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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(6): 687-713, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185241

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Pneumonia , Adult , Child , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26102, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Healthcare workers (HWs) perform a critical role not only in the clinical management of patients but also in providing adequate infection control and prevention measures and waste management procedures to be implemented in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 infection control precautions and waste management procedures among HWs in Saudi Arabian hospitals.This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Information on knowledge, awareness, and practice of infection control and waste management procedures were obtained from the HWs using a structured questionnaire. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Our findings indicated that most of the study participants were knowledgeable, with a mean score of 78.3%. In total, 92.5%, 90.3%, and 91.7% of the participants were aware of the infection control precautions, COVID-19 waste management procedures, the availability of infection control supplies, respectively. HWs' Knowledge regarding waste management and infection control procedures correlated significantly with sex (P ≤ .001 and <.001), education (P = .024 and .043), and working experience (P = .029 and .009), respectively.Most participants appreciated the importance of their role in infection control, surveillance, and monitoring of the ongoing safety practices in their patients as well as their facilities and communities.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/standards , Medical Waste Disposal/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25924, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191010

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a significant challenge for health workers around the world. This survey aims to highlight the status of the implementation of occupational protection measures for nurses working on the front line against COVID-19, and to analyze the problems in the process of wearing protective equipment.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 nurses who worked in COVID-19-stricken areas in China in March 2020. The questionnaire covered 3 aspects, namely: general information, the current condition of protective equipment wearing, and the wearing experience of protective equipment.A total of 160 (96.97%) valid questionnaires were collected. The average time of wearing protective equipment for the nurses surveyed was 6.38 ±â€Š3.30 hours per working day. For first-line nurses with low risk of infection, repeated wear of protective equipment was as follows: medical protective mask 30.77%, double latex gloves 8.46%, goggles/protective mask 15.38%, protective suit 15.38%; less wear of protective equipment were as follows: work cap 7.69%, surgical mask 7.69%, single layer latex gloves 30.77%, goggles/protective mask 30.77%, and isolation gown 46.15%. For nurses who were at moderate risk of infection, repeated wear of protective equipment was as follows: surgical mask 62.22%, goggles/protective mask 68.89%, and isolation gown 65.56%; less wear: work cap 3.33%, medical protective mask 15.56%, latex gloves 15.56%, goggles/protective mask 5.56%, and protective suit 16.67%. For front-line nurses with high risk of infection, repeated wear of protective equipment was as follows: surgical mask 64.91%, more than double latex gloves 8.77%, goggles/protective mask 75.44%, isolation gown 75.44%; less wear: work cap 1.75%, medical protective mask 1.75%, latex gloves 26.32%, goggles/ protective mask 1.75%, protective suit 1.75%. The main discomforts of wearing protective equipment were poor vision due to fogging (81.88%), stuffiness (79.38%), poor mobility (74.38%), sweating (72.5%), and skin damage (61.25%).More detailed personal protection standards should be developed, and the work load of nurses should be reduced. Actions should be taken to ensure the scientific implementation of personal protective measures. To solve practical clinical problems, future protective equipment may focus on the research and development of protective equipment applicable for different risk levels, as well as the research on integrated design, fabric innovation, and reusability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25117, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To describe and advise on management protocols and infection-protection experience of the radiology department in makeshift hospitals in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.Based on the literature review and the experience in the frontline, we retrospectively reviewed the configuration of the radiology department, human resource, personal protection, examination procedures for patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan fangcang shelter hospital.From February 11, 2020 to March 10, 2020, 2730 and 510 CT examinations were performed in the Hanjiang shelter hospital and Hanyang Sports School shelter hospital, respectively, including initial examinations and re-examinations. The maximum number of daily CT examinations reached 289. The CT scanned a patient approximately once every 13 mins.Fangcang shelter radiology department could be powerful components of both global and national responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mobile Health Units/organization & administration , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel Administration, Hospital , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(7): 834-839, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An accurate estimate of the average number of hand hygiene opportunities per patient hour (HHO rate) is required to implement group electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (GEHHMSs). We sought to identify predictors of HHOs to validate and implement a GEHHMS across a network of critical care units. DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study (10 hospitals) followed by quality improvement intervention involving 24 critical care units across 12 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Critical care patient beds were randomized to receive 1 hour of continuous direct observation to determine the HHO rate. A Poisson regression model determined unit-level predictors of HHOs. Estimates of average HHO rates across different types of critical care units were derived and used to implement and evaluate use of GEHHMS. RESULTS: During 2,812 hours of observation, we identified 25,417 HHOs. There was significant variability in HHO rate across critical care units. Time of day, day of the week, unit acuity, patient acuity, patient population and use of transmission-based precautions were significantly associated with HHO rate. Using unit-specific estimates of average HHO rate, aggregate HH adherence was 30.0% (1,084,329 of 3,614,908) at baseline with GEHHMS and improved to 38.5% (740,660 of 1,921,656) within 2 months of continuous feedback to units (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Unit-specific estimates based on known predictors of HHO rate enabled broad implementation of GEHHMS. Further longitudinal quality improvement efforts using this system are required to assess the impact of GEHHMS on both HH adherence and clinical outcomes within critically ill patient populations.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Critical Care , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Ontario
6.
AORN J ; 116(3): 219-228, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157696

ABSTRACT

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 posed a public health crisis beginning in January 2020, affecting hospitals and health care personnel worldwide and disrupting perioperative services. Organization leaders at Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, China, developed a mitigation system for the OR that involved creating a pandemic response team to identify and implement appropriate infection control practices to prevent virus transmission. The leaders addressed managing the daily surgery schedule through patient screening and a focus on the urgency and volume of procedures. They required increased use of personal protective equipment and more stringent cleaning and disinfection protocols and ensured that the physical and mental health of staff members were monitored and prioritized. This article describes how leaders implemented these enhanced processes to protect personnel from infection as they continued to provide patient care. It also describes how high-risk procedures involving patients with confirmed or suspected infections were managed and discusses lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274024, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140502

ABSTRACT

To limit an infectious outbreak, the public must be informed about the infection risk and be motivated to comply with infection control measures. Perceiving a situation as threatening and seeing benefits to complying may be necessary to motivate for compliance. The current study used a preregistered survey experiment with a 2-by-2 between-subject design to investigate if emphasizing high infection risk and appealing to societal benefits impacted intention to comply with infection control measures. The results from a representative Norwegian sample (N = 2533) show that describing a high (as opposed to low) personal risk scenario had a small main effect on compliance. Further, appealing to public (as opposed to self-interested) benefits also had a small main effect. There was no interaction between risk scenario and motivational emphasis. The results suggest that to maximize compliance, information about disease outbreak should emphasize the individual risk of contracting the disease, and could also underline the public value of limiting infection spread. These findings can inform health authorities about the motives underlying compliance with infection control measures during an infectious disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Infection Control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 131, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of SARS-CoV-2, multidrug-resistant organisms and other healthcare-associated pathogens represents supra-regional challenges for infection prevention and control (IPC) specialists in every European country. To tackle these problems, cross-site research collaboration of IPC specialists is very important. This study assesses the extent and quality of national research collaborations of IPC departments of university hospitals located in Austria, England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, identifies network gaps, and provides potential solutions. METHODS: Joint publications of IPC heads of all university hospitals of the included countries between 1st of June 2013 until 31st of May 2020 were collected by Pubmed/Medline search. Further, two factors, the journal impact factor and the type/position of authorship, were used to calculate the Scientific Collaboration Impact (SCI) for all included sites; nationwide network analysis was performed. RESULTS: In five European countries, 95 sites and 125 responsible leaders for IPC who had been in charge during the study period were identified. Some countries such as Austria have only limited national research cooperations, while the Netherlands has established a gapless network. Most effective collaborating university site of each country were Lille with an SCI of 1146, Rotterdam (408), Berlin (268), Sussex (204), and Vienna/Innsbruck (18). DISCUSSION: The present study indicates major differences and room for improvement in IPC research collaborations within each country and underlines the potential and importance of collaborating in IPC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infection Control , Europe/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(4)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention has been difficult for healthcare providers to maintain during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study summarises themes for maintaining infection prevention activities learnt from the implementation of a quality improvement (QI) programme during the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted qualitative analysis of participants' semistructured exit interviews, self-assessments on HAI prevention activities, participant-created action plans, chat-box discussions during webinars and informal correspondence. SETTING: Intensive care units (ICUs) with elevated rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and/or catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Programme for ICUs: Preventing CLABSI and CAUTI. RESULTS: Forty-nine ICU teams who participated in the programme between December 2019 and April 2021 found ways to maintain activities such as daily huddles, multidisciplinary rounds, and central line and indwelling urinary catheter monitoring despite barriers, including staff turnover, a lack of time, staff fatigue and pandemic-related guidelines limiting providers' time around patients. We use four themes to summarise the ICU teams' adaptations that allowed them to sustain infection prevention activities: (1) Units had CLABSI and CAUTI prevention teams, policies and practices established prior to the pandemic; (2) Units were flexible in their implementation of those policies and practices; (3) Units maintained consistent buy-in for and engagement in HAI prevention activities among both leadership and care teams throughout the pandemic and (4) Units looked to learn from other units in their facility and beyond. CONCLUSIONS: Future shocks such as the pandemic must be anticipated, and the healthcare system must be resilient to the resulting disruptions to HAI prevention activities. This study encountered four themes for successful maintenance of infection prevention activities during the current pandemic: the value of a pre-existing infection prevention infrastructure; a flexibility in approach; broad buy-in for maintaining QI programmes and the facilitation of idea-sharing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Urinary Tract Infections , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , Intensive Care Units , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control
12.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 29(1)2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surging volumes of patients with COVID-19 and the high infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 challenged hospital infection control/safety, staffing, care delivery and operations as few crises have. Imperatives to ensure security of patient information, defend against cybersecurity threats and accurately identify/authenticate patients and staff were undiminished, which fostered creative use cases where hospitals leveraged identity access and management (IAM) technologies to improve infection control and minimise disruption of clinical and administrative workflows. METHODS: Working with a leading IAM solution provider, implementation personnel in the USA and UK identified all hospitals/health systems where an innovative use of IAM technology improved facility infection control and pandemic response management. Interviews/communications with hospital clinical informatics leaders collected information describing the use case deployed. RESULTS: Eight innovative/valuable hospital use cases are described: symptom-free attestation by clinicians at shift start; detection of clinician exposure/contact tracing; reporting of clinician temperature checks; inpatient telehealth consults in isolation units; virtual visits between isolated patients and families; touchless single sign-on authentication; secure access enabled for rapid expansion of personnel working remotely; and monitoring of temporary worker attendance. DISCUSSION: No systematic, comprehensive survey of all implemented IAM client sites was conducted, and other use cases may be undetected. A standardised reporting/information sharing vehicle is needed whereby IAM use cases aiding facility pandemic response and infection control can be disseminated. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical care, infection control and facility operations were improved using IAM solutions during COVID-19. Facility end-user innovation in how IAM solutions are deployed can improve infection control/patient safety, care delivery and clinical workflows during surges of epidemic infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Infection Control , Hospitals
14.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(2): 309-326, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130979

ABSTRACT

The authors describe infection prevention and control approaches to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the health care setting, including a review of the chain of transmission and the hierarchy of controls, which are cornerstones of infection control and prevention. The authors also discuss lessons learned from nosocomial transmission events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Infection Control
15.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(1): 15-37, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a nonspecific viral illness caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and led to an ongoing global pandemic. Transmission is primarily human-to-human via contact with respiratory particles containing infectious virus. The risk of transmission to health care personnel is low with proper use of personal protective equipment, including gowns, gloves, N95 or surgical mask, and eye protection. Additional measures affecting the risk of transmission include physical distancing, hand hygiene, routine cleaning and disinfection, appropriate air handling and ventilation, and public health interventions such as universal masking and stay-at-home orders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infection Control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 982738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142333

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed several risk factors to healthcare workers' (HCWs') emotional distress. The purpose of the study was to enhance understanding of the experiences and feelings of HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with specific reference to infection prevention and control (IPC) practices and guidance, focusing on the quality and availability of personal protective equipment (PPE), guidelines, and management. With a qualitative approach, we aimed to enable a wider narrative; to gain a more detailed understanding related to PPE use and identify experiences that can be overlooked in forced-choice questionnaires. Methods: An online questionnaire was conducted among HCWs of the City of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital between 12.6.2020 and 5.4.2021. Altogether 1,580 HCWs participated in the study, from whom 579 shared 1,666 free-text responses. These responses were analyzed qualitatively, and the results were combined with statistical data on the participants' working conditions and backgrounds. Results: We identified problems in PPE availability and changing guidelines as factors causing the most distress in the participants. Regarding availability, running out of masks and respirators emerged as the most worrying issue, and inadequate PPE was associated with the excessive workload (OR 1.51, CI 95% 1.01-2.25). The results also highlight the importance of transparent and clear communication regarding IPC instructions and guidance, and clear IPC guidance was associated with better levels of reported recovery from work (OR 1.51, CI 95% 1.06-2.14). Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of adequate PPE provision, transparent communication, clear guidance, and supportive supervisory work in this ongoing pandemic and potential new ones. We suggest more rigorous preparation, with crisis communication planning and emergency storage of PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Infection Control/methods , Health Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24320, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have focused on the characteristics of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and clinical risk factors. This study reports the prevalence of COVID-19 in an asymptomatic population of a hospital service area (HSA) and identifies factors that affect exposure to the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of COVID-19 in an HSA, identify factors that may increase or decrease the risk of infection, and analyze factors that increase the number of daily contacts. METHODS: This study surveyed 1694 patients between April 30 and May 13, 2020, about their work and living situations, income, behavior, sociodemographic characteristics, and prepandemic health characteristics. This data was linked to testing data for 454 of these patients, including polymerase chain reaction test results and two different serologic assays. Positivity rate was used to calculate approximate prevalence, hospitalization rate, and infection fatality rate (IFR). Survey data was used to analyze risk factors, including the number of contacts reported by study participants. The data was also used to identify factors increasing the number of daily contacts, such as mask wearing and living environment. RESULTS: We found a positivity rate of 2.2%, a hospitalization rate of 1.2%, and an adjusted IFR of 0.55%. A higher number of daily contacts with adults and older adults increases the probability of becoming infected. Occupation, living in an apartment versus a house, and wearing a face mask outside work increased the number of daily contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Studying prevalence in an asymptomatic population revealed estimates of unreported COVID-19 cases. Occupational, living situation, and behavioral data about COVID-19-protective behaviors such as wearing a mask may aid in the identification of nonclinical factors affecting the number of daily contacts, which may increase SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Housing , Infection Control , Masks , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Cancer Cell ; 38(2): 161-163, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130226

ABSTRACT

Two recent Lancet and Lancet Oncology papers report that cancer patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have higher mortality rates. Common independent factors associated with increased risk of death were older age, history of smoking status, number of comorbidities, more advanced performance status, and active cancer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Neoplasms/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 140, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany was reported in early February 2020. In addition, extensive control measures on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been placed in Germany since March 2020. These include contact and travel restrictions, distance rules, mandatory wearing of face masks and respirators, cancellation of mass events, closures of day-care centers, schools, restaurants and shops, isolation measures, and intensified infection control measures in medical and long-term care facilities. Changes in demand or access to health care services and intensified control measures can lead to changes in transmission dynamics and imply effects on the overall occurrence of infectious diseases in hospitals. METHODS: To analyze the impact of infection control measures implemented in public on infectious diseases in hospitals, surveillance data from Marburg University Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The analysis was conducted from January 2019 to June 2021, referred to hospital occupancy and mobility data in the county of Marburg-Biedenkopf, and correlated to control measures in hospitals and the general population. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated measures immediately impacted the occurrence of infectious diseases at the Marburg University Hospital. Significant changes were detected for virus-associated respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. The massive drop in norovirus infections was significantly affected by the onset of the pandemic (P = 0.028). Similar effects were observed for rotavirus (up to - 89%), respiratory syncytial virus (up to - 98%), and adenovirus infections (up to - 90%). The decrease in gastrointestinal and respiratory virus detection rates was significantly affected by the decline in mobility (P < 0.05). Of note, since April 2020, there have been no detected influenza cases. Furthermore, Clostridioides difficile-related infections declined after late 2020 (- 44%). In contrast, no significant changes were detected in the prevalence of susceptible and drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In particular, the detection rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates or multidrug resistant (MDR) and extended drug resistant (XDR) bacteria remained constant, although the consumption of hand disinfectants and protective equipment increased. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures had a significant impact on infectious diseases and the detection of pathogens at the Marburg University Hospital. Significant changes were observed for community transmissible infections, while no such effects on pathogens primarily associated with nosocomial transmission could be detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Infection Control , Hospitals
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): e763-e768, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the perceived adequacy of infection control practices (ICPs) and symptoms of anxiety among educators in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Data from 4947 educators were collected in December 2020. Modified Poisson models assessed the association between adequacy of ICPs and moderate or severe anxiety symptoms, adjusting for a range of covariates. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of respondents reported moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. Two-thirds (66.5%) of the sample had less than half of their ICP needs met. Respondents with less than half their ICP needs met were more than three times more likely to have moderate or severe anxiety, compared with respondents with their ICP needs met. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the importance of adequate administrative and engineering controls in schools, not only to minimize risk of infection, but also for educator's mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Schools , Infection Control
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