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1.
Cell ; 185(5): 860-871.e13, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650841

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant with increased fitness is spreading rapidly worldwide. Analysis of cryo-EM structures of the spike (S) from Omicron reveals amino acid substitutions forging interactions that stably maintain an active conformation for receptor recognition. The relatively more compact domain organization confers improved stability and enhances attachment but compromises the efficiency of the viral fusion step. Alterations in local conformation, charge, and hydrophobic microenvironments underpin the modulation of the epitopes such that they are not recognized by most NTD- and RBD-antibodies, facilitating viral immune escape. Structure of the Omicron S bound with human ACE2, together with the analysis of sequence conservation in ACE2 binding region of 25 sarbecovirus members, as well as heatmaps of the immunogenic sites and their corresponding mutational frequencies, sheds light on conserved and structurally restrained regions that can be used for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Virus Attachment
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109825, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439920

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), B.1.617.2, emerged in India and has spread to over 80 countries. B.1.617.2 replaced B.1.1.7 as the dominant virus in the United Kingdom, resulting in a steep increase in new infections, and a similar development is expected for other countries. Effective countermeasures require information on susceptibility of B.1.617.2 to control by antibodies elicited by vaccines and used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapy. We show, using pseudotyping, that B.1.617.2 evades control by antibodies induced upon infection and BNT162b2 vaccination, although to a lesser extent as compared to B.1.351. We find that B.1.617.2 is resistant against bamlanivimab, a monoclonal antibody with emergency use authorization for COVID-19 therapy. Finally, we show increased Calu-3 lung cell entry and enhanced cell-to-cell fusion of B.1.617.2, which may contribute to augmented transmissibility and pathogenicity of this variant. These results identify B.1.617.2 as an immune evasion variant with increased capacity to enter and fuse lung cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/physiology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
4.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 21(5): 515-527, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134549

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an extremely infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has become a major global health concern. The induction of a coordinated immune response is crucial to the elimination of any pathogenic infection. However, SARS-CoV-2 can modulate the host immune system to favor viral adaptation and persistence within the host. The virus can counteract type I interferon (IFN-I) production, attenuating IFN-I signaling pathway activation and disrupting antigen presentation. Simultaneously, SARS-CoV-2 infection can enhance apoptosis and the production of inflammatory mediators, which ultimately results in increased disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 produces an array of effector molecules, including nonstructural proteins (NSPs) and open-reading frames (ORFs) accessory proteins. We describe the complex molecular interplay of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs and accessory proteins with the host's signaling mediating immune evasion in the current review. In addition, the crucial role played by immunomodulation therapy to address immune evasion is discussed. Thus, the current review can provide new directions for the development of vaccines and specific therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Evasion/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/physiology , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/physiology , Humans
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107051, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802331

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as a novel human coronavirus, was the worrying news at the beginning of 2020. Since its emergence complicated more than 870,000 individuals and led to more than 43,000 deaths worldwide. Considering to the potential threat of a pandemic and transmission severity of it, there is an urgent need to evaluate and realize this new virus's structure and behavior and the immunopathology of this disease to find potential therapeutic protocols and to design and develop effective vaccines. This disease is able to agitate the response of the immune system in the infected patients, so ARDS, as a common consequence of immunopathological events for infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, could be the main reason for death. Here, we summarized the immune response and immune evasion characteristics in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and therapeutic and prophylactic strategies with a focus on vaccine development and its challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immune Evasion/physiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity , SARS Virus/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2688, 2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432476

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoVs) are zoonotic pathogens with high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Vaccine development focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing humoral immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Coronavirus S proteins are extensively glycosylated, encoding around 66-87 N-linked glycosylation sites per trimeric spike. Here, we reveal a specific area of high glycan density on MERS S that results in the formation of oligomannose-type glycan clusters, which were absent on SARS and HKU1 CoVs. We provide a comparison of the global glycan density of coronavirus spikes with other viral proteins including HIV-1 envelope, Lassa virus glycoprotein complex, and influenza hemagglutinin, where glycosylation plays a known role in shielding immunogenic epitopes. Overall, our data reveal how organisation of glycosylation across class I viral fusion proteins influence not only individual glycan compositions but also the immunological pressure across the protein surface.


Subject(s)
Glycoproteins/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes/metabolism , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/physiology , Lassa virus/immunology , Lassa virus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
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