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2.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(5): 1486-1494, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies regarding effectiveness of anakinra and tocilizumab treatments in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have contradictory results. Furthermore, there is scarce comparative data regarding superiority of any agent. To further elucidate any superiority between these two agents, we retrospectively investigated and compared outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients of our inpatient cohort who received anakinra or tocilizumab. METHODS: This study was designed as a single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who had Brescia-COVID respiratory severity scale score ≥3 and hyperinflammation (defined as elevation of C reactive protein ≥50 g/L or ferritin ≥700 ng/mL) and received anakinra or tocilizumab in addition to standard care were enrolled in the study. Length of hospital stay after initiation of antiinflammatory treatment, need for mechanical ventilation, need for intensive care unit admission, mortality were set as primary outcomes and compared between tocilizumab and anakinra recipients after propensity score matching. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were placed in each group after propensity score matching. In the anakinra group, relative risk reduction for intensive care unit admission was 50% when compared to the tocilizumab group and the number needed to treat to avert an intensive care unit admission was 3 (95% CI, 2-5). In terms of mortality, a 52% relative risk reduction was observed with anakinra treatment and the number needed to treat to avert an intensive care unit admission was 8 (95% CI, 4-50). Significantly more patients were observed to receive glucocorticoids in the anakinra group. DISCUSSION: Anakinra administration in severe COVID-19 patients was significantly associated with better survival and greater clinical improvement compared to the tocilizumab administration in our study. Increased rate of glucocorticoid use in the anakinra group might have contributed to better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7297-7304, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia and hyperinflammatory state related to COVID-19 infection are fatal clinical conditions without definite treatment modalities. Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-1 targeted therapies have been proposed as treatment options. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of anakinra and tocilizumab added to corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia and hyper-inflammatory syndrome in our tertiary clinical center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia and hyperinflammatory state who did not respond to initial treatments, including corticosteroids, were included in the study. The patients' electronic records were reviewed retrospectively and recorded according to a standardized data table. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with intubation. RESULTS: 388 patients were included in the study. 197 patients were intubated and most of them died (n=194/197, 98%). 67 patients received tocilizumab, and 97 patients received anakinra. Anakinra [OR: 0.440, 95% CI=0.244-0.794, p=0.006] and tocilizumab [OR: 0.491, 95% CI=0.256-0.943, p=0.033] were both associated with a decreased risk for intubation. However, having a neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥ 10 [OR: 2.035, 95% CI=1.143-3.623, p=0.016], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level ≥ 400 [OR: 3.160, 95% CI=1.937-5.156, p<0.001] and age ≥ 50 [OR: 4.048, 95% CI=2.037-8.043, p < 0.001] was associated with an increased risk for intubation. CONCLUSIONS: Both anakinra and tocilizumab, added to initial standard COVID-19 treatments (including glucocorticoids) reduced the need for intubation in patients with COVID-19-associated severe pneumonia and hyperinflammatory syndrome. Given the high mortality rate of intubated patients with COVID-19, both treatments may have added benefits on mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1 , Lactate Dehydrogenases
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(4): 796-805, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in a severe pneumonia associated with elevation of blood inflammatory parameters, reminiscent of cytokine storm syndrome. Steroidal anti-inflammatory therapies have shown efficacy in reducing mortality in critically ill patients; however, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers such an extensive inflammation remain unexplained. OBJECTIVES: To dissect the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we studied the role of IL-1ß, a pivotal cytokine driving inflammatory phenotypes, whose maturation and secretion are regulated by inflammasomes. METHODS: We analyzed nod-like receptor protein 3 pathway activation by means of confocal microscopy, plasma cytokine measurement, cytokine secretion following in vitro stimulation of blood circulating monocytes, and whole-blood RNA sequencing. The role of open reading frame 3a SARS-CoV-2 protein was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis following nucleofection of a monocytic cell line. RESULTS: We found that circulating monocytes from patients with COVID-19 display ASC (adaptor molecule apoptotic speck like protein-containing a CARD) specks that colocalize with nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and spontaneously secrete IL-1ß in vitro. This spontaneous activation reverts following patient's treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Transfection of a monocytic cell line with cDNA coding for the ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 protein resulted in ASC speck formation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence that IL-1ß targeting could represent an effective strategy in this disease and suggest a mechanistic explanation for the strong inflammatory manifestations associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , NLR Proteins , Receptors, Interleukin-1 , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269065, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether anakinra, an interleukin-1receptor inhibitor, could improve outcome in moderate COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this controlled, open-label trial, we enrolled adults with COVID-19 requiring oxygen. We randomly assigned patients to receive intravenous anakinra plus optimized standard of care (oSOC) vs. oSOC alone. The primary outcome was treatment success at day 14 defined as patient alive and not requiring mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. RESULTS: Between 27th April and 6th October 2020, we enrolled 71 patients (240 patients planned to been enrolled): 37 were assigned to the anakinra group and 34 to oSOC group. The study ended prematurely by recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board due to safety concerns. On day 14, the proportion of treatment success was significantly lower in the anakinra group 70% (n = 26) vs. 91% (n = 31) in the oSOC group: risk difference-21 percentage points (95% CI, -39 to -2), odds ratio 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.91), p = 0.027. After a 28-day follow-up, 9 patients in the anakinra group and 3 in the oSOC group had died. Overall survival at day 28 was 75% (95% CI, 62% to 91%) in the anakinra group versus 91% (95% CI, 82% to 100%) (p = 0.06) in the oSOC group. Serious adverse events occurred in 19 (51%) patients in the anakinra group and 18 (53%) in the oSOC group (p = 0·89). CONCLUSION: This trial did not show efficacy of anakinra in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that anakinra was inferior to oSOC in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 111: 109075, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936581

ABSTRACT

Despite the progressing knowledge in COVID-19 management, remdesivir is the only agent that got approval to inhibit viral replication. However, there are limited data about effective immunomodulatory agents to prevent cytokine release in COVID-19. Cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 resembles secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, in which interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role. Anakinra is the first recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist studied for off-label use in COVID-19 treatment. This study reviews the current clinical evidence on the role of interleukin-1 in COVID-19-related cytokine storm, therapeutic effects, significant clinical concerns, and pros and cons of anakinra administration in the management of COVID-19 patients. In this review, four items are shown to be important for achieving the optimal therapeutic effects of anakinra in COVID-19 patients. These items include duration of treatment ≥ 10 days, doses ≥ 100 mg, intravenous administration, and early initiation of therapy. Also, anakinra might be more beneficial in the early stages of the disease when higher levels of cytokines are yet to be observed, which could prevent progression to severe illness and mechanical ventilation. Further studies are required to address the SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine release syndrome and the role of anakinra in identifying ideal treatment approaches for COVID-19 patients based on their clinical status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1 , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938840

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by immune activation in response to viral spread, in severe cases leading to the development of cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and increased mortality. Despite its importance in prognosis, the pathophysiological mechanisms of CSS in COVID-19 remain to be defined. Towards this goal, we analyzed cytokine profiles and their interrelation in regard to anti-cytokine treatment with tocilizumab in 98 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We performed a multiplex measurement of 41 circulating cytokines in the plasma of patients on admission and 3-5 days after, during the follow-up. Then we analyzed the patient groups separated in two ways: according to the clusterization of their blood cytokines and based on the administration of tocilizumab therapy. Patients with and without CSS formed distinct clusters according to their cytokine concentration changes. However, the tocilizumab therapy, administered based on the standard clinical and laboratory criteria, did not fully correspond to those clusters of CSS. Furthermore, among all cytokines, IL-6, IL-1RA, IL-10, and G-CSF demonstrated the most prominent differences between patients with and without clinical endpoints, while only IL-1RA was prognostically significant in both groups of patients with and without tocilizumab therapy, decreasing in the former and increasing in the latter during the follow-up period. Thus, CSS in COVID-19, characterized by a correlated release of multiple cytokines, does not fully correspond to the standard parameters of disease severity. Analysis of the cytokine signature, including the IL-1RA level in addition to standard clinical and laboratory parameters may be useful to define the onset of a cytokine storm in COVID-19 as well as the indications for anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(3): 547-553, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread worldwide, this study brings to light the link that anakinra, a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, has in averting grave clinical outcomes. The objectives of this meta-analysis are to investigate the effects of anakinra in interventional groups compared to control/standard of care groups on mortality along with the provision of a prevalence estimate of the variables associated with death (C-reactive protein-CRP, ferritin, acute respiratory distress syndrome-ARDS). METHODS: According to the PRISMA 2020 statement guidelines, a systematic search was conducted from December 19, 2020, until December 10, 2021, with keywords including COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, anakinra, mortality, across the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane. A random-effects model was applied using RevMan 5.4 for all statistical analyses. RESULTS: The meta-analysis pooled in 1297 participants with 565 (43.6%) patients in the anakinra group. When comparing to the control/standard of care group, the anakinra group had a much lower risk of death (RR = 0.47. 95% CI = 0.37-0.59, Z = 6.44; P < 0.001). In addition to the risk of death being reduced by around 50% in the interventional group, prognostic indicators such as CRP and ferritin were improved with fewer occurrences of severe ARDS. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may be treated with anakinra as a safe and viable treatment modality to defer adverse outcomes such as a death in the 28-day period. Despite an auspicious premise, our findings must be used with caution as adequately powered randomized, placebo-controlled trials are required to corroborate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Ferritins
9.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 270, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a global leading cause of mortality despite implementation of guideline directed therapy which warrants a need for novel treatment strategies. Proof-of-concept clinical trials of anakinra, a recombinant human Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, have shown promising results in patients with HF. METHOD: We designed a single center, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind phase II randomized clinical trial. One hundred and two adult patients hospitalized within 2 weeks of discharge due to acute decompensated HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and systemic inflammation (high sensitivity of C-reactive protein > 2 mg/L) will be randomized in 2:1 ratio to receive anakinra or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary objective is to determine the effect of anakinra on peak oxygen consumption (VO2) measured at cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) after 24 weeks of treatment, with placebo-corrected changes in peak VO2 at CPX after 24 weeks (or longest available follow up). Secondary exploratory endpoints will assess the effects of anakinra on additional CPX parameters, structural and functional echocardiographic data, noninvasive hemodynamic, quality of life questionnaires, biomarkers, and HF outcomes. DISCUSSION: The current trial will assess the effects of IL-1 blockade with anakinra for 24 weeks on cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with recent hospitalization due to acute decompensated HFrEF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered prospectively with ClinicalTrials.gov on Jan 8, 2019, identifier NCT03797001.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1 , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume/physiology , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891770

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly described syndrome related to the COVID-19, resembling other known aetiologies, including Kawasaki disease. Cardiovascular involvement is common; left ventricle dysfunction and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) are also observed. Many treatment guidelines recommend using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) alone or with glucocorticoids as the first-line therapy. Biological agents, such as anakinra, are recommended for refractory cases, but the evidence is still accumulating. Moreover, the use of other treatment agents can be beneficial, especially when anakinra is unavailable. Here, we report the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with MIS-C with CAAs. She received cyclosporine because two rounds of IVIG treatment were ineffective and the use of anakinra is not approved in Japan. Her cytokine profile showed that cyclosporine prevented exacerbation. The case highlights that cyclosporine therapy can be an option for the treatment of refractory MIS-C with CAA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Aneurysm , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/drug therapy , Coronary Vessels , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
12.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(6): e24434, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797871

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anakinra is being empirically considered for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The aim is to assess the efficacy of anakinra treatment on inflammatory marker reduction, including c-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, serum ferritin, and serum d-dimer levels. METHODS: Adhering to PRISMA 2020 statement guidelines, a systematic search was conducted across the following databases from December 2019 until January 10, 2022: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE. The following keywords were employed: Anakinra, COVID*, SARS-CoV-2, inflammatory, CRP, D-dimer, Ferritin, hematological, laboratory, clinical, trials. The findings were collated and presented in a tabulated manner, and statistically analyzed using Review Manger 5.4 (Cochrane). RESULTS: In total, 2032 patients were included (881 in the anakinra and 1151 in the control/standard care group); 69.1% of them were males. Overall, the mean difference from admission until last follow-up in CRP values was -9.66, where notable reductions were seen in the anakinra group (SMD = -0.46, p < 0.00001, N = 655). Serum ferritin mean values were reduced by 1467.16 in the anakinra group (SMD = -0.31, p = 0.004, N = 537). D-dimer mean values were largely reduced by 4.04 in the anakinra group (SMD = -0.38, p = 0.0004, N = 375). CONCLUSION: This study finds that anakinra is potentially a strong candidate as an anti-inflammatory agent to reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients, specifically in patients with elevated inflammatory biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(5): e162-e170, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare previous hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis criteria with adult coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hyperinflammatory syndrome (cHIS) criteria for the diagnosis of hyperinflammation in pediatric patients with COVID-19. The secondary objective was to assess treatment response to intravenous (IV) anakinra in these patients. METHODS: This case series included children admitted to the PICU for COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammation and treated with IV anakinra between July 2020 to April 2021. Hyperinflammatory criteria were determined for each patient. Clinical course, chest imaging, and inflammatory marker trends were assessed pre- and post-anakinra treatment. RESULTS: All patients had a cHIS criteria score of ≥5. Two patients met 2004-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis criteria. Only the patient that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation met the H-Score cut-off value. All but one patient had a decrease in their inflammatory markers and improvement in clinical status with early initiation of adjunctive IV anakinra. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, adult cHIS criteria were successfully used to identify pediatric COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation. Ferritin levels decreased after the early initiation of IV anakinra.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
14.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(4): 330-337, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649719

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is an umbrella term that describes an inflammatory syndrome characterized by elevated levels of circulating cytokines and hyperactivation of innate and/or adaptive immune cells. One type of cytokine storm is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which can be either primary or secondary. Severe COVID-19-associated pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can also lead to cytokine storm/cytokine release syndrome (CS/CRS) and, more rarely, meet criteria for the diagnosis of secondary HLH. Here, we review the immunobiology of primary and secondary HLH and examine whether COVID-19-associated CS/CRS can be discriminated from non-COVID-19 secondary HLH. Finally, we review differences in immunobiology between these different entities, which may inform both clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy
15.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(4): 338-344, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649460

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic diffused worldwide has encouraged the rapid development of vaccines to counter the spread of the virus. At present in Italy, 75.01% of the population completed the vaccination course (AIFA.gov.it) and very few adverse events have been recorded by now. Side-effects related to a theoretical over-reaction of the immune system in response to vaccines administration have been described, and the possibility that an autoimmune or a hyperinflammatory condition may occur was recently observed. Herein, we report four cases of hyperinflammatory syndrome with features indicative of Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), occurred after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine injection and seen at our Unit between March and May 2021. Since interleukin (IL)-1 is one of the pivotal cytokines involved in AOSD pathogenesis, the inhibition of IL-1 is crucial in ameliorating the clinical symptoms of those patients. Moreover, it has been highlighted the central role of IL-1 as a hallmark of the hyperinflammatory status elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case series, we successfully employed the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra to curb the cytokine release likely unleashed by the vaccine stimulation in potentially predisposed subjects. We also made a literature search to detect other patients with hyperinflammation temporally related to vaccines injection who benefited from IL-1 inhibition, while other AOSD/MAS-like described syndromes improved with other immunomodulatory strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/chemically induced , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/etiology , Vaccines, DNA/adverse effects
16.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
17.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 207(2): 218-226, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621555

ABSTRACT

Anakinra, a recombinant, non-glycosylated human interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, has been used in real-world clinical practice to manage hyperinflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This retrospective, observational study analyses US hospital inpatient data of patients diagnosed with moderate/severe COVID-19 and treated with anakinra between 1 April and 31 August 2020. Of the 119 patients included in the analysis, 63.9% were male, 48.6% were of black ethnicity, and the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 64.7 (12.5) years. Mean (SD) time from hospital admission to anakinra initiation was 7.3 (6.1) days. Following anakinra initiation, 73.1% of patients received antibiotics, 55.5% received antithrombotics, and 91.0% received corticosteroids. Overall, 64.7% of patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admittance, and 28.6% received mechanical ventilation following admission. Patients who did not require ICU admittance or who were discharged alive experienced a significantly shorter time between hospital admission and receiving anakinra treatment compared with those admitted to the ICU (5 vs. 8 days; P = 0.002) or those who died in hospital (6 vs. 9 days; P = 0.01). Patients with myocardial infarction or renal conditions were six times (P < 0.01) and three times (P = 0.01), respectively, more likely to die in hospital than be discharged alive. A longer time from hospital admission until anakinra treatment was associated with significantly higher mortality (P = 0.01). Findings from this real-world study suggest that a shorter time from hospital admission to anakinra treatment is associated with significantly lower ICU admissions and mortality among patients with moderate/severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 569-578, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587444

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of risk factors and interventions influencing outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to evolve, revealing advances emerging from hypotheses formed at the start of the pandemic. Epidemiologic studies have shown that asthma control, rather than a diagnosis of asthma, is a determinant of COVID-19 severity. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, even in those with impaired cellular immunity, are variable. IL-6 has emerged as a reliable biomarker of COVID-19 severity, and large clinical trials have shown the potential for improving outcomes through inhibition of IL-6 signaling in some patients. Studies of genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 have also revealed the importance of interferon homeostasis in the defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Because COVID-19 vaccines constitute the primary tool for ending this pandemic, strategies have been developed to address potential allergic and immune-mediated reactions. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes within the context of allergic and immunologic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Asthma/virology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/mortality , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Prognosis , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566338

ABSTRACT

We describe two young cases of reactive haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with the resultant stress cardiomyopathy in the setting of underlying autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Still's disease. The initial presentation was similar in both cases with fever, hyperinflammatory response, hypotension (vasoplegia), bicytopenia and hyperferritinemia. Despite standard of care and multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics, both cases remained pyrexic and were ultimately admitted to the intensive therapy unit to treat cardiogenic shock. Echocardiogram of both cases showed low ejection fraction, the cause for which was not found until the final diagnosis of HLH was made. Both cases made a complete clinical and cardiac recovery following the initiation of high-dose glucocorticoids and anakinra.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy
20.
J Innate Immun ; 14(3): 218-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ferritins , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases
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