More severe acute illness was associated with lower total activity and MVPA in recovery. The very severe recovery cluster was associated with fewer days/week containing continuous bouts of MVPA, longer total sleep time, and higher variability in sleep timing. Patients post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 had lower levels of physical activity, greater sleep variability, and lower sleep efficiency than a similarly aged cohort of office workers or those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Those recovering from a hospital admission for COVID-19 have low levels of physical activity and disrupted patterns of sleep several months after discharge. Our comparative cohorts indicate that the long-term impact of COVID-19 on physical behaviours is significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Accelerometry/methods , Aftercare , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Sleep
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 164, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: April 22nd, 2020, New York City (NYC) was the epicenter of the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the US with differences of death rates among its 5 boroughs. We aimed to investigate the difference in mortality associated with hospital factors (teaching versus community hospital) in NYC. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We obtained medical records of 6509 hospitalized patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from the Mount Sinai Health System including 4 teaching hospitals in Manhattan and 2 community hospitals located outside of Manhattan (Queens and Brooklyn) retrospectively. Propensity score analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) with stabilized weights was performed to adjust for differences in the baseline characteristics of patients initially presenting to teaching or community hospitals, and those who were transferred from community hospitals to teaching hospitals. RESULTS: Among 6509 patients, 4653 (72.6%) were admitted in teaching hospitals, 1462 (22.8%) were admitted in community hospitals, and 293 (4.6%) were originally admitted in community and then transferred into teaching hospitals. Patients in community hospitals had higher mortality (42.5%) than those in teaching hospitals (17.6%) or those transferred from community to teaching hospitals (23.5%, P < 0.001). After IPTW-adjustment, when compared to patients cared for at teaching hospitals, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of mortality were as follows: community hospitals 2.47 (2.03-2.99); transfers 0.80 (0.58-1.09)). CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted to community hospitals had higher mortality than those admitted to teaching hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Community , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 552, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initial reports on US COVID-19 showed different outcomes in different races. In this study we use a diverse large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to determine predictors of mortality. METHODS: We analyzed data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 5852) between March 2020- August 2020 from 8 hospitals across the US. Demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: The cohort contained 3,662 (61.7%) African Americans (AA), 286 (5%) American Latinx (LAT), 1,407 (23.9%), European Americans (EA), and 93 (1.5%) American Asians (AS). Survivors and non-survivors mean ages in years were 58 and 68 for AA, 58 and 77 for EA, 44 and 61 for LAT, and 51 and 63 for AS. Mortality rates for AA, LAT, EA and AS were 14.8, 7.3, 16.3 and 2.2%. Mortality increased among patients with the following characteristics: age, male gender, New York region, cardiac disease, COPD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of cancer, immunosuppression, elevated lymphocytes, CRP, ferritin, D-Dimer, creatinine, troponin, and procalcitonin. Use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.001), shortness of breath (SOB) (p < 0.01), fatigue (p = 0.04), diarrhea (p = 0.02), and increased AST (p < 0.01), significantly correlated with death in multivariate analysis. Male sex and EA and AA race/ethnicity had higher frequency of death. Diarrhea was among the most common GI symptom amongst AAs (6.8%). When adjusting for comorbidities, significant variables among the demographics of study population were age (over 45 years old), male sex, EA, and patients hospitalized in New York. When adjusting for disease severity, significant variables were age over 65 years old, male sex, EA as well as having SOB, elevated CRP and D-dimer. Glucocorticoid usage was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 death in our cohort. CONCLUSION: Among this large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients enriched for African Americans, our study findings may reflect the extent of systemic organ involvement by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent progression to multi-system organ failure. High mortality in AA in comparison with LAT is likely related to high frequency of comorbidities and older age among AA. Glucocorticoids should be used carefully considering the poor outcomes associated with it. Special focus in treating patients with elevated liver enzymes and other inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP, troponin, ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer are required to prevent poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Aged , Biomarkers , Diarrhea , Ferritins , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 559, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still a paucity of evidence on the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) and those co-infected with tuberculosis (TB), particularly in areas where these conditions are common. We describe the clinical features, laboratory findings and outcome of hospitalised PWH and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected COVID-19 patients as well as those co-infected with tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We conducted a multicentre cohort study across three hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. All adults requiring hospitalisation with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia from March to July 2020 were analysed. RESULTS: PWH comprised 270 (19%) of 1434 admissions. There were 47 patients with active tuberculosis (3.3%), of whom 29 (62%) were PWH. Three-hundred and seventy-three patients (26%) died. The mortality in PWH (n = 71, 26%) and HIV-uninfected patients (n = 296, 25%) was comparable. In patients with TB, PWH had a higher mortality than HIV-uninfected patients (n = 11, 38% vs n = 3, 20%; p = 0.001). In multivariable survival analysis a higher risk of death was associated with older age (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.03 95%CI 1.02-1.03, p < 0.001), male sex (AHR1.38 (95%CI 1.12-1.72, p = 0.003) and being "overweight or obese" (AHR 1.30 95%CI 1.03-1.61 p = 0.024). HIV (AHR 1.28 95%CI 0.95-1.72, p 0.11) and active TB (AHR 1.50 95%CI 0.84-2.67, p = 0.17) were not independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 death. Risk factors for inpatient mortality in PWH included CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm3, higher admission oxygen requirements, absolute white cell counts, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, C-reactive protein, and creatinine levels. CONCLUSION: In a population with high prevalence of HIV and TB, being overweight/obese was associated with increased risk of mortality in COVID-19 hospital admissions, emphasising the need for public health interventions in this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Obesity/complications , Overweight , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 556, 2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is known to transmit in hospital settings, but the contribution of infections acquired in hospitals to the epidemic at a national scale is unknown. METHODS: We used comprehensive national English datasets to determine the number of COVID-19 patients with identified hospital-acquired infections (with symptom onset > 7 days after admission and before discharge) in acute English hospitals up to August 2020. As patients may leave the hospital prior to detection of infection or have rapid symptom onset, we combined measures of the length of stay and the incubation period distribution to estimate how many hospital-acquired infections may have been missed. We used simulations to estimate the total number (identified and unidentified) of symptomatic hospital-acquired infections, as well as infections due to onward community transmission from missed hospital-acquired infections, to 31st July 2020. RESULTS: In our dataset of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in acute English hospitals with a recorded symptom onset date (n = 65,028), 7% were classified as hospital-acquired. We estimated that only 30% (range across weeks and 200 simulations: 20-41%) of symptomatic hospital-acquired infections would be identified, with up to 15% (mean, 95% range over 200 simulations: 14.1-15.8%) of cases currently classified as community-acquired COVID-19 potentially linked to hospital transmission. We estimated that 26,600 (25,900 to 27,700) individuals acquired a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute Trust in England before 31st July 2020, resulting in 15,900 (15,200-16,400) or 20.1% (19.2-20.7%) of all identified hospitalised COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to hospitalised patients likely caused approximately a fifth of identified cases of hospitalised COVID-19 in the "first wave" in England, but less than 1% of all infections in England. Using time to symptom onset from admission for inpatients as a detection method likely misses a substantial proportion (> 60%) of hospital-acquired infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962364

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is associated with comorbidities which independently influence treatment response and outcomes. This retrospective observational study (January 2020-June 2021) analysed the impact of monthly HF multispecialty multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings to address management of HF comorbidities and thereby on provision, cost of care and HF outcomes. METHODS: Patients acted as their own controls, with outcomes compared for equal periods (for each patient) pre (HF MDT) versus post-MDT (multispecialty) meeting. The multispecialty MDT comprised HF cardiologists (primary, secondary, tertiary care), HF nurses, nephrologist, endocrinologist, palliative care, chest physician, pharmacist, clinical pharmacologist and geriatrician. Outcome measures were (1) all-cause hospitalisations, (2) outpatient clinic attendances and (3) cost. RESULTS: 334 patients (mean age 72.5±11 years) were discussed virtually through MDT meetings and follow-up duration was 13.9±4 months. Mean age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index was 7.6±2.1 and Rockwood Frailty Score 5.5±1.6. Multispecialty interventions included optimising diabetes therapy (haemoglobin A1c-HbA1c pre-MDT 68±11 mmol/mol vs post-MDT 61±9 mmol/mol; p<0.001), deprescribing to reduce anticholinergic burden (pre-MDT 1.85±0.4 vs 1.5±0.3 post-MDT; p<0.001), initiation of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with advanced chronic kidney disease (9% pre vs 71% post-MDT; p<0.001). Other interventions included potassium binders, treatment of anaemia, falls assessment, management of chest conditions, day-case ascitic, pleural drains and palliative support. Total cost of funding monthly multispecialty meetings was £32 400 and resultant 64 clinic appointments cost £9600. The post-MDT study period was associated with reduction in 481 clinic appointments (cost saving £72150) and reduced all-cause hospitalisations (pre-MDT 1.1±0.4 vs 0.6±0.1 post-MDT; p<0.001), reduction of 1586 hospital bed-days and cost savings of £634 400. Total cost saving to the healthcare system was £664 550. CONCLUSION: HF multispecialty virtual MDT model provides integrated, holistic care across all healthcare tiers for management of HF and associated comorbidities. This approach is associated with reduced clinic attendances and all-cause hospitalisations, leading to significant cost savings.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Comorbidity , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e057246, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the long-term functional status of hospitalised COVID-19 survivors to explore and document their functional situation. DESIGN: This prospective observational study assessed 801 COVID-19 survivors at 3-11 months after hospital discharge. It analyses participants' sociodemographic background, COVID-19 clinical manifestations, and clinical and functional evaluations. SETTING: Tertiary-level university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants are COVID-19 survivors admitted to hospital care for at least 24 hours to treat acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. OUTCOME MEASURES: Epworth Sleepiness Scale, EuroQoL-5 Dimensions-5 Levels, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, Functional Independence Measure, Functional Oral Intake Scale, Handgrip Strength, Insomnia Severity Index, Medical Research Council (MRC) Dyspnea Scale, MRC sum score, Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale, pain Visual Analogue Scale, Post-COVID-19 Functional Status, Timed Up and Go, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, 1-Minute Sit to Stand Test. RESULTS: Many participants required invasive mechanical ventilation (41.57%, 333 of 801). Mean age was 55.35±14.58 years. With a mean of 6.56 (SD: 1.58; 95% CI: 6.45 to 6.67) months after hospital discharge, 70.86% (567 of 800) reported limited daily activities, which were severe in 5.62% (45 of 800). They also reported pain and discomfort (64.50%, 516 of 800), breathlessness (64.66%, 514 of 795), and anxiety and depression (57.27%, 457 of 798). Daytime sleepiness and insomnia evaluations showed subthreshold results. Most (92.85%, 727 of 783) participants reported unrestricted oral intake. Data indicated no generalised fatigue (mean score: 39.18, SD: 9.77; 95% CI: 38.50 to 39.86). Assessments showed poor handgrip strength (52.20%, 379 of 726) and abnormal Timed Up and Go results (mean 13.07 s, SD: 6.49). The invasive mechanical ventilation group seemed to have a better handgrip strength however. We found no clear trends of change in their functional status during months passed since hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle weakness, pain, anxiety, depression, breathlessness, reduced mobility, insomnia and daytime sleepiness were the most prevalent long-term conditions identified among previously hospitalised COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Dyspnea , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Pain , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
17.
BMJ ; 378: o1856, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962155
18.
BMJ ; 378: o1834, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962151
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2204141119, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960626

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection vary widely. Prior exposure to endemic coronaviruses, common in young children, may protect against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated risk of severe COVID-19 among adults with and without exposure to young children in a large, integrated healthcare system. Adults with children 0-5 years were matched 1:1 to adults with children 6-11 years, 12-18 years, and those without children based upon a COVID-19 propensity score and risk factors for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) were assessed in 3,126,427 adults, of whom 24% (N = 743,814) had children 18 years or younger, and 8.8% (N = 274,316) had a youngest child 0-5 years. After 1:1 matching, propensity for COVID-19 infection and risk factors for severe COVID-19 were well balanced between groups. Rates of COVID-19 infection were slightly higher for adults with exposure to older children (incident risk ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, [1.05-1.12] and IRR 1.09 [1.05-1.13] for adults with children 6-11 and 12-18, respectively), compared to those with children 0-5 years, although no difference in rates of COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization or ICU admission was observed. However, adults without exposure to children had lower rates of COVID-19 infection (IRR 0.85, [0.83-0.87]) but significantly higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization (IRR 1.49, [1.29-1.73]) and hospitalization requiring ICU admission (IRR 1.76, [1.19-2.58]) compared to those with children aged 0-5. In a large, real-world population, exposure to young children was associated with less severe COVID-19 illness. Endemic coronavirus cross-immunity may play a role in protection against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
20.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(3): 632-640, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously developed and validated a predictive model to help clinicians identify hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who may be ready for discharge given their low risk of adverse events. Whether this algorithm can prompt more timely discharge for stable patients in practice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to estimate the effect of displaying risk scores on length of stay (LOS). METHODS: We integrated model output into the electronic health record (EHR) at four hospitals in one health system by displaying a green/orange/red score indicating low/moderate/high-risk in a patient list column and a larger COVID-19 summary report visible for each patient. Display of the score was pseudo-randomized 1:1 into intervention and control arms using a patient identifier passed to the model execution code. Intervention effect was assessed by comparing LOS between intervention and control groups. Adverse safety outcomes of death, hospice, and re-presentation were tested separately and as a composite indicator. We tracked adoption and sustained use through daily counts of score displays. RESULTS: Enrolling 1,010 patients from May 15, 2020 to December 7, 2020, the trial found no detectable difference in LOS. The intervention had no impact on safety indicators of death, hospice or re-presentation after discharge. The scores were displayed consistently throughout the study period but the study lacks a causally linked process measure of provider actions based on the score. Secondary analysis revealed complex dynamics in LOS temporally, by primary symptom, and hospital location. CONCLUSION: An AI-based COVID-19 risk score displayed passively to clinicians during routine care of hospitalized adults with COVID-19 was safe but had no detectable impact on LOS. Health technology challenges such as insufficient adoption, nonuniform use, and provider trust compounded with temporal factors of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to the null result. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04570488.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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