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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8557, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239361

ABSTRACT

Access to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 virus was limited in poor countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, a low-cost mRNA vaccine, PTX-COVID19-B, was produced and evaluated in a Phase 1 trial. PTX-COVID19-B encodes Spike protein D614G variant without the proline-proline (986-987) mutation present in other COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of the study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of PTX-COVID19-B vaccine in healthy seronegative adults 18-64 years old. The trial design was observer-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, and tested ascending doses of 16-µg, 40-µg, or 100-µg in a total of 60 subjects who received two intramuscular doses, 4 weeks apart. Participants were monitored for solicited and unsolicited adverse events after vaccination and were provided with a Diary Card and thermometer to report any reactogenicity during the trial. Blood samples were collected on baseline, days 8, 28, 42, 90, and 180 for serum analysis of total IgG anti-receptor binding domain (RBD)/Spike titers by ELISA, and neutralizing antibody titers by pseudovirus assay. Titers in BAU/mL were reported as geometric mean and 95% CI per cohort. After vaccination, few solicited adverse events were observed and were mild to moderate and self-resolved within 48 h. The most common solicited local and systemic adverse event was pain at the injection site, and headache, respectively. Seroconversion was observed in all vaccinated participants, who showed high antibody titers against RBD, Spike, and neutralizing activity against the Wuhan strain. Neutralizing antibody titers were also detected against Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants of concerns in a dose dependent manner. All tested doses of PTX-COVID19-B were safe, well-tolerated, and provided a strong immunogenicity response. The 40-µg dose showed fewer adverse reactions than the 100-µg dose, and therefore was selected for a Phase 2 trial, which is currently ongoing.Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT04765436 (21/02/2021). ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04765436 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method
2.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0275082, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237361

ABSTRACT

A SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine targeting the spike protein and delivered by jet injection, nCOV-S(JET), previously shown to protect wild-type and immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), was evaluated via two needle-free delivery methods in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The methods included intramuscular delivery of 2 mg per vaccination with the PharmaJet Stratis device and intradermal delivery of 0.4 mg per vaccination with the PharmaJet Tropis device. We hypothesized that the nCOV-S(JET) vaccine would mount detectable neutralizing antibody responses when delivered by needle-free jet injection by either the intradermal or intramuscular route. When delivered intramuscularly, the vaccines elicited neutralizing and variant (Beta, Gamma, and Delta) cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in all six animals after three vaccinations. The neutralizing response to Omicron was lower with only 4 of 6 animals responding. When delivered at a lower dose by the intradermal route, strong neutralizing antibody responses were only detected in two of six animals. This study confirms that a vaccine previously shown to protect in a hamster model can elicit neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates. We posit that nCOV-S(JET) has the potential for use as booster vaccine in heterologous vaccination strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Macaca mulatta , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccination/methods , Injections, Jet , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 501-517, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As SARS-CoV-2 moves into endemic status, vaccination remains a key element in protecting the health of individuals, societies, and economies worldwide. AREAS COVERED: NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD) is a recombinant protein vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer nanoparticles formulated with saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant (Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD). NVX-CoV2373 is authorized for emergency use in adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years in the United States and numerous other countries. EXPERT OPINION: In clinical trials, NVX-CoV2373 showed tolerable reactogenicity and favorable safety profiles characterized by mostly mild-to-moderate adverse events of short duration and by low rates of severe and serious adverse events comparable to those seen with placebo. The two-dose primary vaccination series resulted in robust increases in anti-spike protein immunoglobulin G, neutralizing antibody titers, and cellular immune responses. NVX-CoV2373 vaccination was associated with complete protection against severe disease and a high (90%) rate of protection against symptomatic disease in adults, including symptomatic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants. Additionally, the NVX-CoV2373 adjuvanted recombinant protein platform offers a means to address issues of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and global vaccine equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Child
4.
Vaccine ; 41(26): 3898-3906, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya, a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causes a significant global health burden, and there is currently no approved vaccine to prevent chikungunya disease. In this study, the safety and immunogenicity of a CHIKV mRNA vaccine candidate (mRNA-1388) were evaluated in healthy participants in a CHIKV-nonendemic region. METHODS: This phase 1, first-in-human, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study enrolled healthy adults (ages 18-49 years) between July 2017 and March 2019 in the United States. Participants were randomly assigned (3:1) to receive 2 intramuscular injections 28 days apart with mRNA-1388 in 3 dose-level groups (25 µg, 50 µg, and 100 µg) or placebo and were followed for up to 1 year. Safety (unsolicited adverse events [AEs]), tolerability (local and systemic reactogenicity; solicited AEs), and immunogenicity (geometric mean titers [GMTs] of CHIKV neutralizing and binding antibodies) of mRNA-1388 versus placebo were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty participants were randomized and received ≥ 1 vaccination; 54 (90 %) completed the study. mRNA-1388 demonstrated favorable safety and reactogenicity profiles at all dose levels. Immunization with mRNA-1388 induced substantial and persistent humoral responses. Dose-dependent increases in neutralizing antibody titers were observed; GMTs (95 % confidence intervals [CIs]) at 28 days after dose 2 were 6.2 (5.1-7.6) for mRNA-1388 25 µg, 53.8 (26.8-108.1) for mRNA-1388 50 µg, 92.8 (43.6-197.6) for mRNA-1388 100 µg, and 5.0 (not estimable) for placebo. Persistent humoral responses were observed up to 1 year after vaccination and remained higher than placebo in the 2 higher mRNA-1388 dose groups. The development of CHIKV-binding antibodies followed a similar trend as that observed with neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: mRNA-1388, the first mRNA vaccine against CHIKV, was well tolerated and elicited substantial and long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses in healthy adult participants in a nonendemic region. CLINICALTRIALS: gov: NCT03325075.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Humans , Adult , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Double-Blind Method
5.
Science ; 380(6647): 784, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234431

ABSTRACT

Consensus grows for abandoning the ancestral strain to improve immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2206359, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231273

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate, SCB-2019, in adults in the SPECTRA phase 2/3 efficacy study. We extended the study to include 1278 healthy 12-17-year-old adolescents in Belgium, Colombia, and the Philippines who received either two doses of SCB-2019 or placebo 21 days apart, to assess immunogenicity as neutralizing antibodies against prototype SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern, and safety and reactogenicity as solicited and unsolicited adverse events with a comparator group of young adults (18-25 years). In participants with no evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection SCB-2019 immunogenicity in adolescents was non-inferior to that in young adults; respective geometric mean neutralizing titers (GMT) against prototype SARS-CoV-2 14 days after the second vaccination were 271 IU/mL (95% CI: 211-348) and 144 IU/mL (116-178). Most adolescents (1077, 84.3%) had serologic evidence of prior SAR-CoV-2 exposure at baseline; in these seropositive adolescents neutralizing GMTs increased from 173 IU/mL (135-122) to 982 IU/mL (881-1094) after the second dose. Neutralizing titers against Delta and Omicron BA SARS-CoV-2 variants were also increased, most notably in those with prior exposure. SCB-2019 vaccine was well tolerated with generally mild or moderate, transient solicited and unsolicited adverse events that were comparable in adolescent vaccine and placebo groups except for injection site pain - reported after 20% of SCB-2019 and 7.3% of placebo injections. SCB-2019 vaccine was highly immunogenic against SARS-CoV-2 prototype and variants in adolescents, especially in those with evidence of prior exposure, with comparable immunogenicity to young adults. Clinical trial registration: EudraCT 2020-004272-17; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04672395.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Young Adult , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4199-4205, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long duration trial data for two-dose COVID-19 vaccines primary series' are uncommon due to unblinding and additional doses. We report one-year follow-up results from a phase 1/2 trial of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) in Japan. METHODS: Adults (n = 256) seronegative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were stratified by age, 18-55 (n = 128), 56-69 (n = 86) and ≥70-year-old (n = 42), and randomized 3:1 to AZD1222 or placebo. Safety, immunogenicity, and exploratory efficacy data were collected until study Day 365. RESULTS: Safety was consistent with previous reports. In AZD1222 vaccinees, humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 steadily declined over time. By Day 365, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-binding (spike) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) mean antibody titers remained above Day 15 levels and pseudovirus neutralizing antibodies were undetectable in many participants. CONCLUSIONS: AZD1222 is immunogenic and well tolerated in Japanese adults. Expected waning in anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses was observed; spike and RBD antibody titers remained elevated. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04568031).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Japan , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
8.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4287-4294, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence of immune response to COVID-19 vaccine in psoriasis patients on biological agents is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels following vaccination with CoronaVac or Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA in patients using biological agents or methotrexate, high-titer antibody levels achievement rate, and impact of medications on immunogenicity. METHODS: This noninterventional, prospective cohort study included 89 patients and 40 controls vaccinated with two doses of inactivated (CoronaVac) or Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccines. Anti-spike and neutralising antibodies were analysed before and three to six weeks after the second dose. Adverse effects and symptomatic COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: Median anti-spike and neutralising antibody titers after CoronaVac were significantly lower in patients than controls (57.92 U/mL vs 125.4 U/mL, and 1/6 vs 1/32, respectively, p < 0.05). Patients were less likely to achieve high-titer anti-spike antibody levels (25.6 % vs 50 %). Infliximab was associated with attenuated vaccine response. Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine induced comparable median anti-spike (2,080 U/mL vs 2,976.5 U/mL,) and neutralising antibody levels (1/96 vs 1/160) in patients and controls, respectively (p > 0.05). High-titer anti-spike and neutralising antibodies development rates were comparable among patients and controls (95.2 % vs 100 %, and 30.4 % vs 50.0 %, respectively, p > 0.05). Nine (10.1 %) COVID-19 cases- all mild - were identified. Psoriasis flare was seen in 6.74 %, mostly after Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. CONCLUSION: Psoriasis patients treated with biological agents and methotrexate developed similar response to mRNA vaccine but weaker response to inactivated vaccine. Infliximab reduced response to the inactivated vaccine. Adverse effects were more frequent with mRNA vaccine, but none was severe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Psoriasis , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biological Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Infliximab , Methotrexate , Prospective Studies , Psoriasis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4280-4286, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230965

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has significantly reduced the efficacy of some approved vaccines. A fourth dose of NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike [rS] protein + 50 µg Matrix-M™ adjuvant; Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD) was evaluated to determine induction of cross-reactive antibodies to variants of concern. A phase II randomized study (NCT04368988) recruited participants in Australia and the United States to assess a primary series of NVX-CoV2373 followed by two booster doses (third and fourth doses at 6-month intervals) in adults 18-84 years of age. The primary series was administered when the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain was prevalent and the third and fourth doses while the Alpha and Delta variants were prevalent in AUS and US. Local/systemic reactogenicity was assessed the day of vaccination and for 6 days thereafter. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were reported. Immunogenicity was measured before, and 14 days after, fourth dose administration, using anti-spike serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralization assays against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain and Omicron sublineages. Among 1283 enrolled participants, 258 were randomized to receive the two-dose primary series, of whom 104 received a third dose, and 45 received a fourth dose of NVX-CoV2373. The incidence of local/systemic reactogenicity events increased after the first three doses of NVX-CoV2373 and leveled off after dose 4. Unsolicited AEs were reported in 9 % of participants after dose 4 (none of which were severe or serious). Anti-rS IgG levels and neutralization antibody titers increased following booster doses to a level approximately four-fold higher than that observed after the primary series, with a progressively narrowed gap in response between the ancestral strain and Omicron BA.5. A fourth dose of NVX-CoV2373 enhanced immunogenicity for ancestral and variant SARS-CoV-2 strains without increasing reactogenicity, indicating that updates to the vaccine composition may not be currently warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
10.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(6): 737-748, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327207

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a global concern. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate vaccine safety and to assess immune responses in individuals with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) following a two-dose vaccination. Methods: The study cohort included 191 participants (112 adult CRD patients and 79 healthy controls [HCs]) at least 21 (range, 21-159) days after a second vaccination. Frequencies of memory B cells (MBCs) subsets and titers of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies (Abs) were analyzed. Results: As compared to the HCs, CRD patients had lower seropositivity rates and titers of both anti-RBD IgG Abs and NAbs, in addition to lower frequencies of RBD-specific MBCs (all, p < 0.05). At 3 months, CRD patients had lower seropositivity rates and titers of anti-RBD IgG Abs than the HCs (p < 0.05). For CoronaVac, the seropositivity rates of both Abs were lower in patients with old pulmonary tuberculosis than HCs. For BBIBP-CorV, the seropositivity rates of CoV-2 NAbs were lower in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HCs (all, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in overall adverse events between the CRD patients and HCs. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the time interval following a second vaccination as a risk factor for the production of anti-RBD IgG Abs and CoV-2 NAbs, while the CoronaVac had a positive effect on the titers of both Abs. Female was identified as a protective factor for CoV-2 NAb levels. Conclusion: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated by CRD patients but resulted in lower Ab responses and the frequencies of RBD-specific MBCs. Therefore, CRD patients should be prioritized for booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , East Asian People , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Chronic Disease
11.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28758, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327008

ABSTRACT

To compare the reactogenicity and immunogenicity between the two-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccine regimen and one or two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by an mRNA vaccine regimen in healthy children between 5 and 11 years of age, a prospective cohort study was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Thailand between March to June 2022. Healthy children between 5 and 11 years of age were enrolled and received the two-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) regimen or the inactivated (CoronaVac) vaccine followed by the BNT162b2 vaccine regimen. In addition, healthy children who received two doses of BBIBP-CorV between 1 and 3 months prior were enrolled to receive a heterologous BNT162b2 as a third dose (booster). Reactogenicity was assessed by a self-reported online questionnaire. Immunogenicity analysis was performed to determine binding antibodies to wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Neutralizing antibodies to Omicron variants (BA.2 and BA.5) were tested using the focus reduction neutralization test. Overall, 166 eligible children were enrolled. Local and systemic adverse events which occurred within 7 days after vaccination were mild to moderate and well-tolerated. The two-dose BNT162b2, CoronaVac followed by BNT162b2, and two-dose BBIBP-CorV followed by BNT162b2 groups elicited similar levels of anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG. However, the two-dose BNT162b2 and two-dose BBIBP-CorV followed by BNT162b2 groups elicited higher neutralizing activities against the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 variant than the CoronaVac followed by BNT162b2 group. The CoronaVac followed by BNT162b2 group elicited low neutralizing activities against the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 variant. A third dose (booster) mRNA vaccine should be prioritized for this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0256422, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322171

ABSTRACT

The emerging virus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 virus), agent of COVID-19, appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and became a serious threat to global health and public safety. Many COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and licensed around the world. Most of the developed vaccines include S protein and induce an antibody-based immune response. Additionally, T-cell response to the SARS-CoV-2 antigens could be beneficial for combating the infection. The type of immune response is greatly dependent not only on the antigen, but also on adjuvants used in vaccine formulation. Here, we compared the effect of four different adjuvants (AddaS03, Alhydrogel/MPLA, Alhydrogel/ODN2395, Quil A) on the immunogenicity of a mixture of recombinant RBD and N SARS-CoV-2 proteins. We have analyzed the antibody and T-cell response specific to RBD and N proteins and assessed the impact of adjuvants on virus neutralization. Our results clearly indicated that Alhydrogel/MPLA and Alhydrogel/ODN2395 adjuvants elicited the higher titers of specific and cross-reactive antibodies to S protein variants from various SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 strains. Moreover, Alhydrogel/ODN2395 stimulated high cellular response to both antigens, as assessed by IFN-γ production. Importantly, sera collected from mice immunized with RBD/N cocktail in combination with these adjuvants exhibited neutralizing activity against the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as particles pseudotyped with S protein from various virus variants. The results from our study demonstrate the immunogenic potential of RBD and N antigens and point out the importance of adjuvants selection in vaccine formulation in order to enhance the immunological response. IMPORTANCE Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved worldwide, continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for new efficient vaccines against them, providing long-lasting immunity. As the immune response after vaccination is dependent not only on antigen used, but also on other vaccine components, e.g., adjuvants, the purpose of this work was to study the effect of different adjuvants on the immunogenicity of RBD/N SARS-CoV-2 cocktail proteins. In this work, it has been shown that immunization with both antigens plus the different adjuvants studied elicited higher Th1 and Th2 responses against RBD and N, which contributed to higher neutralization of the virus. The obtained results can be used for design of new vaccines, not only against SARS-CoV-2, but also against other important viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Aluminum Hydroxide , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2206278, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320726

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-based BNT162b2 and inactivated whole-virus CoronaVac are two widely used COVID-19 vaccines that confer immune protection to healthy individuals. However, hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccination appeared to be common for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) due to the paucity of data on the safety and efficacy in this high-risk patient population. Therefore, we examined the underlying factors associated with vaccine hesitancy across time for NMDs and assessed the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of these two vaccines. Patients aged 8-18 years with no cognitive delay were invited to complete surveys in January and April 2022. Patients aged 2-21 years were enrolled for COVID-19 vaccination between June 2021 and April 2022, and they recorded adverse reactions (ARs) for 7 days after vaccination. Peripheral blood was obtained before and within 49 days after vaccination to measure serological antibody responses compared to healthy children and adolescents. Forty-one patients completed vaccine hesitancy surveys for both timepoints, while 22 joined the reactogenicity and immunogenicity arm of the study. Two or more family members vaccinated against COVID-19 was positively associated with intention of vaccination (odds ratio 11.7, 95% CI 1.81-75.1, p = .010). Pain at the injection site, fatigue, and myalgia were the commonest ARs. Most ARs were mild (75.5%, n = 71/94). All 19 patients seroconverted against the wildtype SARS-CoV-2 after two doses of either vaccine, similar to 280 healthy counterparts. There was lower neutralization against the Omicron BA.1 variant. BNT162b2 and CoronaVac were safe and immunogenic for patients with NMDs, even in those on low-dose corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Diseases , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Child, Preschool , Young Adult
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2206360, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319791

ABSTRACT

The global supply of COVID-19 vaccines has been limited, and concerns have arisen about vaccine supply chain disruptions in developing countries. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination, which involves using different vaccines for the first and second doses, has been proposed to enhance the immune response. We aimed to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a heterologous prime-boost vaccination using an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine and AZD1222 vaccine with that of a homologous vaccination using AZD1222. This pilot involved 164 healthy volunteers without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection aged 18 years or older assigned to receive either the heterologous or homologous vaccination. The results showed that the heterologous approach was safe and well-tolerated, although the reactogenicity of the heterologous approach was higher. At 4 weeks after receiving the booster dose, the heterologous approach elicited a non-inferior immune response compared to the homologous approach in neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune response. The percentage of inhibition was 83.88 (79.72-88.03) in the heterologous and 79.88 (75.50-84.25) in the homologous group, a mean difference of 4.60 (-1.67-10.88). The geometric mean of interferon-gamma was 1072.53 mIU/mL (799.29-1439.18) in the heterologous group and 867.67 mIU/mL (671.94-1120.40) in the homologous group, a GMR of 1.24 (0.82-1.85). However, the binding antibody test of the heterologous group was inferior to the homologous group. Our findings suggest that the use of heterologous prime-boost vaccination with different types of COVID-19 vaccines is a viable strategy, especially in settings where vaccine supply is limited or where vaccine distribution is challenging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
15.
Vaccine ; 41(26): 3930-3936, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NVX-CoV2373 (Nuvaxovid™ or the Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine, Adjuvanted), the first protein-based COVID-19 vaccine, received emergency use authorization (EUA) as a primary series/booster and is available globally. NVX-CoV2373 primary series demonstrated efficacy rates of 89.7-90.4 % and an acceptable safety profile. This article summarizes safety in adult recipients (aged ≥ 18 years) of primary series NVX-CoV2373 in four randomized placebo-controlled trials. METHODS: All participants who received NVX-CoV2373 primary series or placebo (pre-crossover) were included according to actual received treatment. The safety period was from Day 0 (first vaccination) to unblinding/receipt of EUA-approved/crossover vaccine, end of each study (EOS), or last visit date/cutoff date minus 14 days. The analysis reviewed local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) within 7 days after NVX-CoV2373 or placebo; unsolicited AEs from after Dose 1 to 28 days after Dose 2; serious AEs (SAEs), deaths, AEs of special interest, and vaccine-related medically attended AEs from Day 0 through end of follow-up (incidence rate per 100 person-years). FINDINGS: Pooled data from 49,950 participants (NVX-CoV2373, n = 30,058; placebo, n = 19,892) were included. Solicited reactions after any dose were more frequent in NVX-CoV2373 recipients (local, 76 %/systemic, 70 %) than placebo recipients (local, 29 %/systemic, 47 %), and were mostly of mild-to-moderate severity. Grade 3+ reactions were infrequent, with greater frequency in NVX-CoV2373 recipients (local, 6.28 %/systemic, 11.36 %) than placebo recipients (local, 0.48 %/systemic, 3.58 %). SAEs and deaths occurred with similarly low frequency in NVX-CoV2373 (SAEs: 0.91 %, deaths: 0.07 %) and placebo recipients (SAEs: 1.0 %, deaths: 0.06 %). INTERPRETATION: To date, NVX-CoV2373 has displayed an acceptable safety profile in healthy adults. FUNDING: Supported by Novavax, Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Double-Blind Method
16.
Vaccine ; 41(21): 3387-3398, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: V114 (15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV]) contains all serotypes in 13-valent PCV (PCV13) and additional serotypes 22F and 33F. This study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of V114 compared with PCV13 in healthy infants, and concomitant administration with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and rotavirus RV1 vaccines. METHODS: V114 and PCV13 were administered in a 2+1 schedule at 2, 4, and 11-15 months of age. Adverse events (AEs) were collected on Days 1-14 following each vaccination. Serotype-specific anti-pneumococcal immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured 30 days post-primary series (PPS), immediately prior to a toddler dose, and 30 days post-toddler dose (PTD). Primary objectives included non-inferiority of V114 to PCV13 for 13 shared serotypes and superiority of V114 to PCV13 for the two additional serotypes. RESULTS: 1184 healthy infants 42-90 days of age were randomized 1:1 to V114 (n = 591) or PCV13 (n = 593). Proportions of participants with solicited AEs and serious AEs were comparable between vaccination groups. V114 met pre-specified non-inferiority criteria for all 13 shared serotypes, based on the difference in proportions of participants with serotype-specific IgG concentrations ≥0.35 µg/mL (response rate; lower bound of two-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] >-10.0) and IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios (lower bound of two-sided 95% CI >0.5), and pre-specified superiority criteria for serotypes 22F and 33F (lower bound of two-sided 95% CI >10.0 for response rates and >2.0 for GMC ratios). Antibody responses to DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and RV1 vaccines met pre-specified non-inferiority criteria, based on antigen-specific response rates to DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and anti-rotavirus IgA geometric mean titers. CONCLUSIONS: After a 2+1 schedule, V114 elicited non-inferior immune responses to 13 shared serotypes and superior responses to the two additional serotypes compared with PCV13, with comparable safety profile. These results support the routine use of V114 in infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04031846; EudraCT: 2018-003787-31.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Vaccines, Conjugate , Humans , Infant , Antibodies, Bacterial , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Conjugate/adverse effects
17.
Vaccine ; 41(25): 3763-3771, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of NVX-CoV2373 in Japanese adults who had completed a primary series of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine 6-12 months previously. METHODS: This single-arm, open-label, phase 3 study, conducted at two Japanese centres, enrolled healthy adults ≥ 20 years old. Participants received a booster dose of NVX-CoV2373. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was non-inferiority (lower limit of the 95 % confidence interval [CI] ≥ 0.67) of the geometric mean titre (GMT) ratio of titres of serum neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain 14 days after booster vaccination (day 15) in this study, compared with those 14 days after the second primary NVX-CoV2373 vaccination (day 36) in the TAK-019-1501 study (NCT04712110). Primary safety endpoints included local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) up to day 7 and unsolicited AEs up to day 28. RESULTS: Between 15 April 2022 and 10 May 2022, 155 participants were screened and 150, stratified by age (20-64 years old [n = 135] or ≥ 65 years old [n = 15]), received an NVX-CoV2373 booster dose. The GMT ratio between titres of serum nAbs against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain on day 15 in this study and those on day 36 in the TAK-019-1501 study was 1.18 (95 % CI, 0.95-1.47), meeting the non-inferiority criterion. Following vaccination, the proportion of participants who reported local and systemic solicited AEs up to day 7 was 74.0 % and 48.0 %, respectively. The most common local and systemic solicited AEs were tenderness (102 participants [68.0 %]) and malaise (39 participants [26.0 %]), respectively. Seven participants (4.7 %) reported unsolicited AEs between vaccination and day 28; all were severity grade ≤ 2. DISCUSSION: A single heterologous NVX-CoV2373 booster induced rapid and robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, addressing waning immunity in healthy Japanese adults, and had an acceptable safety profile. CLINICALTRIALS: gov identifier: NCT05299359.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , East Asian People , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral
18.
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4190-4198, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults are at increased risk of adverse outcomes from pneumococcal disease and COVID-19. Vaccination is an established strategy for preventing both illnesses. This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of coadministration of the 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV20) and a booster (third dose) of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multicentre study included 570 participants aged ≥65 years randomized 1:1:1 to PCV20 and BNT162b2 coadministered, or PCV20 or BNT162b2 only (administered with saline for blinding). Primary safety endpoints included local reactions, systemic events, adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs). Secondary objectives were immunogenicity of PCV20 and BNT162b2 when administered together or separately. RESULTS: Coadministration of PCV20 and BNT162b2 was well tolerated. Local reactions and systemic events were generally mild-moderate; injection-site pain and fatigue were the most frequent local and systemic events, respectively. AE and SAE rates were low and similar across groups. No AEs led to discontinuation; no SAEs were considered vaccination-related. Robust immune responses were observed, with opsonophagocytic activity geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs; from baseline to 1 month) of 2.5-24.5 and 2.3-30.6 across PCV20 serotypes in Coadministration and PCV20-only groups, respectively. GMFRs for full-length S-binding IgG of 35.5 and 39.0, and for neutralizing titres against SARS-CoV-2-wild type virus of 58.8 and 65.4, were observed in the Coadministration and BNT162b2-only groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Safety and immunogenicity of coadministered PCV20 and BNT162b2 were similar to those of PCV20 or BNT162b2 administered alone, suggesting that the 2 vaccines may be coadministered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04887948.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Humans , Antibodies, Bacterial , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Conjugate
19.
Nat Immunol ; 24(6): 941-954, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301059

ABSTRACT

The range of vaccines developed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) provides a unique opportunity to study immunization across different platforms. In a single-center cohort, we analyzed the humoral and cellular immune compartments following five coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines spanning three technologies (adenoviral, mRNA and inactivated virus) administered in 16 combinations. For adenoviral and inactivated-virus vaccines, heterologous combinations were generally more immunogenic compared to homologous regimens. The mRNA vaccine as the second dose resulted in the strongest antibody response and induced the highest frequency of spike-binding memory B cells irrespective of the priming vaccine. Priming with the inactivated-virus vaccine increased the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response, whereas boosting did not. Distinct immune signatures were elicited by the different vaccine combinations, demonstrating that the immune response is shaped by the type of vaccines applied and the order in which they are delivered. These data provide a framework for improving future vaccine strategies against pathogens and cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
20.
Vaccine ; 41(21): 3317-3327, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299194

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with a history of paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS group, median age seven years, 70% male) and 34 healthy controls without such a history (CONTROL group, median age eight years, 38% male) aged 5-12 years, to assess the immunogenicity of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine (Comirnaty®). Patients received two doses of COVID-19 mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine (10 ug/dose) 21 days apart. Pre-vaccine anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured on the day of the first dose and at the median of 23 days after the second dose. The study was conducted during the COVID-19 wave dominated by the Omicron variant of the virus. Anti-NCP SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured twice to evaluate incidents of infection during the study period. Pre-vaccine quantification of both types of antibodies allowed us to differentiate patients into COVID-19 naive and previously infected in order to compare hybrid immunity with vaccine-induced immunity. Before vaccination, anti-S IgG serum geometric mean concentration (GMC) was 61.17 BAU/ml in the PIMS group and 24.97 in the CONTROL group, while post-vaccination GMC was 3879.14 BAU/ml and 3704.87 BAU/ml, respectively, and did not significantly differ between the groups. Hybrid immunity (regardless of PIMS history) resulted in a higher concentration of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S antibodies after vaccination. Four (20%) of the children in the PIMS group and 11 (32%) in the CONTROL group got infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the study period, yet all of them asymptomatically, and this event has not significantly altered post-vaccination anti-S titers. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccination was highly immunogenic in children, including those with a history of PIMS-TS; hybrid immunity overperforms vaccine-induced immunity in terms of serological response in children. However, vaccination effectiveness in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections in children should be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Male , Female , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger
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