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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 952229, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to multiple (4-6) waves of infections worldwide during the past two years. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has led to successful mass immunizations worldwide, mitigating the worldwide mortality due the pandemic to a great extent. Yet the evolution of new variants highlights a need to develop a universal vaccine which can prevent infections from all virulent SARS-CoV-2. Most of the current first generation COVID-19 vaccines are based on the Spike protein from the original Wuhan-hu-1 virus strain. It is encouraging that they still protect from serious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality against a number of mutated viral strains, to varying degrees. Understanding the mechanisms by which these vaccines provide heterologous protection against multiple highly mutated variants can reveal strategies to develop a universal vaccine. In addition, many unexposed individuals have been found to harbor T cells that are cross-reactive against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, with a possible protective role. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of natural or vaccine-induced heterologous (cross-reactive) adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, and their role in achieving the concept of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): e36-e45, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722659

ABSTRACT

Although there are many hypotheses for the age-related difference in the severity of COVID-19, differences in innate, adaptive and heterologous immunity, together with differences in endothelial and clotting function, are the most likely mechanisms underlying the marked age gradient. Children have a faster and stronger innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in the nasal mucosa, which rapidly controls the virus. In contrast, adults can have an overactive, dysregulated and less effective innate response that leads to uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cytokine production and tissue injury. More recent exposure to other viruses and routine vaccines in children might be associated with protective cross-reactive antibodies and T cells against SARS-CoV-2. There is less evidence to support other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the age-related difference in outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pre-existing immunity from exposure to common circulating coronaviruses, differences in the distribution and expression of the entry receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and difference in viral load.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Child , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Endothelium/immunology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/immunology
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 790334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715001

ABSTRACT

The capacity of pre-existing immunity to human common coronaviruses (HCoV) to cross-protect against de novo COVID-19is yet unknown. In this work, we studied the sera of 175 COVID-19 patients, 76 healthy donors and 3 intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) batches. We found that most COVID-19 patients developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies before IgM. Moreover, the capacity of their IgGs to react to beta-HCoV, was present in the early sera of most patients before the appearance of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This implied that a recall-type antibody response was generated. In comparison, the patients that mounted an anti-SARS-COV2 IgM response, prior to IgG responses had lower titres of anti-beta-HCoV IgG antibodies. This indicated that pre-existing immunity to beta-HCoV was conducive to the generation of memory type responses to SARS-COV-2. Finally, we also found that pre-COVID-19-era sera and IVIG cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 antigens without neutralising SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in vitro. Put together, these results indicate that whilst pre-existing immunity to HCoV is responsible for recall-type IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2, it does not lead to cross-protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 820126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715000

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the immunological response and impact on virological control of the mRNA vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among people living with HIV (PLWH). In this single-center observational study, all PLWH were offered vaccination with mRNA1273 or BNT162b2. Both anti-N and anti-S1-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies were measured together with HIV-1 RNA levels after the first dose (M0) and then at 1 (M1), 2 (M2) and 6 (M6) months later. A total of 131 individuals (median age: 54 years [IQR: 47.0-60.5]; male: 70.2%; median baseline CD4 T-cell: 602/µl [IQR 445.0-825.5]; median nadir CD4 T-cells 223/µl [IQR 111.0-330.0]) were included. All participants were positive for anti-RBD antibodies at 30 days, 60 days and 6 months after the first dose, with no statistical difference between those with HIV-1 RNA below or >20 copies/ml. HIV-1 RNA data were collected for 128 patients at baseline and 30 days after the first dose; for 124 individuals, 30 days after the second dose; and for 83 patients, 6 months after the first dose. Nineteen (14.8%) of 128 had detectable HIV-1 RNA (>20 copies/ml) at M0, 13/128 (10.2%) at M1 (among which 5 were newly detectable), 15/124 (12.1%) at M2 (among which 5 were newly detectable), and 8/83 (9.6%) at M6. No serious adverse effects were reported. All participants elicited antibodies after two doses of mRNA vaccines, with only a minor impact on HIV-1 RNA levels over a 6-month period.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/physiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821595, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686485

ABSTRACT

Heterologous immunity, when the memory T cell response elicited by one pathogen recognizes another pathogen, has been offered as a contributing factor for the high variability in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity outcomes. Here we demonstrate that sensitization with bacterial peptides can induce heterologous immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) derived peptides and that vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can induce heterologous immunity to bacterial peptides. Using in silico prediction methods, we identified 6 bacterial peptides with sequence homology to either the spike protein or non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) of SARS-CoV-2. Notwithstanding the effects of bystander activation, in vitro co-cultures showed that all individuals tested (n=18) developed heterologous immunity to SARS-CoV-2 peptides when sensitized with the identified bacterial peptides. T cell recall responses measured included cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2), activation (CD69) and proliferation (CellTrace). As an extension of the principle of heterologous immunity between bacterial pathogens and COVID-19, we tracked donor responses before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and measured the cross-reactive T cell responses to bacterial peptides with similar sequence homology to the spike protein. We found that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could induce heterologous immunity to bacterial peptides. These findings provide a mechanism for heterologous T cell immunity between common bacterial pathogens and SARS-CoV-2, which may explain the high variance in COVID-19 outcomes from asymptomatic to severe. We also demonstrate proof-of-concept that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can induce heterologous immunity to pathogenic bacteria derived peptides.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(12): 1601-1614, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595833

ABSTRACT

To overcome the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination campaigns are the highest priority of majority of countries. Limited supply and worldwide disproportionate availability issues for the approved vaccines, together with concerns about rare side-effects have recently initiated the switch to heterologous vaccination, commonly known as mixing of vaccines. The COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective in the general population. However, none of the vaccines is 100% efficacious or effective, with variants posing more challenges, resulting in breakthrough cases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of immune responses to variants of concern (VOC) and breakthrough infections. Furthermore, we discuss the scope of heterologous vaccination and future strategies to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, including fractionation of vaccine doses and alternative route of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Heterologous , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mice
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555317

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-specific vaccines are efficient prophylactic weapons against SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, boosting innate responses may represent an innovative way to immediately fight future emerging viral infections or boost vaccines. MV130 is a mucosal immunotherapy, based on a mixture of whole heat-inactivated bacteria, that has shown clinical efficacy against recurrent viral respiratory infections. Herein, we show that the prophylactic intranasal administration of this immunotherapy confers heterologous protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in susceptible K18-hACE2 mice. Furthermore, in C57BL/6 mice, prophylactic administration of MV130 improves the immunogenicity of two different COVID-19 vaccine formulations targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, inoculated either intramuscularly or intranasally. Independently of the vaccine candidate and vaccination route used, intranasal prophylaxis with MV130 boosted S-specific responses, including CD8+-T cell activation and the production of S-specific mucosal IgA antibodies. Therefore, the bacterial mucosal immunotherapy MV130 protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection and improves COVID-19 vaccines immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Mucosal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Mice , Vaccination
9.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551631

ABSTRACT

Exposure of the adaptive immune system to a pathogen can result in the activation and expansion of T cells capable of recognizing not only the specific antigen but also different unrelated antigens, a process which is commonly referred to as heterologous immunity. While such cross-reactivity is favourable in amplifying protective immune responses to pathogens, induction of T cell-mediated heterologous immune responses to allo-antigens in the setting of solid organ transplantation can potentially lead to allograft rejection. In this review, we provide an overview of murine and human studies investigating the incidence and functional properties of virus-specific memory T cells cross-reacting with allo-antigens and discuss their potential relevance in the context of solid organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous/immunology , Isoantigens/immunology , Animals , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Memory T Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/virology , Mice , Organ Transplantation , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
13.
Med (N Y) ; 2(9): 999-1001, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401704

ABSTRACT

Innate and adaptive heterologous immunity confers resistance to pathogens. However, its impact on resistance and the course of human infection have remained largely elusive, hampering the use of this phenomenon to enhance vaccine efficacy. In this issue of Med, Mysore et al. show that T cell responses elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination correlate with those induced by MMR and Tdap immunization, revealing the transcriptomic basis of these correlations and find that heterologous adaptive immunity contributes to a better prognosis of COVID-19 disease.1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
15.
Science ; 373(6558): 991-998, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295160

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 highlights the need to develop universal vaccination strategies against the broader Sarbecovirus subgenus. Using chimeric spike designs, we demonstrate protection against challenge from SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351, bat CoV (Bt-CoV) RsSHC014, and a heterologous Bt-CoV WIV-1 in vulnerable aged mice. Chimeric spike messenger RNAs (mRNAs) induced high levels of broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against high-risk Sarbecoviruses. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination not only showed a marked reduction in neutralizing titers against heterologous Sarbecoviruses, but SARS-CoV and WIV-1 challenge in mice resulted in breakthrough infections. Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines efficiently neutralized D614G, mink cluster five, and the UK B.1.1.7 and South African B.1.351 variants of concern. Thus, multiplexed-chimeric spikes can prevent SARS-like zoonotic coronavirus infections with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Protection , Cytokines/blood , Female , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liposomes , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles , Protein Domains , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
16.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 54, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249543

ABSTRACT

While vaccines traditionally have been designed and used for protection against infection or disease caused by one specific pathogen, there are known off-target effects from vaccines that can impact infection from unrelated pathogens. The best-known non-specific effects from an unrelated or heterologous vaccine are from the use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, mediated partly through trained immunity. Other vaccines have similar heterologous effects. This review covers molecular mechanisms behind the heterologous effects, and the potential use of heterologous vaccination in the current COVID-19 pandemic. We then discuss novel pandemic response strategies based on rapidly deployed, widespread heterologous vaccination to boost population-level immunity for initial, partial protection against infection and/or clinical disease, while specific vaccines are developed.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Vaccines/immunology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccines/therapeutic use
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233774

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an unparalleled pursuit of vaccines to induce specific adaptive immunity, based on virus-neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses. Although several vaccines have been developed just a year after SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019, global deployment will take months or even years. Meanwhile, the virus continues to take a severe toll on human life and exact substantial economic costs. Innate immunity is fundamental to mammalian host defense capacity to combat infections. Innate immune responses, triggered by a family of pattern recognition receptors, induce interferons and other cytokines and activate both myeloid and lymphoid immune cells to provide protection against a wide range of pathogens. Epidemiological and biological evidence suggests that the live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) targeting tuberculosis, measles, and polio induce protective innate immunity by a newly described form of immunological memory termed "trained immunity." An LAV designed to induce adaptive immunity targeting a particular pathogen may also induce innate immunity that mitigates other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, as well as future pandemic threats. Deployment of existing LAVs early in pandemics could complement the development of specific vaccines, bridging the protection gap until specific vaccines arrive. The broad protection induced by LAVs would not be compromised by potential antigenic drift (immune escape) that can render viruses resistant to specific vaccines. LAVs might offer an essential tool to "bend the pandemic curve," averting the exhaustion of public health resources and preventing needless deaths and may also have therapeutic benefits if used for postexposure prophylaxis of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
19.
Immunol Rev ; 301(1): 98-121, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218116

ABSTRACT

BCG turns 100 this year and while it might not be the perfect vaccine, it has certainly contributed significantly towards eradication and prevention of spread of tuberculosis (TB). The search for newer and better vaccines for TB is an ongoing endeavor and latest results from trials of candidate TB vaccines such as M72AS01 look promising. However, recent encouraging data from BCG revaccination trials in adults combined with studies on mucosal and intravenous routes of BCG vaccination in non-human primate models have renewed interest in BCG for TB prevention. In addition, several well-demonstrated non-specific effects of BCG, for example, prevention of viral and respiratory infections, give BCG an added advantage. Also, BCG vaccination is currently being widely tested in human clinical trials to determine whether it protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or death with detailed analyses and outcomes from several ongoing trials across the world awaited. Through this review, we attempt to bring together information on various aspects of the BCG-induced immune response, its efficacy in TB control, comparison with other candidate TB vaccines and strategies to improve its efficiency including revaccination and alternate routes of administration. Finally, we discuss the future relevance of BCG use especially in light of its several heterologous benefits.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Vaccination , Adaptive Immunity , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory
20.
Genève; Organisation mondiale de la Santé; 2021. (WHO/2019-nCoV/vaccine_effectiveness/measurement/2021.1).
in French | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-340950
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