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1.
Cir Cir ; 90(4): 497-502, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic brought with it important changes in the hospital care for all diseases. According to the international literature, since the beginning of the pandemic there has been an impact in the incidence, etiology, and severity of head trauma, all these changes as a direct consequence of lockdown. OBJECTIVE: In this article we analyzed the characteristics of craniofacial trauma in patients admitted to a private hospital in Mexico City during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHOD: Medical records from patients admitted in Medica Sur between March 2020 and June 2021. In this study, incidence, etiology, severity of the injuries and the SARS-CoV-2 PCR result performed upon admission were analyzed. RESULTS: Although there is no study in Mexico like ours, the results were similar to those reported by other hospital centers worldwide, presenting a greater number of cases classified as mild craniofacial trauma, in addition to finding that the main age group affected were older adults. CONCLUSIONS: The reported information in our study provides a general view of craniofacial trauma characteristics during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El inicio de la pandemia provocada por SARS-CoV-2 trajo consigo importantes cambios en los cuidados hospitalarios para todas las enfermedades. De acuerdo con la literatura internacional, desde el comienzo, y a consecuencia del aislamiento, ha existido un impacto en la incidencia, la etiología y la gravedad del trauma craneomaxilofacial. OBJETIVO: Estudiar las características del trauma craneofacial en los pacientes ingresados a un hospital privado en la Ciudad de México durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODO: Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes ingresados a Médica Sur, entre marzo de 2020 y junio de 2021. Se analizaron la incidencia, la etiología, la gravedad de las lesiones y el resultado de la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para SARS-CoV-2 que se realizó durante la atención hospitalaria. RESULTADOS: En México no existe un estudio semejante al nuestro, pero los resultados fueron similares a los reportados por otros centros hospitalarios en el mundo, presentando un mayor número de casos clasificados como traumatismo craneofacial leve, además de encontrar que el principal grupo de edad afectado fueron los adultos mayores. CONCLUSIONES: La información reportada en nuestro estudio brinda un panorama general sobre las características del trauma craneofacial durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Craniocerebral Trauma , Facial Injuries , Hospitals, Private , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/etiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/therapy , Facial Injuries/epidemiology , Facial Injuries/etiology , Facial Injuries/therapy , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 167, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the changes in characteristics of patients who visited trauma centres during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is important to facilitate aneffective response. This retrospective study was conducted to analyse differences in the characteristics and outcomes of patients who visited our trauma centre between pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 eras. METHODS: Medical data of trauma patients enrolled in the Korean trauma database from 1 January 2018 to 31 August 2021 were collected. The number of trauma centre visits, patient characteristics, factors associated with in-hospital intervention, and outcomes werecompared between patients in the two time periods. Propensity score matching was performed to analyse the outcomes in patients with similar characteristics and severitybetween patients in the two time periods. RESULTS: The number of emergency department (ED) trauma service visits reduced in the COVID-19 era. Based on the mean age, the patients were older in the COVID-19 era. Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) 1, AIS3, AIS5, and injury severity score (ISS) were higher in the COVID-19 era. The proportion of motor vehicle collisions decreased, whereas falls increased during the COVID-19 era. Ambulance transportation, admission to the general ward, and time from injury to ED visit significantly increased. Patient outcomes, such as hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and duration of mechanical ventilation improved, while injury severity worsened during the COVID-19 era. After adjusting for patient characteristics and severity, similar findings were observed. CONCLUSION: The small reduction in the number of trauma patients and visits by patients who hadhigher ISS during the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of maintaining trauma service capacity and capability during the pandemic. A nationwide or nationalmulticentre study will be more meaningful to examine the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the changes in trauma patterns, volume, and patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 118-123, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the need for high-level care persists postdischarge, severely injured trauma survivors have historically poor adherence to follow-up. We hypothesized that a dedicated Center for Trauma Survivorship (CTS) improves follow-up and facilitates postdischarge specialty care. METHODS: A retrospective study of "CTS eligible" trauma patients before (January to December 2017) and after (January to December 2019) creation of the CTS was performed. Patients with an intensive care unit stay ≥2 days or a New Injury Severity Score of ≥16 are CTS eligible. The before (PRE) cohort was followed through December 2018 and the after (CTS) cohort through December 2020. Primary outcome was follow-up within the hospital system exclusive of mental health and rehabilitative therapy appointments. Secondary outcomes include postdischarge surgical procedures and specialty-specific follow-up. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographics or hospital duration in the PRE (n = 177) and CTS (n = 119) cohorts. Of the CTS group, 91% presented for outpatient follow-up within the hospital system, compared with 73% in the PRE group (p < 0.001). In the PRE cohort, only 39% were seen by the trauma service compared with 62% in the CTS cohort (p < 0.001). Center for Trauma Survivorship patients also had increased follow-up with other providers (80% vs. 65%; p = 0.006). Notably, 33% of CTS patients had additional surgery compared with only 20% in the PRE group (p = 0.011). Center for Trauma Survivorship patients had more than 20% more outpatient visits (1,280 vs. 1,006 visits). CONCLUSION: Despite the follow-up period for the CTS cohort occurring during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, limiting availability of outpatient services, our CTS significantly improved follow-up with trauma providers, as well as with other specialties. The CTS patients also underwent significantly more secondary operations. These data demonstrate that creation of a CTS can improve the postdischarge care of severely injured trauma survivors, allowing for care coordination within the health care system, retaining patients, generating revenue, and providing needed follow-up care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries , Aftercare , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Survivorship , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
5.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(3): 700-710, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance systems across many countries face resourcing challenges related to manual validation and coding of data. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the evaluation of a machine learning (ML)-based decision support tool (DST) to assist injury surveillance departments in the validation, coding, and use of their data, comparing outcomes in coding time, and accuracy pre- and postimplementations. METHODS: Manually coded injury surveillance data have been used to develop, train, and iteratively refine a ML-based classifier to enable semiautomated coding of injury narrative data. This paper describes a trial implementation of the ML-based DST in the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) workflow using a major pediatric hospital's ED data comparing outcomes in coding time and pre- and postimplementation accuracies. RESULTS: The study found a 10% reduction in manual coding time after the DST was introduced. The Kappa statistics analysis in both DST-assisted and -unassisted data shows increase in accuracy across three data fields, that is, injury intent (85.4% unassisted vs. 94.5% assisted), external cause (88.8% unassisted vs. 91.8% assisted), and injury factor (89.3% unassisted vs. 92.9% assisted). The classifier was also used to produce a timely report monitoring injury patterns during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Hence, it has the potential for near real-time surveillance of emerging hazards to inform public health responses. CONCLUSION: The integration of the DST into the injury surveillance workflow shows benefits as it facilitates timely reporting and acts as a DST in the manual coding process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Information Systems , Wounds and Injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospital Information Systems/organization & administration , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Workflow , Wounds and Injuries/classification
6.
J Surg Res ; 279: 187-192, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867433

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In attempts to quell the spread of COVID-19, shelter-in-place orders were employed in most states. Increased time at home, in combination with parents potentially balancing childcare and work-from-home duties, may have had unintended consequences on pediatric falls from windows. We aimed to investigate rates of falls from windows among children during the first 6 mo of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients <18 y old admitted to three pediatric trauma centers (two - level 1, one - level 2) between 3/19/20 and 9/19/20 (COVID-era) were compared to a pre-COVID cohort (3/19/19 to 9/19/19). The primary outcome was the rate of falls from windows. Secondary outcomes included injury severity score (ISS), injuries sustained, and mortality. RESULTS: Of 1011 total COVID-era pediatric trauma patients, 36 (3.6%) sustained falls from windows compared to 23 of 1108 (2.1%) pre-COVID era patients (OR 1.7, P = 0.05). The median ISS was seven pre-COVID versus four COVID-era (P = 0.43). The most common injuries sustained were skull fractures (30.5%), extremity injuries (30.5%), and intracranial hemorrhage (23.7%). One-fifth of patients underwent surgery (21.7% pre-COVID versus 19.4% COVID-era, P = 1.0). There was one mortality in the COVID-era cohort and none in the pre-COVID cohort (P = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Despite overall fewer trauma admissions during the first 6 mo of the COVID-19 pandemic, the rate of falls from windows nearly doubled compared to the prior year, with substantial associated morbidity. These findings suggest a potential unintended consequence of shelter-in-place orders and support increased education on home safety and increased support for parents potentially juggling multiple responsibilities in the home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
7.
J Surg Res ; 276: 208-220, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804648

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aim to assess the trends in trauma patient volume, injury characteristics, and facility resource utilization that occurred during four surges in COVID-19 cases. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 92 American College of Surgeons (ACS)-verified trauma centers (TCs) in a national hospital system during 4 COVID-19 case surges was performed. Patients who were directly transported to the TC and were an activation or consultation from the emergency department (ED) were included. Trends in injury characteristics, patient demographics & outcomes, and hospital resource utilization were assessed during four COVID-19 case surges and compared to the same dates in 2019. RESULTS: The majority of TCs were within a metropolitan or micropolitan division. During the pandemic, trauma admissions decreased overall, but displayed variable trends during Surges 1-4 and across U.S. regions and TC levels. Patients requiring surgery or blood transfusion increased significantly during Surges 1-3, whereas the proportion of patients requiring plasma and/or platelets increased significantly during Surges 1-2. Patients admitted to the hospital had significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality as compared to pre-pandemic during Surge 1 and 2. Patients with Medicaid or uninsured increased significantly during the pandemic. Hospital length of stay (LOS) decreased significantly during the pandemic and more trauma patients were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma admissions decreased during Surge 1, but increased during Surge 2, 3 and 4. Penetrating injuries and firearm-related injuries increased significantly during the pandemic, patients requiring surgery or packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfusion increased significantly during Surges 1-3. The number of patients discharged home increased during the pandemic and was accompanied by a decreased hospital length of stay (LOS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trauma Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Length of Stay , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
8.
J Surg Res ; 272: 139-145, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the age of COVID-19 and enforced social distancing, changes in patterns of trauma were observed but poorly understood. Our aim was to characterize traumatic injury mechanisms and acuities in 2020 and compare them with previous years at our level I trauma center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with trauma triaged in 2016 through 2020 from January to May were reviewed. Patient demographics, level of activation (1 versus 2), injury severity score, and mechanism of injury were collected. Data from 2016 through 2019 were combined, averaged by month, and compared with data from 2020 using chi-squared analysis. RESULTS: During the months of interest, 992 patients with trauma were triaged in 2020 and 4311 in 2016-2019. The numbers of penetrating and level I trauma activations in January-March of 2020 were similar to average numbers for the same months during 2016 through 2019. In April 2020, there was a significant increase in the incidence of penetrating trauma compared with the prior 4-year average (27% versus 16%, P < 0.002). Level I trauma activations in April 2020 also increased, rising from 17% in 2016 through 2019 to 32% in 2020 (P < 0.003). These findings persisted through May 2020 with similarly significant increases in penetrating and high-level trauma. CONCLUSIONS: In the months after the initial spread of COVID-19, there was a perceptible shift in patterns of trauma. The significant increase in penetrating and high-acuity trauma may implicate a change in population dynamics, demanding a need for thoughtful resource allocation at trauma centers nationwide in the context of a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 38(2): 307-315, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544430

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in increased penetrating trauma and decreased length of stay (LOS) amongst the adult trauma population, findings important for resource allocation. Studies regarding the pediatric trauma population are sparse and mostly single-center. This multicenter study examined pediatric trauma patients, hypothesizing increased penetrating trauma and decreased LOS after the 3/19/2020 stay-at-home (SAH) orders. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis of trauma patients ≤ 17 years old presenting to 11 centers in California was performed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, and outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into three groups based on injury date: 3/19/2019-6/30/2019 (CONTROL), 1/1/2020-3/18/2020 (PRE), 3/19/2020-6/30/2020 (POST). POST was compared to PRE and CONTROL in separate analyses. RESULTS: 1677 patients were identified across all time periods (CONTROL: 631, PRE: 479, POST: 567). POST penetrating trauma rates were not significantly different compared to both PRE (11.3 vs. 9.0%, p = 0.219) and CONTROL (11.3 vs. 8.2%, p = 0.075), respectively. POST had a shorter mean LOS compared to PRE (2.4 vs. 3.3 days, p = 0.002) and CONTROL (2.4 vs. 3.4 days, p = 0.002). POST was also not significantly different than either group regarding intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, ventilator days, and mortality (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter retrospective study demonstrated no difference in penetrating trauma rates among pediatric patients after SAH orders but did identify a shorter LOS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , California/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
10.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(6): 437-442, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542157

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to reconfiguration of healthcare resources to manage increased demand for acute hospital beds and intensive care places. Concerns were raised regarding continuing provision of critical care for non-COVID patients during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients admitted with major trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) across the four Level 1 trauma centres in London. METHODS: Data were collected from all four major trauma centres (MTCs) in London using the Trauma Audit and Research Network database and from local databases at each centre. A 2-month period from 5 March to 5 May 2020 was selected and the same period during 2019 was used to compare changes due to the pandemic. RESULTS: There was a 31% decrease in overall number of patients presenting to the four MTCs during the COVID-19 period compared with 2019. There was no difference in patient demographics or mechanism of injury between the two periods. Sports-related injuries and proportion of self-presentation to hospital were reduced slightly during the pandemic, although the differences were not statistically significant. The mortality rate and association between mortality and injury severity were similar. Proportion of patients requiring intensive care unit facilities also did not change. CONCLUSION: Despite diversion of critical care resources to deal with COVID-related admissions, we did not observe a change in mortality rate or proportion of severely injured patients requiring critical care. Our results suggest London MTCs were able to provide their usual standard of care for critically injured major trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
11.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 404-408, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a growing concern that certain public health restrictions imposed to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could result in more violence against women (VAW). We sought to determine if the rates and types of VAW changed during the COVID-19 pandemic at our level 1 trauma center (L1TC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of female patients who presented to our L1TC because of violence from 2019 through 2020. Patients were grouped into a pre-COVID or COVID period. The primary aim of this study was to compare rates of VAW between groups. Secondary aims sought to evaluate for any difference in traumatic mechanism between periods and to determine if a temporal relationship existed between COVID-19 and VAW rates. RESULTS: There was no difference in rates of VAW between the pre-COVID and COVID period (3.1% vs 3.6%, P = .6); however, rates of penetrating trauma were greater during the COVID period (38.2% vs 10.3%, P = .01). After controlling for patient age and race, the odds of penetrating trauma increased during the pandemic (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.6-28.5, P < .01). From February 2020 through October 2020, there was a direct relationship between rates of COVID-19 and VAW (r2 .78, P < .01). CONCLUSION: Rates of VAW were unchanged between the pre-COVID and COVID periods, yet the odds of penetrating VAW were 5 times greater during the pandemic. Moving forward, trauma surgeons must remain vigilant for signs of violence and ensure that support services are available during future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Gender-Based Violence/ethnology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intimate Partner Violence/ethnology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Linear Models , Ohio/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/ethnology , Wounds, Penetrating/ethnology , Young Adult
12.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(2): 284-290, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We aimed to describe the epidemiology of trauma activations and variations in injury patterns, injury severity, and hospital length-of-stay for injured children in Los Angeles (LA) County during the coronavirus-disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged < 18-years evaluated in 15 trauma centers from 2019 to 2020 and entered in the LA County trauma registry. We defined 01/01/2019-03/18/2020 as pre-pandemic and 03/19/2020-12/31/2020 as the pandemic period. Our primary outcome was pediatric trauma activations. We analyzed demographic and clinical data, including types and severity of injuries sustained. We conducted unadjusted bivariate analyzes of injury patterns between periods. Segmented linear regression models were used to test rates (per 100,000 LA County children) of trauma activations pre-pandemic versus the pandemic period. RESULTS: We studied 4399 children with trauma activations, 2695 of which occurred pre-pandemic and 1701 in the pandemic period. Motor vehicle collisions, gunshot wounds, and burns increased during the pandemic (all p-values< 0.05), while sports injuries decreased (p < 0.001). Median injury severity scores (p = 0.323) and Glasgow Coma Scales (p = 0.558) did not differ between periods, however mortality (p = 0.023) decreased during the pandemic. Segmented linear regression estimates demonstrated that rates of trauma activations pre-pandemic were similar to the pandemic period (p = 0.384). CONCLUSION: Pediatric trauma activations in LA County did not significantly differ during the COVID-19 pandemic, but types and severity of injuries varied between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. With lockdown restrictions being lifted and novel SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating, our investigation describes this recent epidemiologic phenomenon to aid future preparation for healthcare systems. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective cross-sectional study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While potentially timesaving, there is no program to automatically transform diagnosis codes of the ICD-10 German modification (ICD-10-GM) into the injury severity score (ISS). OBJECTIVE: To develop a mapping method from ICD-10-GM into ICD-10 clinical modification (ICD-10-CM) to calculate the abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and ISS of each patient using the ICDPIC-R and to compare the manually and automatically calculated scores. METHODS: Between January 2019 and June 2021, the most severe AIS of each body region and the ISS were manually calculated using medical documentation and radiology reports of all major trauma patients of a German level I trauma centre. The ICD-10-GM codes of these patients were exported from the electronic medical data system SAP, and a Java program was written to transform these into ICD-10-CM codes. Afterwards, the ICDPIC-R was used to automatically generate the most severe AIS of each body region and the ISS. The automatically and manually determined ISS and AIS scores were then tested for equivalence. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that the manually and automatically calculated ISS were significantly equivalent over the entire patient cohort. Further sub-group analysis, however, showed that equivalence could only be demonstrated for patients with an ISS between 16 and 24. Likewise, the highest AIS scores of each body region were not equal in the manually and automatically calculated group. CONCLUSION: Though achieving mapping results highly comparable to previous mapping methods of ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes, it is not unrestrictedly possible to automatically calculate the AIS and ISS using ICD-10-GM codes.


Subject(s)
Injury Severity Score , International Classification of Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Young Adult
14.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151(33-34)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated restrictions may have modified the activities of the Swiss population and thus altered trauma patterns. MATERIALS AND PATIENTS: All adult patients with major trauma admitted to our institution in 2019 and 2020 were assessed using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), by body region involved, type of injury, age, admission to an intensive care unit and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In 2020, 454 patients with major trauma were admitted to our institution, 17% fewer than in the previous year. The drop in the number of major trauma patients proceeded with and overlapped both the first and second peaks in incidence of the pandemic and the associated restrictions. The median ISS was higher in 2020 (25, interquartile range [IQR] 17-26.5) than in 2019 (22, IQR 16-26, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in body region involved, type of injury or age (p >0.05). In 2020, a higher percentage of patients were admitted to an intensive care unit (86.5% vs 77.7%, p <0.001) and died within 30 days (8.8% vs 5.0%, p = 0.015). The 30-day mortality was higher in 2020 than in 2019, with an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% confidence interval 1.04-3.10, p= 0.036) after adjustment for the following potential confounders: ISS, age, gender and type of injury. CONCLUSION: In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients with major trauma were admitted to our institution. However, the patients admitted were more severely injured and more often died within 30 days. Understanding the differences in injury patterns and admissions in major trauma patients under special conditions - such as a pandemic - could help to allocate rare resources adequately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
16.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 39, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically strained the health systems worldwide, obligating the reassessment of how healthcare is delivered. In Lombardia, Italy, a Regional Emergency Committee (REC) was established and the regional health system reorganized, with only three hospitals designated as hubs for trauma care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this reorganization of regional care, comparing the distribution of patients before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and to describe changes in the epidemiology of severe trauma among the two periods. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using retrospectively collected data from the Regional Trauma Registry of Lombardia (LTR). We compared the data of trauma patients admitted to three hub hospitals before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 1 to November 19, 2019) with those recorded during the pandemic (February 21 to May 10, 2020) in the same hospitals. Demographic data, level of pre-hospital care (Advanced Life Support-ALS, Basic Life Support-BLS), type of transportation, mechanism of injury (MOI), abbreviated injury score (AIS, 1998 version), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and ICU admission and survival outcome of all the patients admitted to the three trauma centers designed as hubs, were reviewed. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with nasopharyngeal swabs, chest ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma patients admitted to the hubs increased (46.4% vs 28.3%, p < 0.001) with an increase in pre-hospital time (71.8 vs 61.3 min, p < 0.01), while observed in hospital mortality was unaffected. TRISS, ISS, AIS, and ICU admission were similar in both periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed substantial changes in MOI of severe trauma patients admitted to three hubs, with increases of unintentional (31.9% vs 18.5%, p < 0.05) and intentional falls (8.4% vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), whereas the pandemic restrictions reduced road- related injuries (35.6% vs 60%, p < 0.05). Deaths on scene were significantly increased (17.7% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak affected the epidemiology of severe trauma patients. An increase in trauma patient admissions to a few designated facilities with high level of care obtained satisfactory results, while COVID-19 patients overwhelmed resources of most other hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Registries , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
17.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(15): 843-850, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence rate, severity, burden and aetiology of medical attention and time-loss injuries across five consecutive seasons at a professional ballet company. METHODS: Medical attention injuries, time-loss injuries and dance exposure hours of 123 professional ballet dancers (women: n=66, age: 28.0±8.3 years; men: n=57, age: 27.9±8.5 years) were prospectively recorded between the 2015/2016 and 2019/2020 seasons. RESULTS: The incidence rate (per 1000 hours) of medical attention injury was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3 to 4.4) for women and 3.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.5) for men. The incidence rate (per 1000 hours) of time-loss injury was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) for women and 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.3) for men. First Soloists and Principals experienced between 2.0-2.2 additional medical attention injuries per 1000 hours and 0.9-1.1 additional time-loss injuries per 1000 hours compared with Apprentices (p≤0.025). Further, intraseason differences were observed in medical attention, but not time-loss, injury incidence rates with the highest incidence rates in early (August and September) and late (June) season months. Thirty-five per cent of time-loss injuries resulted in over 28 days of modified dance training. A greater percentage of time-loss injuries were classified as overuse (women: 50%; men: 51%) compared with traumatic (women: 40%; men: 41%). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the incidence rate of medical attention and time-loss injuries in professional ballet dancers. Incidence rates differed across company ranks and months, which may inform targeted injury prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Absenteeism , Dancing/injuries , Occupational Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Confidence Intervals , Dancing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injury Severity Score , Male , Musculoskeletal System/injuries , Occupational Injuries/classification , Occupational Injuries/therapy , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Sex Distribution , Time Factors
18.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(5): 1335-1342, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241588

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is mounting evidence that surgical patients with COVID-19 have higher morbidity and mortality than patients without COVID-19. Infection is prevalent amongst the trauma population, but any effect of COVID-19 on trauma patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on a trauma population, hypothesizing increased mortality and pulmonary complications for COVID-19-positive (COVID) trauma patients compared to propensity-matched COVID-19-negative (non-COVID) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of trauma patients presenting to 11 Level-I and II trauma centers in California between 1/1/2019-6/30/2019 and 1/1/2020-6/30/2020 was performed. A 1:2 propensity score model was used to match COVID to non-COVID trauma patients using age, blunt/penetrating mechanism, injury severity score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 20,448 trauma patients were identified during the study period. 53 COVID trauma patients were matched with 106 non-COVID trauma patients. COVID patients had higher rates of mortality (9.4% vs 1.9%, p = 0.029) and pneumonia (7.5% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.011), as well as a longer mean length of stay (LOS) (7.47 vs 3.28 days, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit LOS (1.40 vs 0.80 days, p = 0.008), compared to non-COVID patients. CONCLUSION: This multicenter retrospective study found increased rates of mortality and pneumonia, as well as a longer LOS, for COVID trauma patients compared to a propensity-matched cohort of non-COVID patients. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings and to elucidate the underlying pathways responsible for higher mortality in COVID trauma patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
19.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(3): 251-259, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201293

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Injury patterns are closely related to changes in behavior. Pandemics and measures undertaken against them may cause changes in behavior; therefore, changes in injury patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak can be expected when compared to the parallel period in previous years. STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare injury-related hospitalization patterns during the overall national lockdown period with parallel periods of previous years. METHODS: A retrospective study was completed of all patients hospitalized from March 15 through April 30, for years 2016-2020. Data were obtained from 21 hospitals included in the national trauma registry during the study years. Clinical, demographic, and circumstantial parameters were compared amongst the years of the study. RESULTS: The overall volume of injured patients significantly decreased during the lockdown period of the COVID-19 outbreak, with the greatest decrease registered for road traffic collisions (RTCs). Patients' sex and ethnic compositions did not change, but a smaller proportion of children were hospitalized during the outbreak. Many more injuries were sustained at home during the outbreak, with proportions of injuries in all other localities significantly decreased. Injuries sustained during the COVID-19 outbreak were more severe, specifically due to an increase in severe injuries in RTCs and falls. The proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations did not change, however more surgeries were performed; patients stayed less days in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown period of the COVID-19 outbreak led to a significant decrease in number of patients hospitalized due to trauma as compared to parallel periods of previous years. Nevertheless, trauma remains a major health care concern even during periods of high-impact disease outbreaks, in particular due to increased proportion of severe injuries and surgeries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injury Severity Score , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
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