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Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 41(4): 280-286, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245733


Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.

Masks , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Beijing
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 2937-2947, 2021 Aug.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232909


Routine immunization during pandemics can be harmed. This study estimated the influenza vaccination coverage in older adults during the COVID-19 through the EPICOVID-19, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities from the 26 Brazilian states and Federal District. We selected 25 census tracts per city, with probability proportional to the tract's size, ten households by census tract, and one random individual interviewed. A total of 8,265 older adults (≥60 years old) were interviewed and asked whether they had been vaccinated against flu in 2020. Vaccination coverage was 82.3% (95% CI: 80.1-84.2) with no difference by gender, age, and region; higher vaccination coverage was observed among the wealthiest (84.7% versus 80.1% in the poorest) and among the more educated (87.3% versus 83.2% less educated); lower coverage among indigenous (56.9% versus > 80% among other ethnic groups). A positive association was identified with the number of comorbidities among men but not among women. Most of the population was vaccinated (97.5%) in the public health system. The private network was chosen mainly in the South by the wealthiest and more educated. Vaccination coverage was seven percentage points lower than the government target (90%), and inequalities should be reversed in future campaigns.

Imunizações de rotina durante pandemias podem ser prejudicadas. Este estudo estimou a cobertura vacinal para influenza em idosos durante a COVID-19 através do EPICOVID-19, inquérito populacional realizado em 133 cidades sentinelas dos 26 estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. Selecionou-se 25 setores censitários por cidade, amostragem proporcional ao tamanho, dez domicílios por setor e uma pessoa por domicílio, aleatoriamente. O quantitativo de 8.265 idosos (≥ 60 anos) foram entrevistados e responderam se haviam sido vacinados contra gripe em 2020. A cobertura foi 82,3% (IC95% 80,1; 84,2), sem diferenças por sexo, idade ou região. Maiores coberturas ocorreram nos mais ricos (84,7% versus 80,1% nos mais pobres) e nos mais escolarizados (87,3% versus 83,2% nos menos escolarizados). Menor cobertura nos indígenas (56,9% versus coberturas superiores a 80% nos demais grupos étnicos). Houve associação positiva com número de comorbidades entre homens, mas não entre mulheres. A maioria vacinou-se na rede pública (97,5%), sendo a rede privada mais utilizada na região Sul, pelos mais escolarizados e mais ricos. Conclui-se que a cobertura vacinal ficou sete pontos percentuais abaixo da meta governamental (90%), e que desigualdades devem ser revertidas em futuras campanhas.

COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Cities , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956


OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.

COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Br J Surg ; 108(12): 1448-1464, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239571


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the impact of pulmonary complications on death after surgery both before and during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: This was a patient-level, comparative analysis of two, international prospective cohort studies: one before the pandemic (January-October 2019) and the second during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (local emergence of COVID-19 up to 19 April 2020). Both included patients undergoing elective resection of an intra-abdominal cancer with curative intent across five surgical oncology disciplines. Patient selection and rates of 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications were compared. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative mortality. Mediation analysis using a natural-effects model was used to estimate the proportion of deaths during the pandemic attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: This study included 7402 patients from 50 countries; 3031 (40.9 per cent) underwent surgery before and 4371 (59.1 per cent) during the pandemic. Overall, 4.3 per cent (187 of 4371) developed postoperative SARS-CoV-2 in the pandemic cohort. The pulmonary complication rate was similar (7.1 per cent (216 of 3031) versus 6.3 per cent (274 of 4371); P = 0.158) but the mortality rate was significantly higher (0.7 per cent (20 of 3031) versus 2.0 per cent (87 of 4371); P < 0.001) among patients who had surgery during the pandemic. The adjusted odds of death were higher during than before the pandemic (odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 4.67; P < 0.001). In mediation analysis, 54.8 per cent of excess postoperative deaths during the pandemic were estimated to be attributable to SARS-CoV-2 (OR 1.73, 1.40 to 2.13; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although providers may have selected patients with a lower risk profile for surgery during the pandemic, this did not mitigate the likelihood of death through SARS-CoV-2 infection. Care providers must act urgently to protect surgical patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

This study compared death rates in patients who developed pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the pandemic in two large, international studies. Patients who underwent surgery during the pandemic tended to be younger and fitter. Overall, 4.3 per cent were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection after surgery in the pandemic cohort. Deaths within 30 days after surgery tripled during the first wave of the pandemic (from 0.7 to 2.0 per cent), whereas the rate of pulmonary complications remained the similar (7.1 to 6.3 per cent). Over half of these excess deaths (54.8 per cent) were estimated to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 91-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235799


Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 22: e20236627, 01 jan 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234718


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida do residente de enfermagem em meio à pandemia da COVID-19. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, descritivo, de abordagem quantitativa com 57 residentes de enfermagem no município do Rio de Janeiro, por meio de questionário contendo dados socioeconômicos e o World Health Organization Quality of Life, versão abreviada (WHOQOL-bref). RESULTADOS: Participantes consideram possuir uma Qualidade de Vida satisfatória (58,11), dado ratificado através da interpretação dos Domínios que apresentou um Score Geral de 53,46, onde o Domínio Físico foi o mais satisfatório (58,33) e o Meio Ambiente (48,63) o menos satisfatório. CONCLUSÃO: Os residentes apresentaram uma Qualidade de Vida Satisfatória, contudo percebeu-se que alterações nos padrões de sono/repouso podem estar ligados diretamente à diminuição da qualidade de vida dos residentes durante a pandemia.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of life of nursing residents in the covid-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study with 57 nursing residents in the city of Rio de Janeiro, through a questionnaire containing socioeconomic data and the World Health Organization Quality of Life, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTS: Participants consider having a satisfactory Quality of Life (58.11), data ratified through the interpretation of the Domains that presented a General Score of 53.46, where the Physical Domain was the most satisfactory (58.33) and the Environment (48.63) the least satisfactory. CONCLUSION: Residents had a Satisfactory Quality of Life, however it was noticed that changes in sleep/ rest patterns may be directly linked to the decrease in Quality of Life of residents during the pandemic.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Nursing , COVID-19 , Internship, Nonmedical , Cross-Sectional Studies
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(6): 1-13, nov. 3, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234393


Introduction: The consumption of alcoholic beverages reduces the body's ability to deal with dangerous situations and exposes people to trauma. Objective: To determine the association between the consumption of alcoholic beverages and the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures treated at a Cuban university hospital in the context of COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Maxillofacial Surgery unit at the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" General University Hospital during the year 2020. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained using generalized linear models. Results: In 58.23% of the cases, fractures were related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The fundamental etiology was interpersonal violence (47.75%), regardless of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a prevalence of patients with nasal fractures (n=98; 55.06%), among which, 35.71% had consumed alcoholic beverages at the time of the trauma. Being male (p=0.005), the lack of university studies (p=0.007), the need for surgical treatment (p<0.001), the fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (p=0.023), and the traumas that occurred during the weekends (p<0.001) or during the month of June (p=0.029) were factors associated with a higher frequency of fractures related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a lower frequency of fractures associated with alcohol consumption during the months of January (p=0.006) and March (p=0.001). Conclusion: Six out of ten cases were under the influence of alcoholic beverages. There was a greater number of young and male patients, mainly due to interpersonal violence.

Introducción: La ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas disminuye la capacidad del organismo para enfrentar situaciones de peligro y lo predispone a sufrir traumatismos diversos. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y las características de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en un hospital universitario cubano en el contexto de la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y transversal realizado en el servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital General Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" durante el 2020. Se obtuvieron razones de prevalencia, intervalos de confianza a 95% y valores p mediante modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: En el 58.23% de los casos las fracturas se relacionaron con la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. La etiología fundamental fue la violencia interpersonal (47.75%), independientemente del consumo o no de bebidas alcohólicas. Predominaron los pacientes con fracturas nasales (n=98; 55.06%), en los que el 35.71% había consumido bebidas alcohólicas en el momento del trauma. El sexo masculino (p=0.005), la carencia de estudios universitarios (p=0.007), la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico (p<0.001), las fracturas del complejo cigomático-maxilar (p=0.023), los traumas sucedidos durante los fines de semanas (p<0.001) o durante el mes de junio (p=0.029) fueron factores asociados a una mayor frecuencia de fracturas relacionadas con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Hubo menor frecuencia de fracturas asociadas a este consumo durante los meses de enero (p=0.006) y marzo (p= 0.001). Conclusión: Seis de cada diez casos estuvieron bajo los efectos de la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. Existió una mayor afectación de pacientes jóvenes, masculinos, a causa principalmente de la violencia interpersonal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skull Fractures/etiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Maxillofacial Injuries/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , Alcoholism/complications , Pandemics
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e238271, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20233806


Aim: This study determined whether COVID-19 fear is correlated with sociodemographic characteristics, general health, mental health, and sleep quality in an elderly Brazilians. Methods: Elderly people aged ≥ 60 years replied to an online survey containing questions about their sociodemographic characteristics; general health; levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; sleep quality; and COVID fear. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (α = 5%). In total, 705 elderly people with mean age of 66 ± 5 years, and most (82.7%) respondents were women, graduated and from southeastern Brazil. COVID-19 fear correlated positively and moderately with sleep quality and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (all p < 0.001). It was associated with females. Elderly people from northern and northeastern Brazil and diabetics had increased COVID-19 fear (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: The fear of COVID-19 exists among Brazilian female old people, diabetics, increases anxiety and stress symptoms, and worsen sleep quality in elderly people

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Fear/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Sleep Quality , Mental Disorders/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22847, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238619


Numerous cases of pneumonia from a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China during December 2019.We determined the correlations of patient parameters with disease severity in patients with COVID-19.A total of 132 patients from Wuhan Fourth Hospital who had COVID-19 from February 1 to February 29 in 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Ninety patients had mild disease, 32 had severe disease, and 10 had critical disease. The severe/critical group was older (P < .05), had a higher proportion of males (P < .05), and had a greater mortality rate (0% vs 61.9%, P < .05). The main symptoms were fever (n = 112, 84.8%) and cough (n = 96, 72.7%). Patients were treated with antiviral agents (n = 94, 71.2%), antibiotics (n = 92, 69.7%), glucocorticoids (n = 46, 34.8%), intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 38, 27.3%), and/or traditional Chinese medicine (n = 40, 30.3%). Patients in the severe/critical group received mechanical ventilation (n = 22, 16.7%) or high-flow nasal can-nula oxygen therapy (n = 6, 4.5%). Chest computed tomography (CT) indicated bilateral pneumonia in all patients. Relative to the mild group, the severe/critical group had higher levels of leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes (P < .05), and decreased levels of lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure (P < .05).The main clinical symptoms of patients from Wuhan who had COVID-19 were fever and cough. Patients with severe/critical disease were more likely to be male and elderly. Disease severity correlated with increased leukocytes, CRP, PCT, BNP, D-dimer, liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes, and with decreased lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Case Rep ; 24: e939251, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237606


BACKGROUND COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and pneumothorax are complications in severe COVID-19 patients. CASE REPORT A 64-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with COVID-19. His past medical history included uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. He had no vaccination for COVID-19. Despite oxygen inhalation, remdesivir, dexamethasone (6.6 mg per day), and baricitinib (4 mg per day for 12 days), the disease progressed. The patient was supported with mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone was switched to methylprednisolone (1000 mg per day for 3 days, and then reduced by half every 3 days), and intravenous heparin was initiated. Voriconazole (800 mg on the first day and then 400 mg per day for 14 days) was also started because Aspergillus fumigatus was detected in intratracheal sputum. However, he died of respiratory failure. Pathological findings of autopsy showed: (1) diffuse alveolar damage in a wide area of the lungs, which is consistent with ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia, (2) PTEs in peripheral pulmonary arteries, (3) CAPA, and (4) pneumothorax induced by CAPA. These conditions were all active states, suggesting that the treatments were insufficient. CONCLUSIONS Autopsy revealed active findings of ARDS, PTEs, and CAPA in a severe COVID-19 patient despite heavy treatment for each condition. CAPA can be a cause of pneumothorax. It is not easy to improve these conditions simultaneously because their treatments can induce antagonizing biological actions. To prevent severe COVID-19, it is important to reduce risk factors, such as by vaccination and appropriate blood glucose control.

COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Autopsy , Dexamethasone
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(5): e20220642, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237570


BACKGROUND: Most of the evidence about the impact of the post-acute COVID-19 Syndrome (PACS) reports individual symptoms without correlations with related imaging. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cardiopulmonary symptoms, their predictors and related images in COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital. METHODS: Consecutive patients who survived COVID-19 were contacted 90 days after discharge. The Clinic Outcome Team structured a questionnaire evaluating symptoms and clinical status (blinded for hospitalization data). A multivariate analysis was performed to address the course of COVID-19, comorbidities, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress during hospitalization, and cardiac rehabilitation after discharge. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: A total of 480 discharged patients with COVID-19 (age: 59±14 years, 67.5% males) were included; 22.3% required mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of patients with PACS-related cardiopulmonary symptoms (dyspnea, tiredness/fatigue, cough, and chest discomfort) was 16.3%. Several parameters of chest computed tomography and echocardiogram were similar in patients with and without cardiopulmonary symptoms. The multivariate analysis showed that PACS-related cardiopulmonary-symptoms were independently related to female sex (OR 3.023; 95% CI 1.319-6.929), in-hospital deep venous thrombosis (OR 13.689; 95% CI 1.069-175.304), elevated troponin I (OR 1.355; 95% CI 1.048-1.751) and C-reactive protein during hospitalization (OR 1.060; 95% CI 1.023-1.097) and depression (OR 6.110; 95% CI 2.254-16.558). CONCLUSION: PACS-related cardiopulmonary symptoms 90 days post-discharge are common and multifactorial. Beyond thrombotic and markers of inflammation/myocardial injury during hospitalization, female sex and depression were independently associated with cardiopulmonary-related PACS. These results highlighted the need for a multifaceted approach targeting susceptible patients.

FUNDAMENTO: A maioria da evidência sobre o impacto da síndrome COVID pós-aguda (PACS, do inglês, post-acute COVID-19 syndrome) descreve sintomas individuais sem correlacioná-los com exames de imagens. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar sintomas cardiopulmonares, seus preditores e imagens relacionadas em pacientes com COVID-19 após alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Pacientes consecutivos, que sobreviveram à COVID-19, foram contatados 90 dias após a alta hospitalar. A equipe de desfechos clínicos (cega quanto aos dados durante a internação) elaborou um questionário estruturado avaliando sintomas e estado clínico. Uma análise multivariada foi realizada abordando a evolução da COVID-19, comorbidades, ansiedade, depressão, e estresse pós-traumático durante a internação, e reabilitação cardíaca após a alta. O nível de significância usado nas análises foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 480 pacientes (idade 59±14 anos, 67,5% do sexo masculino) que receberam alta hospitalar por COVID-19; 22,3% necessitaram de ventilação mecânica. A prevalência de pacientes com sintomas cardiopulmonares relacionados à PACS (dispneia, cansaço/fadiga, tosse e desconforto no peito) foi de 16,3%. Vários parâmetros de tomografia computadorizada do tórax e de ecocardiograma foram similares entre os pacientes com e sem sintomas cardiopulmonares. A análise multivariada mostrou que sintomas cardiopulmonares foram relacionados de maneira independente com sexo feminino (OR 3,023; IC95% 1,319-6,929), trombose venosa profunda durante a internação (OR 13,689; IC95% 1,069-175,304), nível elevado de troponina (OR 1,355; IC95% 1,048-1,751) e de proteína C reativa durante a internação (OR 1,060; IC95% 1,023-1,097) e depressão (OR 6,110; IC95% 2,254-16,558). CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas cardiopulmonares relacionados à PACS 90 dias após a alta hospitalar são comuns e multifatoriais. Além dos marcadores trombóticos, inflamatórios e de lesão miocárdica durante a internação, sexo feminino e depressão foram associados independentemente com sintomas cardiopulmonares relacionados à PACS. Esses resultados destacaram a necessidade de uma abordagem multifacetada direcionada a pacientes susceptíveis.

COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Aftercare , Hospitalization , Hospitals
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 394, 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237535


BACKGROUND: Early data on COVID-19 (based primarily on PCR testing) indicated a low burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand this, this study aimed to estimate the incidence rate and identify predictors of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the two largest cities of Burkina Faso. This study is part of the EmulCOVID-19 project (ANRS-COV13). METHODS: Our study utilized the WHO Unity protocol for cohort sero-epidemiological studies of COVID-19 in general population. We conducted random sampling stratified by age group and sex. Individuals aged 10 years and older in the cities of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso were included and surveyed at 4 time points, each 21 days apart, from March 3 to May 15, 2021. WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA serological tests were used to detect total antibodies (IgM, IgG) in serum. Predictors were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We analyzed the data from 1399 participants (1051 in Ouagadougou, 348 in Bobo-Dioulasso) who were SARS-CoV-2 seronegative at baseline and had at least one follow-up visit. The incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion was 14.3 cases [95%CI 13.3-15.4] per 100 person-weeks. The incidence rate was almost three times higher in Ouagadougou than in Bobo-Dioulasso (Incidence rate ratio: IRR = 2.7 [2.2-3.2], p < 0.001). The highest incidence rate was reported among women aged 19-59 years in Ouagadougou (22.8 cases [19.6-26.4] per 100 person-weeks) and the lowest among participants aged 60 years and over in Bobo-Dioulasso, 6.3 cases [4.6-8.6] per 100 person-weeks. Multivariable analysis showed that participants aged 19 years and older were almost twice as likely to seroconvert during the study period compared with those aged 10 to 18 years (Hazard ratio: HR = 1.7 [1.3-2.3], p < 0.001). Those aged 10-18 years exhibited more asymptomatic forms than those aged 19 years and older, among those who achieved seroconversion (72.9% vs. 40.4%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The spread of COVID-19 is more rapid in adults and in large cities. Strategies to control this pandemic in Burkina Faso, must take this into account. Adults living in large cities should be the priority targets for vaccination efforts against COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Burkina Faso , Cities , Incidence , Prospective Studies
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(6): 691-699, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237521


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to poor clinical outcomes and high mortality in Coronavirus patients. The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence, clinical features, glycemic parameters, and outcomes of newly diagnosed diabetes in individuals with COVID-19 in developing and developed countries. By searching PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PakMediNet databases, an online literature search was conducted from March 2020 to November 2021. Guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) were used. There were 660 publications found, of which 27 were original studies involving 3241 COVID-19 patients were selected. In the COVID-19 patients with new-onset diabetes, mean age was 43.21±21.00 years. Fever, cough, polyuria, and polydipsia were the most frequently reported symptoms, followed by shortness of breath, arthralgia, and myalgia. The developed world reported (109/1119) new diabetes cases (9.74%), while the developing world reported (415/2122) (19.5%). COVID-19 new-onset diabetic mortality rate was 470/3241 (14.5%). Key Words: COVID-19, New onset diabetes mellitus, SARS-CoV-2, Prevalence, Clinical outcomes, Developing countries, Developed countries.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Developed Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315908, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237398


Importance: While the COVID-19 pandemic enters a new phase and the proportion of individuals with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis increases, the national patterns in kidney use and medium-term kidney transplant (KT) outcomes among patients receiving kidneys from active or resolved COVID-19-positive donors remain unknown. Objective: To evaluate the patterns in kidney use and KT outcomes among adult recipients of kidneys from deceased donors with active or resolved COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using national US transplant registry data from 35 851 deceased donors (71 334 kidneys) and 45 912 adult patients who received KTs from March 1, 2020, to March 30, 2023. Exposure: The exposure was donor SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) results, with positive NAT results within 7 days before procurement defined as active COVID-19 and positive NAT results 1 week (>7 days) before procurement defined as resolved COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were kidney nonuse, all-cause kidney graft failure, and all-cause patient death. Secondary outcomes were acute rejection (ie, rejection in the first 6 months after KT), transplant hospitalization length of stay (LOS), and delayed graft function (DGF). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for kidney nonuse, rejection, and DGF; multivariable linear regression analyses were performed for LOS; and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed for graft failure and all-cause death. All models were adjusted for inverse probability treatment weighting. Results: Among 35 851 deceased donors, the mean (SD) age was 42.5 (15.3) years; 22 319 (62.3%) were men and 23 992 (66.9%) were White. Among 45 912 recipients, the mean (SD) age was 54.3 (13.2) years; 27 952 (60.9%) were men and 15 349 (33.4%) were Black. The likelihood of nonuse of kidneys from active or resolved COVID-19-positive donors decreased over time. Overall, kidneys from active COVID-19-positive donors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.38-1.76) and kidneys from resolved COVID-19-positive donors (AOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.16-1.48) had a higher likelihood of nonuse compared with kidneys from COVID-19-negative donors. From 2020 to 2022, kidneys from active COVID-19-positive donors (2020: AOR, 11.26 [95% CI, 2.29-55.38]; 2021: AOR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.58-2.79]; 2022: AOR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70]) had a higher likelihood of nonuse compared with kidneys from donors without COVID-19. Kidneys from resolved COVID-19-positive donors had a higher likelihood of nonuse in 2020 (AOR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.26-11.90) and 2021 (AOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.54-2.45) but not in 2022 (AOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.94-1.28). In 2023, kidneys from both active COVID-19-positive donors (AOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75-1.63) and resolved COVID-19-positive donors (AOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.80-1.73) were not associated with higher odds of nonuse. No higher risk of graft failure or death was found in patients receiving kidneys from active COVID-19-positive donors (graft failure: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.03 [95% CI, 0.78-1.37]; patient death: AHR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.84-1.66]) or resolved COVID-19-positive donors (graft failure: AHR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.88-1.39]; patient death: AHR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.70-1.28]). Donor COVID-19 positivity was not associated with longer LOS, higher risk of acute rejection, or higher risk of DGF. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the likelihood of nonuse of kidneys from COVID-19-positive donors decreased over time, and donor COVID-19 positivity was not associated with worse KT outcomes within 2 years after transplant. These findings suggest that the use of kidneys from donors with active or resolved COVID-19 is safe in the medium term; further research is needed to assess longer-term transplant outcomes.

COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Graft Survival , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Kidney
Vaccine ; 41(30): 4431-4437, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244528


INTRODUCTION: CDC pneumococcal vaccination recommendations for older adults now include either 15- or 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15/PCV20). However, an in-development 21-valent vaccine (PCV21), formulated based on adult pneumococcal disease epidemiology, could substantially increase coverage of disease-causing pneumococcal serotypes, particularly in Black older adults, who are at greater risk. The potential public health impact and cost-effectiveness of PCV21 compared to currently recommended vaccines in older adults is unclear. METHODS: A Markov decision model compared current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations to PCV21 use in Black and non-Black 65-year-old cohorts. CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance data informed population and serotype-specific pneumococcal disease risk. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using Delphi panel estimates and clinical trial data, with variation in sensitivity analyses. Potential indirect effects on adult disease from PCV15 childhood vaccination were examined. All model parameters were varied individually and collectively in sensitivity analyses. Scenarios with decreased PCV21 effectiveness and potential COVID-19 pandemic effects were also examined. RESULTS: In the Black cohort, the PCV21 strategy cost $88,478 per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) gained without and $97,952/QALY with childhood PCV15 indirect effects. PCV21 in the non-Black cohort cost $127,436/QALY gained without and $141,358/QALY with childhood PCV15 effects. Current recommendation strategies were economically unfavorable, regardless of population or indirect childhood vaccination effects. Results favoring PCV21 use were robust in sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios. CONCLUSION: An in-development PCV21 vaccine would likely be economically and clinically favorable compared to currently recommended pneumococcal vaccines in older adults. While PCV21 was more favorable in Black cohort analyses, results for both Black and non-Black populations were economically reasonable, highlighting the potential importance of adult-specific pneumococcal vaccine formulations and, pending further investigation, potentially justifying a future general population recommendation for PCV21 use in older adults.

COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Conjugate
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315885, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244474


Importance: The association of multiple healthy sleep dimensions with post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), also known as long COVID, has not been investigated. Objective: To examine whether multidimensional sleep health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, was associated with the risk of PCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study (2015-2021) included Nurses' Health Study II participants who reported testing positive (n = 2303) for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a substudy series of COVID-19-related surveys (n = 32 249) between April 2020 and November 2021. After exclusion for incomplete information about sleep health and nonresponse to a question about PCC, 1979 women were included in the analysis. Exposures: Sleep health was measured both before (June 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017) and early (April 1 to August 31, 2020) in the COVID-19 pandemic. Prepandemic sleep score was defined according to 5 dimensions: morning chronotype (assessed in 2015), 7 to 8 hours of sleep per day, low insomnia symptoms, no snoring, and no frequent daytime dysfunction (all assessed in 2017). On the first COVID-19 substudy survey (returned between April and August 2020), average daily sleep duration and sleep quality for the past 7 days were queried. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection and PCC (≥4 weeks of symptoms) were self-reported during 1 year of follow-up. Comparisons were examined between June 8, 2022, and January 9, 2023, using Poisson regression models. Results: Of the 1979 participants reporting SARS-CoV-2 infection (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [4.6] years; 1979 [100%] female; and 1924 [97.2%] White vs 55 [2.8%] other races and ethnicities), 845 (42.7%) were frontline health care workers, and 870 (44.0%) developed PCC. Compared with women who had a prepandemic sleep score of 0 or 1 (least healthy), those who scored 5 (most healthy) had a 30% lower risk of developing PCC (multivariable-adjusted relative risk, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94; P for trend <.001). Associations did not differ by health care worker status. No or little daytime dysfunction prepandemic and good sleep quality during the pandemic were independently associated with a lower risk of PCC (relative risk, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.98] and 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99], respectively). Results were similar when PCC was defined as having 8 or more weeks of symptoms or as having ongoing symptoms at the time of PCC assessment. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings indicate that healthy sleep measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, may be protective against PCC. Future research should investigate whether interventions on sleep health may prevent PCC or improve PCC symptoms.

COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Sleep Quality